Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Disease ID:1187
Name:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Associated with:0 targets
0 immuno-relevant targets
42 immuno-relevant ligands
Description
Obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term poor airflow; includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema
Database Links
Disease Ontology: DOID:3083

Targets

No target related data available for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Ligands

Ligand Approved Immuno References Clinical comments
salbutamol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Highly selective β2-adrenoceptor agonist used in the treatment of COPD and asthma.
In April 2015, the FDA expanded approval to include treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in patients with reversible obstructive airway disease and for the treatment of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB).
Immuno Disease Comments: Used to treat bronchospasm due to COPD.
glycopyrrolate  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Approved as an anticholinergic bronchodilator to relieve the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [14] and asthma [7]. This drug may also be used pre-operatively to reduce salivary tracheobronchial and pharyngeal secretions and to reduce the acidity of gastric contents.
An inhalation formuation containing glycopyrrolate and (Utibron Neohaler®) was approved by the US FDA in November 2015 for the treatment of COPD.
In April 2016, the US FDA approved another fixed-dose inhalation aerosol formulation, glycopyrrolate plus the long-acting β agonist (LABA) (Bevespi Aerosphere®) for long-term, maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD, including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema.
Immuno Disease Comments: An anticholinergic bronchodilator used to treat asthma.
abediterol
Clinical Use: Phase 2a first-in-patient clinical trial results are published in [1]. The agent was generally well tolerated, producing a safe, potent, rapid and long-acting bronchodilatory effect in patients with persistent mild-to-moderate asthma.
Immuno Disease Comments: No progress beyond Phase 2 trial (see NCT01425814).
theophylline  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used in the treatment of symptoms and reversible airways obstruction in conditions such as asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
Immuno Disease Comments: Approved drug for COPD.
salmeterol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Salmeterol is approved in a fixed-dose inhalation powder formulation with the long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist (AirDuo RespiClickTM) for the treatment of asthma.
Immuno Disease Comments: Used to treat bronchospasm due to COPD.
MK-0359
Clinical Use: MK-0359 exhibited clinical efficacy in a Phase 2 study in asthma patients (NCT00482898), but caused gastrointestinal adverse effects [10]. It has completed Phase 2 studies in rheumatoid arthritis (NCT00482417) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (NCT00482235).
Immuno Disease Comments: Completed Phase 2 clinical evaluation in COPD- see NCT00482235
ipratropium  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used to treat bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Immuno Disease Comments: Bronchodilator used in treatment for bronchospasm in COPD.
tiotropium  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: A bronchodilator used in the treatment of chronic obstructuve pulmonary disease (COPD).
In May 2015 the US FDA approved a fixed-dose combination of tiotropium bromide and (Stiolto Respimat®) as 'a long-term, once-daily maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema' Drugs.com. Later in 2015, the FDA expanded approval to include tiotropium's use as a single agent (Spiriva Respimat®) as maintenance treatment of asthma in adults and adolescents.
Immuno Disease Comments: Bronchodilator used in the treatment of COPD.
prednisolone  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: This drug used as an antiinflammatory or immunosuppressive agent and is indicated for the treatment of various inflammatory pathologies, including acute asthma, suppression of inflammatory and allergic disorders, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, systemic lupus erythematosus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Immuno Disease Comments: Glucocorticoid drug used to treat many inflammatory condtions including COPD.
procaterol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, there is no information regarding approval for use of this drug on the US FDA or European Medicines Agency websites, although the compound does have an INN. Other national approval agencies may have granted marketing authorisation. See Drugs.com's International Drug Names list for futher information.
Immuno Disease Comments: β2-adrenoceptor agonist approved outside of the EU and US for the treatment of COPD.
formoterol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Formoterol is used to manage the symptoms of asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In November 2014, the EU EMA granted marketing authorisation of the fixed-dose combination medication Duaklir Genuair TM ( bromide/formoterol fumarate) as a maintenance bronchodilator for patients with COPD.
In April 2016, the US FDA approved the fixed-dose inhalation aerosol formulation, plus formoterol (Bevespi Aerosphere®) for long-term, maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD, including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema.
Immuno Disease Comments: β2-adrenoceptor agonist approved for the treatment of COPD.
alvelestat
Clinical Use: A series of Phase I and Phase II results are reported in clinicaltrials.gov entries
Immuno Disease Comments: A Phase 2 clinical candidate for COPD.
JNJ-10311795
Immuno Disease Comments: An experimental dual inhibitor of the leukocyte proteases cathepsin G and chymase with potential anti-inflammatory activity.
roflumilast  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Roflumilast is used to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [8]. The drug reduces and prevents worsening of the lung inflammation that causes COPD.
Phase 1 proof-of-concept trials of topical roflumilast in patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis were withdrawn (apparently due to business decisions) before any participants were treated.
Immuno Disease Comments: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor approved to treat COPD.
dyphylline  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Dyphylline is used to treat the symptoms of asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema.
Immuno Disease Comments: A drug with bronchodilatory and vasodilatory actions that is used to manage the symptoms of COPD.
isoetarine  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used to treat emphysema, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma.
Immuno Disease Comments: A bronchodilator used to manage COPD.
vilanterol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Vilanterol is contained in medications alongside a corticosteroid (eg furoate (PubChem CID 9854489 and vilanterol marketed as Breo Ellipta®) or an anticholinergic drug ( and vilanterol marketed as Anoro Ellipta®). Both of these medications were approved by the US FDA in 2013 to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In Europe, the EMA has approved Relvar Ellipta® (fluticasone furoate and vilanterol) for asthma and COPD. In May 2015, the US FDA expanded approval of Breo Ellipta® to include treatment of asthma.
Immuno Disease Comments: A LABA used to treat COPD in combination with either a corticosteroid or anticholinergic drug.
umeclidinium  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Umeclidinium is an anticholinergic drug, used in combination with as a combined single medication (marketed as Anoro Ellipta®) indicated for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [5]. Umeclidinium is also available in a single agent medication called Incruse Ellipta®.
Immuno Disease Comments: An anticholinergic drug used as monotherapy or in combination wih the LABA vilanterol in COPD management.
cilomilast
Clinical Use: Cilomilast is being investigated for the treatment of conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma. ClinicalTrials.gov lists one completed trial for this compound (NCT00103922)
Immuno Disease Comments: Clinical candidate for COPD (see Phase 3 NCT00103922).
budesonide  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used by inhalation to treat asthma and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EMA approvals (2014) are for products containing budesonide and formoterol. May be used to treat Crohn's disease (inflammatory bowel disease) [9], inflammatory skin disorders, allergic rhinitis and in an extended release formulation, ulcerative colitis [6]. Symbicort® inhalers contain a fixed-dose formualtion of budesonide and the β2-adrenoceptor bronchodilator .
Oral formulations of this drug have EMA orphan disease approval to treat graft-versus-host disease (2006) and eosinophilic oesophagitis (2013).
In October 2014, the US FDA approved a rectal foam formulation containing budesonide (Uceris®) for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.
Immuno Disease Comments: A glucocorticoid (corticosteroid) drug used to treat COPD.
indacaterol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Indacaterol is a very long-acting, rapid onset β2-adrenoceptor agonist [2] approved for the once-daily management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
A fixed-dose inhalation combination medicine containing incadaterol and (Utibron Neohaler) was approved by the US FDA in November 2015 for the treatment of COPD
Immuno Disease Comments: A LABA used to treat COPD, alone or in combination with glycopyrrolate.
arformoterol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Arformoterol is indicated for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma.
Immuno Disease Comments: A LABA used to treat COPD.
AZ11657312 (salt free)
Immuno Disease Comments: Experimental compound.
dilmapimod
Clinical Use: SB-681323 has been assessed to Phase II in clinical trial for indications including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis and neuropathic pain, although there are no currently active trials (as of Nov 2014). Click here to view the list of completed SB-681323 trials at ClinicalTrials.gov.
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 candidate for COPD, but has not progressed further.
PH-797804
Clinical Use: PH-797804 has completed Phase 2 clinical trials for several inflammatory conditions, including rheumatoid and osteoarthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [11] as well as PH-797804 vs. placebo for neuropathic pain associated with post-herpetic neuralgia. Click here to link to ClinicalTrials.gov's list of these completed trials. There are no currently active trials assessing PH-797804 (March 2016).
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 candidate for COPD, but has not progressed further.
AZD2423
Clinical Use: AZD2423 was developed for neuropathic pain and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but failed Phase II clinical trials. Click here to link to ClinicalTrials.gov's full listing of trials assessing AZD2423. Phase II trials can be accessed by clicking here.
Immuno Disease Comments: Failed Phase 2 clinical evaluation in COPD.
AZD9056
Clinical Use: AZD9056 was developed for the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and Crohn’s disease. Phase II trial NCT00520572 for RA has been completed. There are no active trials in progress (Nov 2014).
Immuno Disease Comments: Developed with potential for treating COPD, but development was discontinued.
losmapimod
Clinical Use: Losmapimod is being assessed in Phase II clinical trial for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; NCT01541852) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS; NCT02000440). A Phase III clinical outcomes study in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is underway (NCT02145468).
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 trials in COPD have been completed (see NCT01218126 for example).
AZD1236
Clinical Use: A Phase IIa study evaluated the effects of AZD1236 on the biomarkers of inflammation and emphysematous lung tissue degradation in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD [3]. No clinical efficacy was demonstrated but evidence of an impact on desmosine suggests potential value in longer-term treatment of COPD.
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 candidate for COPD, but has not progressed further.
PF-03715455
Immuno Disease Comments: Designed as an inhalation drug for the treatment of COPD.
amelubant
Clinical Use: Amelubant (BIIL 284) reached Phase 2 clinical trial for inflammatory conditions including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchial asthma and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Immuno Disease Comments: No progress in development beyond Phase 2 trial in COPD.
example 131 [WO2009133348]
Immuno Disease Comments: A compound developed with predicted clinical utility in COPD.
navarixin
Clinical Use: Navarixin (SCH-527123) has been evaluated in Phase II clinical trials for immune conditions such as allergen-induced asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and psoriasis.
Immuno Disease Comments: Clinical trials in COPD were terminated.
elubirixin
Clinical Use: SB-656933 has been evaluated in Phase II clinical trial aiming to reduce neutrophil-mediated airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients (NCT00903201 [12]), and in Phase I trials as a potential treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Immuno Disease Comments: No progress in development beyond Phase 1.
danirixin
Clinical Use: Danirixin is being evaluated in Phase II clinical trials as a potential anti-inflammatory treatment for the neutrophil-mediated airway inflammation associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and influenza Infection.
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 clinical candidate for COPD (see NCT03034967).
bimosiamose
Clinical Use: Bimosiamose has completed Phase II clinical trials in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; inhaled bimosiamose, NCT01108913 [15]) and psoriasis (topically applied bimosiamose, NCT00823693)
Immuno Disease Comments: No progress beyond Phase 2 trial.
acumapimod
Clinical Use: Acumapimod is being evaluated in Phase 2 clinical trial (NCT02700919) for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD).
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 clinical candidate for COPD (see NCT02700919).
rosiptor
Clinical Use: AQX-1125 has reached Phase 2 clinical trial in chronic inflammatory conditions such as unstable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and atopic dermatitis, and Phase 3 for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome [13] (see NCT02858453). Click here to link to ClinicalTrials.gov's full list of AQX-1125 trials.
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 3 clinical candidate for COPD.
TG6-129
Immuno Disease Comments: Probe compound for experimental use.
nemiralisib 4
Clinical Use: Nemiralisib (as GSK2269557) is in Phase 2 clinical development. Two separate studies are underway in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; NCT02522299) or the rare genetic condition activated PI3K-delta syndrome (APDS/PASLI; NCT02593539).
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 clinical candidate for COPD (see NCT02522299).
PF-06263276
Immuno Disease Comments: Predicted to offer clinical anti-inflammatory effects in COPD.
andecaliximab
Clinical Use: Andecaliximab (GS-5745) is being evaluated in various clinical trials (max Phase 3) for cancers and inflammatory conditions. Click here to link to all of the trials registered with ClinicalTrials.gov. Trials in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease were terminated early (2016) due to meeting pre-specified futility and efficacy criteria in an interim analysis of unblinded efficacy and safety data. A Phase 2 study in rheumatoid arthritis has also been terminated. Evaluation for anti-cancer efficacy appears to be ongoing. Phase 2 trial NCT02864381 is evaluating andecaliximab in combination with the anti-PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor in unresectable or recurrent gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 1 study in COPD (NCT02077465) has been completed.

References

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1. Beier J, Fuhr R, Massana E, Jiménez E, Seoane B, de Miquel G, Ruiz S. (2014) Abediterol (LAS100977), a novel long-acting β2-agonist: efficacy, safety and tolerability in persistent asthma. Respir Med, 108 (10): 1424-9. [PMID:25256258]

2. Cazzola M, Matera MG, Lötvall J. (2005) Ultra long-acting beta 2-agonists in development for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 14 (7): 775-83. [PMID:16022567]

3. Dahl R, Titlestad I, Lindqvist A, Wielders P, Wray H, Wang M, Samuelsson V, Mo J, Holt A. (2012) Effects of an oral MMP-9 and -12 inhibitor, AZD1236, on biomarkers in moderate/severe COPD: a randomised controlled trial. Pulm Pharmacol Ther, 25 (2): 169-77. [PMID:22306193]

4. Down K, Amour A, Baldwin IR, Cooper AW, Deakin AM, Felton LM, Guntrip SB, Hardy C, Harrison ZA, Jones KL et al.. (2015) Optimization of Novel Indazoles as Highly Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase δ for the Treatment of Respiratory Disease. J. Med. Chem., 58 (18): 7381-99. [PMID:26301626]

5. Feldman GJ, Edin A. (2013) The combination of umeclidinium bromide and vilanterol in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: current evidence and future prospects. Ther Adv Respir Dis, 7 (6): 311-9. [PMID:24004659]

6. Habal FM, Huang VW. (2012) Review article: a decision-making algorithm for the management of pregnancy in the inflammatory bowel disease patient. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 35 (5): 501-15. [PMID:22221203]

7. Hansel TT, Neighbour H, Erin EM, Tan AJ, Tennant RC, Maus JG, Barnes PJ. (2005) Glycopyrrolate causes prolonged bronchoprotection and bronchodilatation in patients with asthma. Chest, 128 (4): 1974-9. [PMID:16236844]

8. Huang Z, Mancini JA. (2006) Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Curr. Med. Chem., 13 (27): 3253-62. [PMID:17168849]

9. Lichtenstein GR, Hanauer SB, Sandborn WJ, Practice Parameters Committee of American College of Gastroenterology. (2009) Management of Crohn's disease in adults. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 104 (2): 465-83; quiz 464, 484. [PMID:19174807]

10. Lu S, Liu N, Dass SB, Reiss TF, Knorr BA. (2009) Randomized, placebo-controlled study of a selective PDE4 inhibitor in the treatment of asthma. Respir Med, 103 (3): 342-7. [PMID:19135348]

11. MacNee W, Allan RJ, Jones I, De Salvo MC, Tan LF. (2013) Efficacy and safety of the oral p38 inhibitor PH-797804 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised clinical trial. Thorax, 68 (8): 738-45. [PMID:23539534]

12. Moss RB, Mistry SJ, Konstan MW, Pilewski JM, Kerem E, Tal-Singer R, Lazaar AL, CF2110399 Investigators. (2013) Safety and early treatment effects of the CXCR2 antagonist SB-656933 in patients with cystic fibrosis. J. Cyst. Fibros., 12 (3): 241-8. [PMID:22995323]

13. Nickel JC, Egerdie B, Davis E, Evans R, Mackenzie L, Shrewsbury SB. (2016) A Phase II Study of the Efficacy and Safety of the Novel Oral SHIP1 Activator AQX-1125 in Subjects with Moderate to Severe Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome. J. Urol., 196 (3): 747-54. [PMID:26968644]

14. Tzelepis G, Komanapolli S, Tyler D, Vega D, Fulambarker A. (1996) Comparison of nebulized glycopyrrolate and metaproterenol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur. Respir. J., 9 (1): 100-3. [PMID:8834341]

15. Watz H, Bock D, Meyer M, Schierhorn K, Vollhardt K, Woischwill C, Pedersen F, Kirsten A, Beeh KM, Meyer-Sabellek W et al.. (2013) Inhaled pan-selectin antagonist Bimosiamose attenuates airway inflammation in COPD. Pulm Pharmacol Ther, 26 (2): 265-70. [PMID:23257347]