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Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).
Whilst the taste of acid and salty foods appear to be sensed by regulation of ion channel activity, bitter, sweet and umami tastes are sensed by specialised GPCR. Two classes of taste GPCR have been identified, T1R and T2R, which are similar in sequence and structure to Class C and Class A GPCR, respectively. Activation of taste receptors appears to involve gustducin- (Gαt3) and Gα14-mediated signalling, although the precise mechanisms remain obscure. Gene disruption studies suggest the involvement of PLCβ2 , TRPM5  and IP3  receptors in post-receptor signalling of taste receptors. Although predominantly associated with the oral cavity, taste receptors are also located elsewhere, including further down the gastrointestinal system, in the lungs and in the brain.
T1R3 acts as an obligate partner in T1R1/T1R3 and T1R2/T1R3 heterodimers, which sense umami or sweet, respectively. T1R1/T1R3 heterodimers respond to L-glutamic acid and may be positively allosterically modulated by 5'-nucleoside monophosphates, such as 5'-GMP . T1R2/T1R3 heterodimers respond to sugars, such as sucrose, and artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin .
1. Hisatsune C, Yasumatsu K, Takahashi-Iwanaga H, Ogawa N, Kuroda Y, Yoshida R, Ninomiya Y, Mikoshiba K. (2007) Abnormal taste perception in mice lacking the type 3 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor. J. Biol. Chem., 282 (51): 37225-31. [PMID:17925404]
2. Li X, Tomita M, Pilbeam CC, Breyer RM, Raisz LG. (2002) Prostaglandin receptor EP2 mediates PGE2 stimulated hypercalcemia in mice in vivo. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat, 67: 173-180. [PMID:12013525]
3. Nelson G, Hoon MA, Chandrashekar J, Zhang Y, Ryba NJ, Zuker CS. (2001) Mammalian sweet taste receptors. Cell, 106 (3): 381-90. [PMID:11509186]
4. Zhang Y, Hoon MA, Chandrashekar J, Mueller KL, Cook B, Wu D, Zuker CS, Ryba NJ. (2003) Coding of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes: different receptor cells sharing similar signaling pathways. Cell, 112 (3): 293-301. [PMID:12581520]
Database page citation:
Taste 1 receptors. Accessed on 27/03/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/FamilyDisplayForward?familyId=116.
Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:
Alexander SPH, Davenport AP, Kelly E, Marrion N, Peters JA, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA and CGTP Collaborators (2015) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: G protein-coupled receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 172: 5744-5869.