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Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).
SLC31 family members, alongside the Cu-ATPases are involved in the regulation of cellular copper levels. The CTR1 transporter is a cell-surface transporter to allow monovalent copper accumulation into cells, while CTR2 appears to be a vacuolar/vesicular transporter . Functional copper transporters appear to be trimeric with each subunit having three TM regions and an extracellular N-terminus. CTR1 is considered to be a higher affinity copper transporter compared to CTR2. The stoichiometry of copper accumulation is unclear, but appears to be energy-independent .
* Key recommended reading is highlighted with an asterisk
De Feo CJ, Aller SG, Unger VM. (2007) A structural perspective on copper uptake in eukaryotes. Biometals, 20 (3-4): 705-16. [PMID:17211682]
* Howell SB, Safaei R, Larson CA, Sailor MJ. (2010) Copper transporters and the cellular pharmacology of the platinum-containing cancer drugs. Mol. Pharmacol., 77 (6): 887-94. [PMID:20159940]
* Kim H, Wu X, Lee J. (2013) SLC31 (CTR) family of copper transporters in health and disease. Mol. Aspects Med., 34 (2-3): 561-70. [PMID:23506889]
Maryon EB, Molloy SA, Zimnicka AM, Kaplan JH. (2007) Copper entry into human cells: progress and unanswered questions. Biometals, 20 (3-4): 355-64. [PMID:17211679]
* Monné M, Palmieri F. (2014) Antiporters of the mitochondrial carrier family. Curr Top Membr, 73: 289-320. [PMID:24745987]
* Nose Y, Rees EM, Thiele DJ. (2006) Structure of the Ctr1 copper trans'PORE'ter reveals novel architecture. Trends Biochem. Sci., 31 (11): 604-7. [PMID:16982196]
* Petris MJ. (2004) The SLC31 (Ctr) copper transporter family. Pflugers Arch., 447 (5): 752-5. [PMID:12827356]
* Zheng W, Monnot AD. (2012) Regulation of brain iron and copper homeostasis by brain barrier systems: implication in neurodegenerative diseases. Pharmacol. Ther., 133 (2): 177-88. [PMID:22115751]
1. Blair BG, Larson CA, Safaei R, Howell SB. (2009) Copper transporter 2 regulates the cellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of Cisplatin and Carboplatin. Clin. Cancer Res., 15 (13): 4312-21. [PMID:19509135]
2. Ishida S, Lee J, Thiele DJ, Herskowitz I. (2002) Uptake of the anticancer drug cisplatin mediated by the copper transporter Ctr1 in yeast and mammals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 99 (22): 14298-302. [PMID:12370430]
3. Lee J, Peña MM, Nose Y, Thiele DJ. (2002) Biochemical characterization of the human copper transporter Ctr1. J. Biol. Chem., 277 (6): 4380-7. [PMID:11734551]
4. Rees EM, Lee J, Thiele DJ. (2004) Mobilization of intracellular copper stores by the ctr2 vacuolar copper transporter. J. Biol. Chem., 279 (52): 54221-9. [PMID:15494390]
Database page citation:
SLC31 family of copper transporters. Accessed on 23/03/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/FamilyDisplayForward?familyId=218.
Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:
Alexander SPH, Kelly E, Marrion N, Peters JA, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA and CGTP Collaborators (2015) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Transporters. Br J Pharmacol. 172: 6110-6202.