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Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).
The de novo synthesis and salvage of nucleosides have been targetted for therapeutic advantage in the treatment of particular cancers and gout. Dihydrofolate reductase produces tetrahydrofolate, a cofactor required for synthesis of purines, pyrimidines and amino acids. GART allows formylation of phosphoribosylglycinamide, an early step in purine biosynthesis. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase produces orotate, a key intermediate in pyrimidine synthesis. IMP dehydrogenase generates xanthosine monophosphate, an intermediate in GTP synthesis.
* Key recommended reading is highlighted with an asterisk
* Battelli MG, Bolognesi A, Polito L. (2014) Pathophysiology of circulating xanthine oxidoreductase: new emerging roles for a multi-tasking enzyme. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1842 (9): 1502-17. [PMID:24882753]
* Cantu-Medellin N, Kelley EE. (2013) Xanthine oxidoreductase-catalyzed reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide: insights regarding where, when and how. Nitric Oxide, 34: 19-26. [PMID:23454592]
* Glander P, Hambach P, Liefeldt L, Budde K. (2012) Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activity as a biomarker in the field of transplantation. Clin. Chim. Acta, 413 (17-18): 1391-7. [PMID:21889500]
* Munier-Lehmann H, Vidalain PO, Tangy F, Janin YL. (2013) On dihydroorotate dehydrogenases and their inhibitors and uses. J. Med. Chem., 56 (8): 3148-67. [PMID:23452331]
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19. Vethe NT, Bremer S, Bergan S. (2008) IMP dehydrogenase basal activity in MOLT-4 human leukaemia cells is altered by mycophenolic acid and 6-thioguanosine. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., 68 (4): 277-85. [PMID:18609073]
20. Wittine K, Stipković Babić M, Makuc D, Plavec J, Kraljević Pavelić S, Sedić M, Pavelić K, Leyssen P, Neyts J, Balzarini J et al.. (2012) Novel 1,2,4-triazole and imidazole derivatives of L-ascorbic and imino-ascorbic acid: synthesis, anti-HCV and antitumor activity evaluations. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 20 (11): 3675-85. [PMID:22555152]
Database page citation:
Nucleoside synthesis and metabolism. Accessed on 29/03/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/FamilyDisplayForward?familyId=920.
Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:
Alexander SPH, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Marrion N, Peters JA, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA and CGTP Collaborators (2015) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 172: 6024-6109.