The IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY complete ligand list

Low molecular weight, non-peptidic, biogenic compounds produced by life processes (normally endogenous and of animal origin, including hormones and neurotransmitters) and their close analogues.

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  K  L  M  N  O  P  R  S  T  U  V  X 

Ligand name ID Synonyms
A Back to top
acetaldehyde 6277 acetic aldehyde, ethanal, ethyl aldehyde, NSC 7594
acetic acid 1058 acetate, ethanoic acid
acetoacetyl CoA 3039 3-acetoacetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl coenzyme A, acetoacetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-coenzyme a
acetylcholine 294 ACh, E1001, O-acetylcholine
acetyl CoA 3038 acetyl coenzyme A, acetyl-CoA, acetylCoA, S-acetyl coenzyme A
[14C]acetylCoA 4541 [14C]-acetylCoA
acetyl-L-carnitine 4520
adenine 4788
adenosine 2844 Adenocard®, Adenoscan®
adenosine-3'-5'-bisphosphate 1718 adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate, adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate
adenosine 5'-monophosphate 2455 AMP, 5'-AMP, adenosine monophosphate
ADP 1712 adenosine diphosphate
ADP ribose 2444
ADPβS 1755 adenosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate), ADPbetaS
(-)-adrenaline 479 adrenalin, Auvi-Q®, Epipen®, l-adrenaline, L-epinephrine, levoepinephrine
(+)-adrenaline 4450 (S)-(+)-adrenaline, (S)-adrenaline
(±)-adrenaline 509 adrenaline, epinephrine
agmatine 4127
β-alanine 2365
[14C]alanine 4542 [14C]-alanine
[3H]alanine 4543 [3H]-alanine
aldosterone 2872
[3H]aldosterone 3452 [3H]-aldosterone
alitretinoin 2645 9-cis-retinoic acid, Panretin®, Toctino®
all-trans-retinal 2350 all-trans-retinal, retinaldehyde
4-aminobutanal 6606
aminoguanidine 5135 amino guanidine, pimagedine
aminohippuric acid 4810 PAH, Aminohippurate Sodium®, p-aminohippurate, p-aminohippuric acid, PAH
5-aminolevulinic acid 4784 5-aminolevulinate, D-aminolevulinic acid, Levulan®
(S)-3-amino-2-methylpropanoate 6610
aminooxyacetic acid 5136 AOA, AOAA, carboxymethoxylamine
AMP-PNP 2456
anandamide 2364 AEA, arachidonoyl ethanolamide, N-arachidonoylethanolamine
androstenedione 2860 androst-4-ene-3,17-dione
androstenol 2761 androst-16-en-3-ol
Ap4A 1732 5',5'''-diadenosine tetraphosphate, adenosyl-P4, Ap4A, diadenosine tetraphosphate
A2P5P 1717 2,5-ADP, adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate, adenosine-2'-5'-diphosphate
A3P5PS 1719 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate, adenosine-3'-phosphate-5' -phosphosulfate, phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate (PAPS)
arachidonic acid 2391 C20:4
2-arachidonoylglycerol 729 2-AG, 2-Ara-Gl, 2-arachidonyl-glycerol, 2AG
2-arachidonoylglycerolphosphoinositol 4029 2-AGPI, 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol-phosphoinositol, arachidonoyl LPI
arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide 738 ACEA
arachidonylcyclopropylamide 739 ACPA, arachidonyl cyclopropylamide
2-arachidonyl glyceryl ether 5545 2-AG ether, 2-arachidonylglyceryl ether, HU 310, Noladin ether
arcaine 4137
arvanil 2485 N-vanillylarachidonamide
[14C]ascorbic acid 4532 [14C]-ascorbic acid
aspirin triggered lipoxin A4 3933 aspirin triggered 15-epi lipoxin A4, aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4, ATL
aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 6239 AT-Resolvin D1, AT-RvD1
ATP 1713 5'-ATP, adenosine 5' triphosphate, adenosine triphosphate
ATPγS 1714 adenosine 5'-(3-thio)triphosphate, ATPgammaS
 
B Back to top
betamethasone 7061 SCH-4831
bilirubin 4577
biliverdin 5153
biotin 4787
5BrUTP 1731 5-bromo-UTP, 5-bromouridine triphosphate, bromouridine 5'-triphosphate
butyric acid 1059 butanoic acid, butyrate, C4
BzATP 1757
 
C Back to top
cADPR 2445 cyclic ADP ribose
calcifediol 6921 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, calcidiol, Calderol, Ryaldee®, U-32070E
calcitriol-26,23-lactone 2786 (23S,25R)-1α,25-(OH)2D3-26,23-lactone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-26,23-lactone, 1,25-lactone
[3H]cAMP 5096 [3H]-cAMP
carnosine 4559 β-alanyl-L-histidine, L-carnosine
CCPA 374 2-chloro-N(6)cyclopentyladenosine, 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (2-Cl-CPA)
chenodeoxycholic acid 608 CDCA, Chenix®, chenodeoxycholate, Chenodiol®
2-chloroadenosine 372 2Cl-Ado, CADO
5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α-triol 2803
cholesten 2802 alpha-cholestane, cholestan, cholestane
cholesterol 2718 cholest-5-en-3β-ol
cholesterol sulphate 2738 cholesteryl sulfate
cholic acid 609 CA, cholate, Cholbam
choline 4551
11-cis-retinal 6669 11-cis-retinal, 11-cis-retinaldehyde, retinaldehyde
13-cis-retinal 6671 13-cis-retinal, 13-cis-retinaldehyde
9-cis-retinal 6673 9-cis-retinal, 9-cis-retinaldehyde
11-cis-retinol 6670 11-cis-retinol
13-cis-retinol 6672 13-cis-retinol, neovitamin A
citric acid 2478 citrate
clobetasol propionate 7062 CCI-4725, Clobex®, Dermovate®, GR 2/925, Temovate®
CMP-sialic acid 4663
coenzyme A 3044 co-enzyme-A, CoA
colfosceril palmitate 2799 DPPC, Exosurf Neonatal®
corticosterone 2869
cortisol 2868 Acticort®, Plenadren®
cortisone 5171 11-dehydro-17-hydroxycorticosterone, 17-hydroxy-11-dehydrocorticosterone
creatine 4496
CTP 1741 cytidine triphosphate
cyclic AMP 2352 cAMP, 3' 5'-adenosine monophosphate, 3',5'-cyclic AMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate
cyclic GMP 2347 cGMP, 3',5'-cyclic GMP, 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate
cyclohexylamine 5507
cystathionine 5173 L-cystathionine
cytidine 4728
[3H]cytisine 3979
cytosine 8490
 
D Back to top
D-alanine 4678 D-Ala
5'-dAMP 5120 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphate, dAMP
D-arginine 4680
D-ascorbic acid 4651
[3H]D-aspartic acid 4698 [3H]-D-aspartate, [3H]-D-aspartic acid
dATP 1760 deoxyadenosine triphosphate
dATPαS 1715 dATPalphaS
D-chiro-inositol 4645 DCI
D-citrulline 4683
D-cysteine 4537 D-Cys
2',3'-ddATP 1709
decanoic acid 5532 capric acid, decoic acid
dehydroascorbic acid 4733 dehydroascorbate
dehydroepiandrosterone 2370 DHEA, androstenolone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, DHA, Intrarosa®
dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate 4528 DHEAS, CCG-204473
[3H]dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate 5577 [3H]DHEAS, [3H]dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 4484 11-dehydro-TXB2
2'-deoxyadenosine 5109
deoxycholic acid 610 DCA, ATX-101, deoxycholate
deoxycorticosterone 2871 11-deoxycorticosterone, 21-hydroxyprogesterone
11-deoxycortisol 5100 11-deoxycortisone, cortexolone, cortodoxone
deoxycortisone 3450 21-deoxycortisone
2'-deoxyinosine 5110
15-deoxy-LXA4 3402
15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGD2 1904 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin D2, 15d-Δ12,14-PGD2
11-deoxy-PGE1 1925 11-deoxy-PGE1, 11-deoxyprostaglandin E1, doproston
15-deoxy-Δ-12,14-prostaglandin J2 2692
desmosterol 2748
desoximetasone 7067 A-41-304, HOE-304, R-2113, Topicort®
D-fructose 4654
D-fucose 4722
D-galactose 4646
D-glucosamine 4535
D-glucose 4536
D-glutamic acid 4708 D-Glu, D-glutamate
5'-dGMP 5122
D-histidine 4679
2',5'-dideoxyadenosine 5108
diethylstilbestrol 2801 stilboestrol
diflorasone diacetate 7068 Psorcon®, U-34865
13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF 1901 Dhk-pgf2alpha
13,14-dihydro-PGE1 1946 13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin E1
dihydrotestosterone 2856 DHT, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, androstanolone, stanolone
[3H]dihydrotestosterone 3455 [3H]-dihydrotestosterone
7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol 4350 7α-25-OHC
7α,27-dihydroxycholesterol 4353 7α, 27-OHC
7β, 25-dihydroxycholesterol 4355
7β, 27-dihydroxycholesterol 4354 7β,26-dihydroxycholesterol
3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid 6633 DHMA, DOMA
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde 6632 DOPAL
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 2779 Calcijex®, calcitriol, Rocaltrol®
dimethylallyl diphosphate 3049 delta-prenyl diphosphate, di-CH3-allyl-Ppi, dimethylallyl-PP, dimethylallylpyrophosphate, prenyl diphosphate trianion
dimethylamine 5177
dimethylethylamine 5523
16,16-dimethyl-PGE2 1926 16,16-dimethylprostaglandin E2
dioleoylphosphatidic acid 5512 dioleoyl phosphatidic acid, doPA
(R)-5-diphosphomevalonate 3047 mevalonate 5-diphosphate
D-lactic acid 2934 D-lactate, R-lactic acid
D-lysine 4681
D-mannose 4650
docosahexaenoic acid 1051 DHA, all-cis-DHA, all-cis-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acid, doconexent, Omega 3 fatty acid, Omega-3 marine triglycerides, Retriacyl® (proposed trade name)
DOG 2435 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol
dolichol phosphate 3214 DP
dopamine 940 3-hydroxytyramine
D-ornithine 4682
doxercalciferol 2790 1α-hydroxyvitamin D2, 1αOHD2 , 1-α-hydroxyergocalciferol
D-phenylalanine 5797 D-(+)-phenylalanine
D-proline 4676 D-Pro
D-serine 4171
D-xylose 4724
dyphylline 7070 Dilor®
 
E Back to top
eicosatetranoic acid 2669 ETYA
EPA 3362 C20:5n-3,6,9,12,15, eicosapentaenoic acid, icosapentaenoic acid
12-epi LTB4 6160 12(S)-Leukotriene B4
epipregnanolone sulphate 4188 epipregnanolone sulfate
24(S), 25-epoxycholesterol 2751 24,25-epoxy-cholesterol
5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid 6304 5,6-EET, (±)5,6-EpETrE, (±)5,6-epoxy-8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid
(S)-2,3-epoxysqualene 6551 (S)-2,3-epoxysqualene, squalene 2,3-epoxide
17β-estradiol 1013 E2, estrogen, oestrodiol, oestrogen
[3H]17β-estradiol 1012 [3H]-estradiol, [3H]-estrogen, [3H]E2, [3H]estradiol
[3H]estradiol-17β-glucuronide 4687 [3H]-estradiol-17β-glucuronide
estriol 2821 Trimesta®
estrone 2818 Aquest®, Kestrone®, oestrone
estrone-3-sulphate 4749 estrone hydrogen sulfate, estrone hydrogen sulphate, estrone-3-sulfate, Ogen®
[3H]estrone-3-sulphate 4748 [3H]-estrone hydrogen sulfate, [3H]-estrone-3-sulphate, [3H]estrone-3-sulfate
ethanol 2299
ethinylestradiol 7071 17α-ethynylestradiol, ethinyl estradiol
ethynodiol diacetate 7072 Continuin®, Femulen®, SC-11800
exemestane 7073 Aromasin®, FCE-24304
 
F Back to top
farnesyl diphosphate 2910 FDP, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP)
farnesyl monophosphate 2911 FMP
flavin adenine dinucleotide 5184 FAD
flavin mononucleotide 5185 FMN, riboflavin 5'-monophosphate, riboflavin 5'-phosphate
flumethasone pivalate 7075 Locorten®
flunisolide 7076 AeroBid®, RS-3999
fluocinolone acetonide 7077 Capex®, Iluvien®, Synalar®
fluocinonide 7078 Fluonex®, Lidex®
fluorometholone 7079 Flarex®, FML®
fluticasone propionate 7080 Advair Diskus®, ArmonAir RespiClickTM, CCI-18781, Flovent®
folic acid 4563 folate
[3H]folic acid 4562 [3H]-folic acid
 
G Back to top
GABA 1067 γ-amino butyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid
gallic acid 5549 pyrogallol-5-carboxylic acid
GDP-fucose 4578 GDP-L-fucose, guanosine diphosphate fucose
GDPβS 5416 Gdp(beta-S), GDP-β-S, GDP-bS, guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate)
geranyl diphosphate 3051 geranyl pyrophosphate, GPP, neryl pyrophosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate 3052 all-trans-geranylgeranyl diphosphate, all-trans-geranylgeranyl-PP, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl-PP, GGPP
glucose 6-phosphate 4647
glucuronic acid 4723 glucuronate
[14C]glutamine 4633 [14C]-glutamine
[3H]glutamine 4634 [3H]-glutamine
glycerol 5195
glycerol 3-phosphate 4740
glycine 727
[14C]glycine 4635 [14C]-glycine
[3H]glycine 4084
glycochenodeoxycholic acid 4545 GCDA, glycochenodeoxycholate
glycocholic acid 4544 GCA, cholylglycine, glycocholate
glycodeoxycholic acid 4714 GDCA, glycodeoxycholate
glycoursodeoxycholic acid 4715 GUDCA, glycoursodeoxycholate
5'-GMP 5123 GMP, guanosine 5'-monophosphate, guanosine monophosphate
guanidine 4783
guanidoacetic acid 5325 glycocyamine, guanidineacetic acid, guanidinoacetate
guanine 4556
guanosine 4567
guanosine 5'-diphosphate 2410 GDP, guanosine diphosphate
guanosine-5'-triphosphate 1742 GTP, guanosine triphosphate
 
H Back to top
heme 4349 ferroheme, haem
heparin 4214 HepFlush®
hepoxilin A3 6305 HXA3
16-HETE 6923
18-HETE 6924
20-HETE 4103 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid
hexamethonium 3963
histamine 1204
[3H]histamine 1247
[14C]histidine 4623 [14C]-histidine
[3H]histidine 4670 [3H]-histidine
[3H]5-HT 3248 [3H]-5-HT
hyaluronan 4954 HA, hyaluronate, hyaluronic acid
γ-hydroxybutyric acid 4711 GHB, γ-hydroxybutyrate, Alcover®, WY-3478, Xyrem®
2-hydroxy capric acid 5847 2-hydroxy-decanoic acid, 2-OH-C10
3-hydroxy capric acid 5848 3-hydroxy-decanoic acid, 3-OH-C10
24(S)-hydroxycholesterol 2750 24s-OHC
25-hydroxycholesterol 2885 25-OHC
27-hydroxycholesterol 2752 26-hydroxycholesterol, 27-OHC
7α-hydroxycholesterol 4351 7-α-OHC
7β-hydroxycholesterol 4352 7-β-OHC
7-hydroxycholesterol 3432 7-OHC
12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid 6159 12-HHT, 12S-HHTrE
5-hydroxyindole acetaldehyde 6634 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetaldehyde, 5-hydroxyindolylacetaldehyde
12-hydroxylauric acid 6922
2-hydroxylauric acid 5849 2-hydroxy lauric acid, 2-OH-C12
3-hydroxylauric acid 5850 3-hydroxy lauric acid
20-hydroxy-LTB4 3399
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan 4671 5-hydroxytryptophan
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA 3040 HMG-CoA, 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA , 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A, HMG-CoA, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA
9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid 5567 9-HODE, 9(S)-HODE, 9(S)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid
2-hydroxyoctanoic acid 5796
3-hydroxyoctanoic acid 2933 3-hydroxyoctanoate, 3-OH-octanoic acid
4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid 6629 4-HPPA, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate
17α-hydroxypregnenolone 5103 17α hydroxypregnenolone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 17-OH-pregnenolone
17α-hydroxyprogesterone 5104 17α hydroxyprogesterone, 17-OH progesterone, 17OHP
5-hydroxytryptamine 5 5-HT, serotonin
hypoxanthine 4555
 
I Back to top
inosine 4554
5'-inosine monophosphate 5124 5'-IMP, IMP, inosine 5'-monophosphate, inosinic acid
inositol 1-phosphate 5203 1D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate
inositol 3-phosphate 5204 1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate
inositol 4-phosphate 5205 1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate
inositol 2,4,5-trisphosphate 4223 Ins(2,4,5)P3
Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 4224 1D-myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate
2-iodo-melatonin 1343 2-I-MLT, 2-iodomelatonin
1,4,-IP2 5098 1D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate, inositol 1,4-bis(phosphate)
1,5,-IP2 5099
4,5,-IP2 5119 1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate
IP3 4222 1,4,5-IP3, 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, Ins(1,4,5)P3
IP4 5202 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate
isoamylamine 5506
isobutyric acid 1060 isobutyrate
isoflurane 2505 Forane®
isopentenyl diphosphate 3048 IPP, IPPP, isopentenyl pyrophosphate
ITP 1743 inosine triphosphate
 
K Back to top
α-ketoglutaric acid 3636 α-ketoglutarate, 2-ketoglutarate, 2-ketoglutaric acid, 2-oxoglutarate, oxoglutarate
3-keto-lithocholic acid 2766 3-keto-LCA, dehydrolithocholic acid
3-ketosphinganine 6654 3-dehydro-D-sphinganine, 3-dehydrosphinganine, 3-ketodihydrosphingosine, ketodihydrosphingosine
kynurenic acid 2918 KYNA, transtorine
 
L Back to top
L-alanine 720 L-Ala
lanosterol 2746 (3β)-lanosta-8,24-dien-3-ol, (3β,20R)-lanosta-8,24-dien-3-ol, lanosterin
L-arginine 721 L-Arg
L-argininosuccinic acid 5324 L-arginosuccinate, L-arginosuccinic acid
L-ascorbic acid 4781 vitamin C
L-asparagine 4533 L-Asn
L-aspartic acid 3309 L-Asp, L-aspartate
[3H]L-aspartic acid 4534 [3H]-L-aspartate, [3H]-L-aspartic acid
lauric acid 5534 dodecoic acid, dodecylic acid, duodecyclic acid, n-dodecanoic acid, vulvic acid
L-carnitine 4780
L-cysteate 5329 cysteate
L-cysteine 4782 L-Cys
L-cystine 5413 (-)-cystine, cystine, L-dicysteine
levodopa 3639 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, L-DOPA, Sinemet®
L-fucose