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Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).
In humans, the peptidyl arginine deiminases (PADIs; HGNC family link) are a family of five enzymes, PADI1-4 and PADI6. PADIs catalyze the deimination of protein L-arginine residues to L-citrulline and ammonia, generating peptidyl-citrulline on histones, fibrinogen, and other biologically relevant proteins. The human isozymes exhibit tissue-specific expression patterns . Overexpression and/or increased PADI activity is observed in several diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, lupus, Parkinson's disease, and cancer . Pharmacological PADI inhibition reverses protein-hypercitrullination and disease in mouse models of multiple sclerosis .
1. Bicker KL, Thompson PR. (2013) The protein arginine deiminases: Structure, function, inhibition, and disease. Biopolymers, 99 (2): 155-63. [PMID:23175390]
2. Jones CE, Holden S, Tenaillon L, Bhatia U, Seuwen K, Tranter P, Turner J, Kettle R, Bouhelal R, Charlton S, Nirmala NR, Jarai G, Finan P. (2003) Expression and characterization of a 5-oxo-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid receptor highly expressed on human eosinophils and neutrophils. Mol. Pharmacol., 63: 471-477. [PMID:12606753]
3. Kanno T, Kawada A, Yamanouchi J, Yosida-Noro C, Yoshiki A, Shiraiwa M, Kusakabe M, Manabe M, Tezuka T, Takahara H. (2000) Human peptidylarginine deiminase type III: molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the cDNA, properties of the recombinant enzyme, and immunohistochemical localization in human skin. J. Invest. Dermatol., 115 (5): 813-23. [PMID:11069618]
4. Moscarello MA, Lei H, Mastronardi FG, Winer S, Tsui H, Li Z, Ackerley C, Zhang L, Raijmakers R, Wood DD. (2013) Inhibition of peptidyl-arginine deiminases reverses protein-hypercitrullination and disease in mouse models of multiple sclerosis. Dis Model Mech, 6 (2): 467-78. [PMID:23118341]
Database page citation:
220.127.116.11 Peptidyl arginine deiminases (PADI). Accessed on 24/04/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/FamilyDisplayForward?familyId=918.
Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:
Alexander SPH, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Marrion N, Peters JA, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA and CGTP Collaborators (2015) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 172: 6024-6109.