D2 receptor

Target id: 215

Nomenclature: D2 receptor

Family: Dopamine receptors

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Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 443 11q23 DRD2 dopamine receptor D2 8,43
Mouse 7 444 9 A5.3 Drd2 dopamine receptor D2 82
Rat 7 444 8q24 Drd2 dopamine receptor D2 8,23
Gene and Protein Information Comments
The human D2 receptor exists as two alternatively spliced isoforms [42]. The 443 amino acid receptor is the long form (D2L). The short form (D2S) is 414 amino acids long.
Previous and Unofficial Names
D2A and D2B
dopamine D2 receptor
dopamine receptor 2
D2 receptor
D2R
D2(415) and D2(444)
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB drd2_human (Hs), drd2_mouse (Mm), drd2_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
GeneCards
GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project
HomoloGene
Human Protein Reference Database
InterPro
KEGG Gene
NeXtProt
OMIM
Orphanet
PharmGKB Gene
PhosphoSitePlus
Protein Ontology (PRO)
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
TreeFam
UniGene Hs.
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
dopamine

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
rotigotine Hs Agonist 10.2 pKi 36
pKi 10.2 (Ki 6x10-11 M) [36]
aripiprazole Rn Partial agonist 9.7 pKi 98
pKi 9.7 [98]
brexpiprazole Hs Partial agonist 9.5 pKi 70
pKi 9.5 (Ki 3x10-10 M) [70]
lisuride Hs Partial agonist 9.2 – 9.5 pKi 80
pKi 9.2 – 9.5 [80]
aripiprazole Hs Partial agonist 9.1 pKi 129
pKi 9.1 (Ki 8x10-10 M) [129]
cabergoline Hs Partial agonist 9.0 – 9.2 pKi 80
pKi 9.0 – 9.2 [80]
terguride Hs Partial agonist 9.1 pKi 80
pKi 9.1 [80]
roxindole Hs Partial agonist 8.6 pKi 80
pKi 8.6 [80]
UNC9975 Hs Biased agonist 8.6 pKi 3
pKi 8.6 (Ki 2.6x10-9 M) [3]
Description: β-arrestin 2 biased agonist.
UNC0006 Hs Biased agonist 8.3 pKi 3
pKi 8.3 (Ki 5x10-9 M) [3]
Description: β-arrestin 2 biased agonist.
cariprazine Hs Partial agonist 8.2 pKi 1
pKi 8.2 (Ki 5.7x10-9 M) [1]
Description: Binding affinity to human dopamine D2L receptor
MLS1547 Hs Biased agonist 8.2 pKi 39
pKi 8.2 (Ki 5.9x10-9 M) [39]
Description: Biased agonist for G-protein coupling to Gi.
(-)-N-porphynorapomorphine Hs Full agonist 7.5 – 8.9 pKi 40,96
pKi 7.5 – 8.9 [40,96]
ropinirole Hs Agonist 8.1 pKi 46
pKi 8.1 (Ki 7.2x10-9 M) [46]
LP-44 Hs Agonist 8.1 pKi 65
pKi 8.1 (Ki 7.3x10-9 M) [65]
sumanirole Hs Full agonist 8.1 pKi 77
pKi 8.1 (Ki 9x10-9 M) [77]
bromocriptine Hs Full agonist 7.3 – 8.3 pKi 40,80,96
pKi 7.3 – 8.3 [40,80,96]
apomorphine Rn Partial agonist 7.6 pKi 113
pKi 7.6 [113]
pergolide Hs Full agonist 7.5 – 7.6 pKi 80
pKi 7.5 – 7.6 [80]
bromocriptine Rn Partial agonist 7.3 pKi 113
pKi 7.3 [113]
UNC9994 Hs Biased agonist 7.1 pKi 3
pKi 7.1 (Ki 7.9x10-8 M) [3]
Description: β-arrestin 2 biased agonist.
compound 3 [PMID: 23134120] Hs Agonist 6.9 pKi 114
pKi 6.9 (Ki 1.18x10-7 M) [114]
piribedil Hs Partial agonist 6.8 – 6.9 pKi 80
pKi 6.8 – 6.9 [80]
LP-211 Hs Agonist 6.8 pKi 66
pKi 6.8 (Ki 1.42x10-7 M) [66]
LP-12 Hs Agonist 6.7 pKi 65
pKi 6.7 (Ki 2.24x10-7 M) [65]
apomorphine Hs Partial agonist 5.7 – 7.5 pKi 24,40,80,96,111
pKi 5.7 – 7.5 [24,40,80,96,111]
7-OH-DPAT Hs Full agonist 5.6 – 7.6 pKi 24,40,69
pKi 5.6 – 7.6 [24,40,69]
HS665 Hs Agonist 6.3 pKi 114
pKi 6.3 (Ki 4.5x10-7 M) [114]
quinpirole Hs Full agonist 4.9 – 7.7 pKi 24,79,86,111,113,122
pKi 4.9 – 7.7 [24,79,86,111,113,122]
pramipexole Hs Full agonist 5.1 – 7.4 pKi 79,96
pKi 5.1 – 7.4 [79,96]
7-OH-DPAT Rn Full agonist 6.2 pKi 32
pKi 6.2 [32]
dopamine Hs Full agonist 4.7 – 7.2 pKi 24,40,96
pKi 4.7 – 7.2 [24,40,96]
PD 128907 Hs Full agonist 5.4 – 6.4 pKi 88,96
pKi 5.4 – 6.4 [88,96]
dopamine Rn Full agonist 5.3 – 6.4 pKi 98,113
pKi 5.3 – 6.4 [98,113]
7-trans-OH-PIPAT Hs Full agonist 5.6 pKi 32
pKi 5.6 [32]
quinelorane Hs Full agonist 5.5 – 5.7 pKi 81,111
pKi 5.5 – 5.7 [81,111]
benzquinamide Hs Agonist 5.4 pKi 44
pKi 5.4 (Ki 3.964x10-6 M) [44]
quinpirole Rn Full agonist 5.2 pKi 113
pKi 5.2 [113]
UNC9975 Hs Biased agonist 9.0 pEC50 3
pEC50 9.0 (EC50 1.1x10-9 M) [3]
Description: This compound shows biased agonism towards D2-mediated β-arrestin-2 translocation measured using the Tango assay.
UNC0006 Hs Biased agonist 8.9 pEC50 3
pEC50 8.9 (EC50 1.2x10-9 M) [3]
Description: Biased agonist of D2-mediated β-arrestin-2 translocation measured using the Tango assay.
UNC9994 Hs Biased agonist 8.2 pEC50 3
pEC50 8.2 (EC50 6.1x10-9 M) [3]
Description: This compound shows biased agonism towards D2-mediated β-arrestin-2 translocation measured using the Tango assay.
aripiprazole Hs Partial agonist 7.4 pEC50 3
pEC50 7.4 (EC50 3.8x10-8 M) [3]
Description: Measuring cAMP production via the Gi-coupled signaling pathway
vilazodone Hs Agonist 6.2 pIC50 48
pIC50 6.2 (IC50 6.66x10-7 M) [48]
View species-specific agonist tables
Agonist Comments
Terguride and roxindole have been reported to be partial agonists at the D2S receptor and antagonists at the D2L receptor.
Although benzquinamide has higher affinity for α-adrenoceptors, it is suggested in [44] that it is more likely that drug-induced modulation of D2 receptor activity is responsible for the drug's antiemetic action.
​Allosteric modulation of the D2 receptor by SB269652 only occurs when D2 receptor dimers form, with the ligand assuming a 'bitopic' pose and interacting with different sites on each of the two protomers in the dimer [64].
UNC0006, UNC9994 and UNC9975 are partial biased agonists of β-arrestin 2 recruitment at the D2 receptor as measured using three different assays (β-arrestin-2 translocation Tango assay, DiscoveRx assay and BRET-based β-arrestin-2 recruitment assay) [3]. Tango assay pEC50 values and binding Kis are provided in the table above.
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
[3H]nemonapride Hs Antagonist 10.9 pKd 71
pKd 10.9 [71]
[3H]spiperone Rn Antagonist 10.2 pKd 23,49,131
pKd 10.2 (Kd 5.7x10-11 M) [23,49,131]
[3H]raclopride Rn Antagonist 8.9 pKd 61
pKd 8.9 (Kd 1.2x10-9 M) [61]
[3H]N-methylspiperone Rn Antagonist 10.7 pKi 98
pKi 10.7 [98]
benperidol Hs Antagonist 10.6 pKi 105
pKi 10.6 (Ki 2.7x10-11 M) [105]
blonanserin Hs Antagonist 9.9 pKi 84
pKi 9.9 (Ki 1.4x10-10 M) [84]
pipotiazine Hs Antagonist 9.7 pKi 112
pKi 9.7 (Ki 2x10-10 M) [112]
risperidone Hs Antagonist 9.4 pKi 10
pKi 9.4 (Ki 4.4x10-10 M) [10]
perphenazine Hs Antagonist 8.9 – 9.6 pKi 58,102
pKi 8.9 – 9.6 (Ki 1.4x10-9 – 2.6x10-10 M) [58,102]
perospirone Hs Antagonist 9.2 pKi 103
pKi 9.2 (Ki 6x10-10 M) [103]
eticlopride Hs Antagonist 9.2 pKi 69,118
pKi 9.2 [69,118]
trifluoperazine Hs Antagonist 8.9 – 9.0 pKi 58,104
pKi 8.9 – 9.0 (Ki 1.3x10-9 – 9.6x10-10 M) [58,104]
asenapine Hs Antagonist 8.9 pKi 108
pKi 8.9 (Ki 1.2x10-9 M) [108]
terguride Hs Antagonist 8.9 pKi 80
pKi 8.9 [80]
spiperone Rn Antagonist 8.4 – 9.4 pKi 69,81,113,118
pKi 8.4 – 9.4 [69,81,113,118]
fluphenazine Hs Antagonist 8.8 pKi 95
pKi 8.8 (Ki 1.44x10-9 M) [95]
flupentixol Hs Antagonist 8.8 pKi 40
pKi 8.8 (Ki 1.5x10-9 M) [40]
nafadotride Rn Antagonist 8.8 pKi 98
pKi 8.8 [98]
lurasidone Rn Antagonist 8.8 pKi 52
pKi 8.8 (Ki 1.68x10-9 M) [52]
olanzapine Hs Antagonist 8.7 pKi 10
pKi 8.7 (Ki 2.1x10-9 M) [10]
mesoridazine Hs Antagonist 8.7 pKi 31
pKi 8.7 (Ki 2.2x10-9 M) [31]
roxindole Hs Antagonist 8.6 pKi 80
pKi 8.6 [80]
ziprasidone Hs Antagonist 8.6 pKi 10
pKi 8.6 (Ki 2.8x10-9 M) [10]
nafadotride Hs Antagonist 8.5 pKi 97
pKi 8.5 [97]
raclopride Rn Antagonist 7.7 – 9.3 pKi 98,113
pKi 7.7 – 9.3 [98,113]
domperidone Rn Antagonist 8.5 pKi 113
pKi 8.5 [113]
sertindole Hs Antagonist 8.0 – 8.9 pKi 57-58,102
pKi 8.0 – 8.9 (Ki 9.1x10-9 – 1.2x10-9 M) [57-58,102]
prochlorperazine Hs Antagonist 8.4 pKi 12
pKi 8.4 (Ki 3.61x10-9 M) [12]
haloperidol Rn Antagonist 8.3 pKi 113
pKi 8.3 [113]
(+)-sulpiride Hs Antagonist 8.2 pKi 40
pKi 8.2 (Ki 6x10-9 M) [40]
L-741,626 Hs Antagonist 7.9 – 8.5 pKi 45,60
pKi 7.9 – 8.5 [45,60]
domperidone Hs Antagonist 7.9 – 8.4 pKi 40,111
pKi 7.9 – 8.4 (Ki 1.26x10-8 – 3.98x10-9 M) [40,111]
loxapine Hs Antagonist 7.9 – 8.3 pKi 58,104
pKi 7.9 – 8.3 (Ki 1.2x10-8 – 5x10-9 M) [58,104]
(+)-butaclamol Hs Antagonist 7.5 – 8.7 pKi 24,40,69,118
pKi 7.5 – 8.7 [24,40,69,118]
haloperidol Hs Antagonist 7.4 – 8.8 pKi 40,69,79,111,119
pKi 7.4 – 8.8 [40,69,79,111,119]
raclopride Hs Antagonist 8.0 pKi 81
pKi 8.0 (Ki 1x10-8 M) [81]
zotepine Hs Antagonist 8.0 pKi 101
pKi 8.0 (Ki 1.1x10-8 M) [101]
(-)-stepholidine Hs Antagonist 7.9 pKi 78
pKi 7.9 (Ki 1.16x10-8 M) [78]
pimozide Hs Antagonist 7.0 – 8.8 pKi 40,111
pKi 7.0 – 8.8 [40,111]
amisulpride Hs Antagonist 7.8 – 8.0 pKi 73,111,113
pKi 7.9 – 8.0 [73,111]
pKi 7.8 [113]
pimozide Rn Antagonist 7.6 pKi 113
pKi 7.6 [113]
sulpiride Hs Antagonist 7.2 – 7.9 pKi 24
pKi 7.2 – 7.9 (Ki 6x10-8 – 1.2x10-8 M) [24]
metoclopramide Mm Antagonist 7.5 pKi 75
pKi 7.5 (Ki 2.88x10-8 M) [75]
chlorpromazine Rn Antagonist 7.5 pKi 113
pKi 7.5 [113]
lumateperone Hs Antagonist 7.5 pKi 67,110
pKi 7.5 (Ki 3.2x10-8 M) [67,110]
chlorpromazine Hs Antagonist 7.0 – 7.6 pKi 40,111
pKi 7.0 – 7.6 [40,111]
quetiapine Hs Antagonist 7.2 pKi 10
pKi 7.2 (Ki 6.9x10-8 M) [10]
(-)-sulpiride Hs Antagonist 6.3 – 8.0 pKi 40,111,118
pKi 6.3 – 8.0 (Ki 5.2x10-7 – 1x10-8 M) [40,111,118]
(+)-sulpiride Rn Antagonist 7.0 pKi 113
pKi 7.0 [113]
ML321 Hs Antagonist 7.0 pKi 126-127
pKi 7.0 (Ki 1x10-7 M) [126-127]
trans-flupenthixol Hs Antagonist 6.9 pKi 40
pKi 6.9 (Ki 1.2x10-7 M) [40]
(+)-UH232 Hs Antagonist 6.4 – 7.1 pKi 40,113
pKi 6.4 – 7.1 [40,113]
promazine Hs Antagonist 6.5 pKi 25
pKi 6.5 (Ki 3x10-7 M) [25]
(+)-UH232 Rn Antagonist 6.4 pKi 113
pKi 6.4 [113]
clozapine Hs Antagonist 5.8 – 6.9 pKi 40,69,108,111,118
pKi 5.8 – 6.9 [40,69,108,111,118]
clozapine Rn Antagonist 6.2 pKi 113
pKi 6.2 [113]
(+)-S-14297 Hs Antagonist 5.5 pKi 81
pKi 5.5 [81]
(+)-SCH-23390 Hs Antagonist 5.3 pKi 40
pKi 5.3 [40]
iloperidone Rn Antagonist 7.0 pIC50 116
pIC50 7.0 (IC50 1.1x10-7 M) [116]
Description: Measuring displacement of [3H]spiperone from rat striatum.
View species-specific antagonist tables
Antagonist Comments
Terguride/roxindole have been reported to act as partial agonists at the D2S receptor and as antagonists at the D2L receptor.
Perphenazine is an antagonist at both the D2S and D2L receptors [117].
The approved drug mesoridazine, although consisting of 4 stereoisomers, appears to be selective for the D2 receptor [31], especially when examining the data for the two highest affinity isomers, compounds 2 and 5. Across the 3 dopamine receptors, compounds 2 and 5 have the same order of potency (D2>D3>D1). The data shown in the table above is for compound 2. Mesoridazine is also a selective antagonist of the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor.
Zotepine has a Ki of 5.4nM for the D2S receptor isoform [101].
The β-arrestin biased ligands UNC9975, UNC0006 and UNC9994, do not activate D2 receptor-mediated Gi-regulated inhibition of cAMP production, but rather are functionally-selective antagonists of the interaction between D2 receptor and β-arrestin-2 [3].
Allosteric Modulators
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
SB269652 Hs Negative 6.4 pKB 64
pKB 6.4 (KB 4.16x10-7 M) [64]
Description: Allosteric reduction of dopamine binding in a radioligand binding assay
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gi/Go family
G protein independent mechanism
Adenylate cyclase inhibition
Other - See Comments
Comments:  Dopamine D2 receptors can inhibit the Akt (protein kinase B) pathway through a β-arrestin 2/Akt/protein phosphatase 2A complex [14-15].
D2L-induced inhibition of Akt is reported in pituitary lactotrophs, with D2S-induced ERK stimulation also reported in these cells [51,89].
References:  53,83,85
Secondary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Potassium channel
Other - See Comments
Comments:  β-arrestin recruitment [39,78,126-127].
References:  30
Tissue Distribution
Pituitary, substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA).
Species:  Human
Technique:  In situ histochemistry.
References:  41,50
Adrenal cortex.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Autoradiography.
References:  4
Pityitary (autoradiography), substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) (immunohistochemistry in BAC transgenics).
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Autoradiography, immunohistochemistry.
References:  47,94
Prelimbic cortex.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Confocal analysis in the Bac-GFP reporter mouse.
References:  130
Hippocampus.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Bac-GFP reporter mouse.
References:  91
Cerebral, mesenteric and renal arteries.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Autoradiography.
References:  5
Striatonigral neurons.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunofluorescence.
References:  9
Striatum.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  In situ hybridization.
References:  26
Pituitary, substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA).
Species:  Rat
Technique:  In situ histochemistry.
References:  23
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
Measurement of cAMP levels in GH4C1 cells transfected with the D2 receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  GH4C1 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of cAMP accumulation.
References:  2
Measurement of prolactin secretion in GH4C1 cells transfected with the D2 receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  GH4C1 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of prolactin secretion.
References:  2
Measurement of voltage-dependent potassium current in NG108-15 cells transfected witht the D2 receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  NG108-15 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of voltage-dependent potassium current.
References:  29
Measurement of activation of potassium channel in rat lactotrophs endogenously expressing the D2 receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Lactotrophs.
Response measured:  Activation of potassium channel.
References:  30
Measurement of Ca2+ and cAMP levels in Ltk- cells transfected with both the long and short forms of the human D2 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  LTK- cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of calcium mobilisation and cAMP accumulation.
References:  68
Measurement of [3H]thymidine incorporation in CHO cells transfected with the human D2 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  [3H]thymidine incorporation.
References:  63
Measurement of cAMP levels in CHO cells transfected with the human D2 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of cAMP accumulation.
References:  63
Measurement of [3H]arachidonic acid release from rat striatal neurons endogenously expressing the D2 receptors.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Striatal neurons.
Response measured:  Enhanced [3H]arachidonic acid release.
References:  99
Measurement of cAMP levels in HEK 293 cells transfected with the human D2 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of cAMP accumulation.
References:  76,125
Measurement of Cl- currents in Xenopus oocytes transfected with murine D2L and D2S receptors.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Xenopus oocytes.
Response measured:  Stimulation of Cl- influx.
References:  109
Measurement of inwardly rectifying K+ currents in Xenopus oocytes transfected with the human D2 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Xenopus oocytes.
Response measured:  Activation of GIRK1 channels.
References:  87
Measurement of inhibition of cAMP dependent transcription using murine D2L and D2S receptors.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  HEK293, COS and JEG3 cells.
Response measured: 
References:  83
Physiological Functions
Stimulation of accumulation of cAMP in membrane particles of the rat kidney medulla.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Membrane particles of the rat kidney medulla.
References:  6
Inhibits Na+-K+-adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity when a D1 agonist is co-administered with a D2 agonist.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Proximal tubule.
References:  17
Inhibition of (Na+)+K+)ATPase activity via synergism with the D1 receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Isolated striatal neurons.
References:  18
Control of renal blood flow.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  22
Modulation of striatal dopamine.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  56
Reward effects of morphine.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  74
Blockade enhances learning/memory.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  107
Modulation of locomotor activity. (NB rat and mouse)
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  21,115
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
D2 receptor knockout mice exhibit abnormal synaptic plasticity.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  28
D2 receptor knockout mice exhibit altered dopamine release and uptake.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  100
D2 receptor knockout mice display Parkinsonian-like locomotor impairment when compared to the wild type.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  13,38
D2 receptor knockout mice do not exhibit autoreceptor-mediated inhibitory control of dopamine release in striatal synaptosomes, as seen in wild-type mice.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  62
D2 receptor knockout mice exhibit a decrease in dopamine transporter (DAT) activity.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  35
D2 receptor knockout mice exhibit d-amphetamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition, as seen in wild-type mice.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  90
D2 receptor knockout mice are insensitive to the hypolocomotor and hypothermic effects of D2/D3 agonists.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  20
D2 receptor knockout mice are insensitive to the cataleptic effects of haloperidol.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  19
D2 receptor knockout mice exhibit reduced ethanol-conditioned place preference.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  34
D2L receptor knockout mice exhibit reduced aggression.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  123
D2 receptor knockout mice do not exhibit autoinhibition of dopamine release.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  16,92
D2 receptor knockout mice exhibit increased rates of high-dose cocaine self-administration.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  27
D2 receptor knockout mice exhibit reduced locomotor activity and slower acquisition of a place-learning task.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  120
D2 receptor knockout mice exhibit altered GABAergic neurotransmission.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  7
D2L receptor knockout mice (which still express the short form of the receptor, D2S) exhibit reduced haloperidol-induced catalepsy.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  121,124
D2 receptor knockout mice exhibit hyperprolactinemia.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  11,20,54-55,93-94,128
D2 receptor knockout mice do not show place preference for morphine nor do they self administer the drug.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  37,72
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Drd2tm1Low Drd2tm1Low/Drd2tm1Low
either: B6.129S2-Drd2 or (involves: 129S2/SvPas * C57BL/6)
MGI:94924  MP:0004163 abnormal adenohypophysis morphology PMID: 9247267 
Drd2tm1Yyw Drd2tm1Yyw/Drd2tm1Yyw
B6.129S4-Drd2
MGI:94924  MP:0009745 abnormal behavioral response to xenobiotic PMID: 11069937  12650980 
Drd2+|Drd2tm1Yyw Drd2tm1Yyw/Drd2+
B6.129S4-Drd2
MGI:94924  MP:0009745 abnormal behavioral response to xenobiotic PMID: 12650980 
Drd2tm1Low Drd2tm1Low/Drd2tm1Low
B6.129S2-Drd2/J
MGI:94924  MP:0005535 abnormal body temperature PMID: 18486343 
Drd2tm1Low Drd2tm1Low/Drd2tm1Low
B6.129S2-Drd2
MGI:94924  MP:0000913 abnormal brain development PMID: 11158626 
Drd2tm1Mok Drd2tm1Mok/Drd2tm1Mok
involves: 129S/SvEv * C57BL/6J * DBA/2J
MGI:94924  MP:0005418 abnormal circulating hormone level PMID: 9140068 
Drd2tm1Low Drd2tm1Low/Drd2tm1Low
B6.129S2-Drd2
MGI:94924  MP:0002206 abnormal CNS synaptic transmission PMID: 11158626 
Drd1atm1Jcd|Drd2tm1Ebo Drd1atm1Jcd/Drd1atm1Jcd,Drd2tm1Ebo/Drd2tm1Ebo
involves: 129S2/SvPas * 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:94924  MGI:99578  MP:0003119 abnormal digestive system development PMID: 15272078 
Drd1atm1Jcd|Drd2tm1Ebo Drd1atm1Jcd/Drd1atm1Jcd,Drd2tm1Ebo/Drd2tm1Ebo
involves: 129S2/SvPas * 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:94924  MGI:99578  MP:0001663 abnormal digestive system physiology PMID: 15272078 
Drd2tm1Schm Drd2tm1Schm/Drd2tm1Schm
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:94924  MP:0001905 abnormal dopamine level PMID: 10391470 
Drd2tm1Schm|Drd3tm1Schm Drd2tm1Schm/Drd2tm1Schm,Drd3tm1Schm/Drd3tm1Schm
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:94924  MGI:94925  MP:0001905 abnormal dopamine level PMID: 10391470 
Drd2tm1Schm|Drd3+|Drd3tm1Schm Drd2tm1Schm/Drd2tm1Schm,Drd3tm1Schm/Drd3+
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:94924  MGI:94925  MP:0001905 abnormal dopamine level PMID: 10391470 
Drd1atm1Jcd|Drd2+|Drd2tm1Ebo Drd1atm1Jcd/Drd1atm1Jcd,Drd2tm1Ebo/Drd2+
involves: 129S2/SvPas * 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:94924  MGI:99578  MP:0003271 abnormal duodenum morphology PMID: 15272078 
Drd2tm1Ebo Drd2tm1Ebo/Drd2tm1Ebo
involves: 129S2/SvPas * C57BL/6
MGI:94924  MP:0001927 abnormal estrous cycle PMID: 9247268 
Drd2tm1Ebo Drd2tm1Ebo/Drd2tm1Ebo
involves: 129S2/SvPas * C57BL/6
MGI:94924  MP:0009016 abnormal estrus PMID: 9247268 
Drd2tm1Low Drd2tm1Low/Drd2tm1Low
B6.129S2-Drd2
MGI:94924  MP:0002910 abnormal excitatory postsynaptic currents PMID: 11158626 
Drd2tm1Low Drd2tm1Low/Drd2tm1Low
B6.129S2-Drd2/J
MGI:94924  MP:0003245 abnormal GABAergic neuron morphology PMID: 17409246 
Drd2tm1Ebo Drd2tm1Ebo/Drd2tm1Ebo
involves: 129S2/SvPas * C57BL/6
MGI:94924  MP:0001406 abnormal gait PMID: 7566118 
Drd1atm1Jcd|Drd2tm1Ebo Drd1atm1Jcd/Drd1atm1Jcd,Drd2tm1Ebo/Drd2tm1Ebo
involves: 129S2/SvPas * 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:94924  MGI:99578  MP:0005645 abnormal hypothalamus physiology PMID: 15272078 
Drd1atm1Jcd|Drd2tm1Ebo Drd1atm1Jcd/Drd1atm1Jcd,Drd2tm1Ebo/Drd2tm1Ebo
involves: 129S2/SvPas * 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:94924  MGI:99578  MP:0008802 abnormal intestinal smooth muscle morphology PMID: 15272078 
Drd2tm1Schm Drd2tm1Schm/Drd2tm1Schm
B6.Cg-Drd2
MGI:94924  MP:0006001 abnormal intestinal transit time PMID: 16525059 
Drd2tm1Schm|Drd3tm1Schm Drd2tm1Schm/Drd2tm1Schm,Drd3tm1Schm/Drd3tm1Schm
B6.Cg-Drd2 Drd3
MGI:94924  MGI:94925  MP:0006001 abnormal intestinal transit time PMID: 16525059 
Drd1atm1Jcd|Drd2tm1Ebo Drd1atm1Jcd/Drd1atm1Jcd,Drd2tm1Ebo/Drd2tm1Ebo
involves: 129S2/SvPas * 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:94924  MGI:99578  MP:0000477 abnormal intestine morphology PMID: 15272078 
Drd2tm1Schm Drd2tm1Schm/Drd2tm1Schm
B6.Cg-Drd2
MGI:94924  MP:0006003 abnormal large intestinal transit time PMID: 16525059 
Drd2tm1Schm|Drd3tm1Schm Drd2tm1Schm/Drd2tm1Schm,Drd3tm1Schm/Drd3tm1Schm
B6.Cg-Drd2 Drd3
MGI:94924  MGI:94925  MP:0006003 abnormal large intestinal transit time PMID: 16525059 
Drd2tm1Low Drd2tm1Low/Drd2tm1Low
B6.129S2-Drd2
MGI:94924  MP:0006299 abnormal latent inhibition of conditioning behavior PMID: 15061865 
Adora2atm1Jfc|Drd2tm1Low Adora2atm1Jfc/Adora2atm1Jfc,Drd2tm1Low/Drd2tm1Low
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:94924  MGI:99402  MP:0003313 abnormal locomotor activation PMID: 16280580 
Drd2tm1Low Drd2tm1Low/Drd2tm1Low
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:94924  MP:0003313 abnormal locomotor activation PMID: 16280580 
Drd2+|Drd2tm1(IL2RA)Koba Drd2tm1(IL2RA)Koba/Drd2+
B6.129P2-Drd2
MGI:94924  MP:0003313 abnormal locomotor activation PMID: