NPS receptor | Neuropeptide S receptor | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

NPS receptor

Target id: 302

Nomenclature: NPS receptor

Family: Neuropeptide S receptor

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     Currently no data for NPS receptor in GtoImmuPdb

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 371 7p14.3 NPSR1 neuropeptide S receptor 1 20,31,64,74
Mouse 7 371 9 A4 Npsr1 neuropeptide S receptor 1 45
Rat 7 371 8q13 Npsr1 neuropeptide S receptor 1
Previous and Unofficial Names
VRR1 | GPR154 | PGR14 | G protein-coupled receptor 154 | vasopressin receptor-related receptor 1
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB npsr1_human (Hs), npsr1_mouse (Mm), npsr1_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
neuropeptide S {Sp: Human} , neuropeptide S {Sp: Mouse} , neuropeptide S {Sp: Rat}

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
[125I]Tyr10NPS (human) Hs Full agonist 9.5 pKd 74
pKd 9.5 (Kd 3.3x10-10 M) [74]
PWT1-NPS Mm Full agonist 9.0 pEC50 61
pEC50 9.0 [61]
Description: In a calcium mobilisation assay
neuropeptide S {Sp: Mouse} Hs Full agonist 8.5 pEC50 74
pEC50 8.5 [74]
neuropeptide S {Sp: Rat} Hs Full agonist 8.5 pEC50 74
pEC50 8.5 [74]
neuropeptide S {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 8.0 pEC50 74
pEC50 8.0 [74]
[Cy5-Lys19]NPS Hs Full agonist 5.8 pEC50 37
pEC50 5.8 (EC50 1.5x10-6 M) [37]
View species-specific agonist tables
Agonist Comments
[125I]-Tyr10-hNPS = [125I]-Tyr10 Neuropeptide S (human).
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
NCGC 84 Hs Antagonist 9.0 pA2 70
pA2 9.0 [70]
Description: Result from a cAMP accumulation assay.
SHA 68 Mm Antagonist 8.1 pA2 62
pA2 8.1 [62]
SHA 68 Rn Antagonist 7.6 pA2 60
pA2 7.6 [60]
[tBu-D-Gly5]NPS Rn Antagonist 7.2 pA2 60
pA2 7.2 [60]
[D-Cys(tBu)5]NPS Rn Antagonist 6.6 pA2 60
pA2 6.6 [60]
[D-Cys(tBu)5]NPS Mm Antagonist 6.4 pA2 6
pA2 6.4 [6]
[tBu-D-Gly5]NPS Mm Antagonist 7.1 pKB 19
pKB 7.1 [19]
[D-Val5]NPS Mm Antagonist 6.5 pKB 19
pKB 6.5 [19]
QA1 Hs Antagonist 8.0 pIC50 41
pIC50 8.0 [41]
PI1 Hs Antagonist 7.3 pIC50 71
pIC50 7.3 [71]
RTI-118 Hs Antagonist - - 76
[76]
Description: pKe value of 6.96 vs. hNPS receptor variant Ile107
View species-specific antagonist tables
Antagonist Comments
Antagonist SHA 68 has been tested against human Asn107 and Ile107 NPS receptor variants exhibiting pA2 values of 7.8 and 7.5 respectively [43].

The value for antagonist RTI-118 in the table above refers to human NPSR Ile107. The ligand has been tested also at the human NPSR Asn107 with pKe value of 6.31 [76].

NCGC 84 has also been tested in calcium mobilization and ERK phosphorylation assays where it displays pIC50 values of 7.44 and 8.03 respectively [70].
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gq/G11 family Phospholipase C stimulation
References:  4,69,74
Secondary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gs family Adenylate cyclase stimulation
References:  20,54
Tissue Distribution
Isoform A (371 amino acids) is found in bronchial smooth muscle cells, basally in colon epithelium and in occasional basal keratinocytes in skin.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry.
References:  31
Isoform B (377 amino acids) is found in apical epithelial cells in the bronchus and gut and in all layers of the epidermis.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry.
References:  31
Neuroendocrine tumours
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  50
Pons: rostral laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, cuneiform nucleus, microcellular tegmental nucleus region, periaqueductal gray
Species:  Human
Technique:  In situ hybridization
References:  2
Brain > salivary gland > thyroid, mammary gland > testis.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  74
Brain: Hypothalamus > midbrain, forebrain > cortex, brainstem >hippocampus.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  74
Brain: anterior olfactory nucleus, dorsal and ventral endopiriform nucleus, amygdala, precommissural nucleus, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, subiculum, motor cortex 2, retrosplenial agranular cortex, somatosensory cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  in situ hybridisation.
References:  74
Brain: medial amygdala, substantia nigra pars compacta, subiculum, dorsal raphe, several hypothalamic and thalamic regions, pyramidal cell layer of the ventral hippocampus, medial habenula, cortex.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry.
References:  35
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
Stimulation of cAMP levels.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK293 cells stably transfected with the human receptors
Response measured:  Increased levels of cAMP.
References:  37,54,70
Stimulation of macrophage phagocytosis, adhesion and chemotaxis.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Macrophage
Response measured:  Stimulation of phagocytosis, adhesion and chemotaxis.
References:  51
Stimulation of BLA glutamatergic synaptic activity.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Coronal brain slices.
Response measured:  Stimulation of glutamatergic transmission.
References:  26,40
Inhibition of K+ stimulated [3H]5-HT and [3H]NA release
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Frontal cortex synaptosomes.
Response measured:  Inhibition of [3H]5-HT and [3H]NA release.
References:  16,53
Increasing of Retinoid Acid Receptor-Related Orphan Receptor Alpha mRNA and related circadian clock genes
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Human SH-SY5Y cells stably transfected with the human receptor
Response measured:  Increased levels of Retinoid Acid Receptor-Related Orphan Receptor Alpha mRNA and related circadian clock genes
References:  1
Stimulation of ERK phosphorylation
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO or HEK293 cells transfected with the human NPS receptor
Response measured:  Increased levels of pERK 1/2
References:  37,70
Stimulation of intracellular calcium mobilization.
Species:  None
Tissue:  HEK293 cells stably transfected with the human, murine and rat NPS receptors.
Response measured:  Increased levels of intracellular calcium.
References:  4,13,54,60,69,74
Physiological Functions
When injected centrally, inhibits colonic transit.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  in vivo.
References:  21,73
When injected centrally, NPS produces a long-lasting arousal, increasing locomotor activity.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  in vivo.
References:  8,56,74
When injected centrally, inhibits food intake. NB. This applies to rat AND mouse.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  in vivo.
References:  14,47,67
When injected centrally, NPS promotes wakefulness and decreases both REM sleep and slow wave sleep. NB. This applies to rat AND mouse.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  in vivo.
References:  29,56,74
When injected centrally, increases alcohol and cocaine seeking in reinstatement experiments. NB. This applies to rat AND mouse.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  in vivo.
References:  7,27,46
When injected centrally, facilitates memory.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  in vivo.
References:  22-24,42,65
Reduces anxiety- and panic-like behaviour when injected centrally and intranasally. NB. This applies to rat AND mouse.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  in vivo.
References:  34,38,49,56,72,74-75
When injected centrally facilitates olfactory functions
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  in vivo
References:  66
When injected centrally and intranasally, produces antinociceptive effects.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  in vivo.
References:  25,36,39,48,55,75
Facilitates the extinction of conditioned fear when injected centrally. NB. This applies to rat AND mouse.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  in vivo.
References:  26,63
When injected centrally reduces aggressiveness. NB. This applies to rat AND mouse.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  in vivo
References:  3,58
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
Mice with receptor knockout display memory impairment.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  in vivo.
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  42
Mice with receptor knockout display increased anxiety levels.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  in vivo.
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  12
Mice with receptor knockout displayed reduced sensitivity to the hypnotic effect of diazepam and EtOH
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Targeting in embryonic stem cells
References:  17
Mice with receptor knockout displayed decreased expression of Retinoid Acid Receptor-Related Orphan Receptor Alpha in the lung
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Targeting in embryonic stem cells
References:  1
Mice with receptor knockout display increased aggressiveness levels
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells
References:  58
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression Comments
NPS receptor knockout mice have been investigated in different laboratories. Of note, the anxious-like phenotype, the memory deficit and the reduced sensitivity to the hypnotic effect of diazepam and EtOH have not been replicated in other laboratories [6,15,59,77]. More importantly, the NPS stimulant [12,15,59,77] and arousal promoting [59] effects, the NPS anxiolytic-like [59,77] and anti-aggressiveness [58] actions are no longer evident in NPS receptor knockout mice.
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Npsr1tm1Bhk Npsr1tm1Bhk/Npsr1tm1Bhk
129S/SvEv-Npsr1
MGI:2441738  MP:0002328 abnormal airway resistance PMID: 16829631 
Npsr1tm1Bhk Npsr1tm1Bhk/Npsr1tm1Bhk
129S/SvEv-Npsr1
MGI:2441738  MP:0008872 abnormal physiological response to xenobiotic PMID: 16829631 
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology
Disease:  Asthma, susceptibility to, 2
Disease Ontology: DOID:2841
OMIM: 608584
Gene Expression and Pathophysiology
The NPS receptor is significantly up-regulated in a mouse model of ovalbumen-induced lung inflammation
Tissue or cell type:  Lung
Pathophysiology:  Inflammation
Species:  Mouse
Technique: 
References:  31
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The Asn107Ile variant is associated with decreased sleep- and rest duration
Amino acid change:  N107I
SNP accession: 
References:  68
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  An Asn107Ile variant is associated with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease.
Amino acid change:  N107I
SNP accession: 
References:  9
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The Asn107Ile variant is associated with panic disorders.
Amino acid change:  N107I
SNP accession: 
References:  10-11,44,52,57
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The Asn107Ile variant is associated with schizophrenia.
Amino acid change:  N107I
SNP accession: 
References:  33
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The Asn107Ile variant is associated with enhanced response inhibition and increased error monitoring.
Amino acid change:  N107I
SNP accession: 
References:  5
Type:  Splice variants
Species:  Human
Description:  A splice variant (isoform B) with an alternative 3' exon, encoding a protein of 377 amino acids, is up-regulated in smooth muscle cells in asthmatic airways.
Amino acids:  377
Protein accession: 
References:  31
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The Asn107Ile variant is associated with increased impulsivity and ADHD symptoms.
Amino acid change:  N107I
SNP accession: 
References:  30
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The Asn107Ile variant is associated with a delay on bedtime.
Amino acid change:  N107I
SNP accession: 
References:  18
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The Asn107Ile variant is associated with increased stress and cortisol levels
Amino acid change:  N107I
SNP accession: 
References:  28
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The Asn107Ile variant is associated with the early onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder
Amino acid change:  N107I
SNP accession: 
References:  32
General Comments
NPS precursor mRNA is highly expressed in a cluster of neurons located adjacent to the Locus coeruleus [74].

References

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1. Acevedo N, Sääf A, Söderhäll C, Melén E, Mandelin J, Pietras CO, Ezer S, Karisola P, Vendelin J, Gennäs GB et al.. (2013) Interaction between retinoid acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) and neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) in asthma. PLoS ONE, 8 (4): e60111. [PMID:23565190]

2. Adori C, Barde S, Bogdanovic N, Uhlén M, Reinscheid RR, Kovacs GG, Hökfelt T. (2015) Neuropeptide S- and Neuropeptide S receptor-expressing neuron populations in the human pons. Front Neuroanat, 9: 126. [PMID:26441556]

3. Beiderbeck DI, Lukas M, Neumann ID. (2014) Anti-aggressive effects of neuropeptide S independent of anxiolysis in male rats. Front Behav Neurosci, 8: 185. [PMID:24910598]

4. Bernier V, Stocco R, Bogusky MJ, Joyce JG, Parachoniak C, Grenier K, Arget M, Mathieu MC, O'Neill GP, Slipetz D et al.. (2006) Structure-function relationships in the neuropeptide S receptor: molecular consequences of the asthma-associated mutation N107I. J. Biol. Chem., 281 (34): 24704-12. [PMID:16790440]

5. Beste C, Konrad C, Uhlmann C, Arolt V, Zwanzger P, Domschke K. (2013) Neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR1) gene variation modulates response inhibition and error monitoring. Neuroimage, 71: 1-9. [PMID:23319044]

6. Camarda V, Rizzi A, Ruzza C, Zucchini S, Marzola G, Marzola E, Guerrini R, Salvadori S, Reinscheid RK, Regoli D et al.. (2009) In vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization of the neuropeptide s receptor antagonist [D-Cys(tBu)5]neuropeptide S. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 328 (2): 549-55. [PMID:18971372]

7. Cannella N, Economidou D, Kallupi M, Stopponi S, Heilig M, Massi M, Ciccocioppo R. (2009) Persistent increase of alcohol-seeking evoked by neuropeptide S: an effect mediated by the hypothalamic hypocretin system. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34 (9): 2125-34. [PMID:19322167]

8. Castro AA, Moretti M, Casagrande TS, Martinello C, Petronilho F, Steckert AV, Guerrini R, Calo' G, Dal Pizzol F, Quevedo J et al.. (2009) Neuropeptide S produces hyperlocomotion and prevents oxidative stress damage in the mouse brain: a comparative study with amphetamine and diazepam. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 91 (4): 636-42. [PMID:19022279]

9. D'Amato M, Bruce S, Bresso F, Zucchelli M, Ezer S, Pulkkinen V, Lindgren C, Astegiano M, Rizzetto M, Gionchetti P et al.. (2007) Neuropeptide s receptor 1 gene polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology, 133 (3): 808-17. [PMID:17854592]

10. Domschke K, Reif A, Weber H, Richter J, Hohoff C, Ohrmann P, Pedersen A, Bauer J, Suslow T, Kugel H et al.. (2011) Neuropeptide S receptor gene -- converging evidence for a role in panic disorder. Mol. Psychiatry, 16 (9): 938-48. [PMID:20603625]

11. Donner J, Haapakoski R, Ezer S, Melén E, Pirkola S, Gratacòs M, Zucchelli M, Anedda F, Johansson LE, Söderhäll C et al.. (2010) Assessment of the neuropeptide S system in anxiety disorders. Biol. Psychiatry, 68 (5): 474-83. [PMID:20705147]

12. Duangdao DM, Clark SD, Okamura N, Reinscheid RK. (2009) Behavioral phenotyping of neuropeptide S receptor knockout mice. Behav. Brain Res., 205 (1): 1-9. [PMID:19646487]

13. Erdmann F, Kügler S, Blaesse P, Lange MD, Skryabin BV, Pape HC, Jüngling K. (2015) Neuronal expression of the human neuropeptide S receptor NPSR1 identifies NPS-induced calcium signaling pathways. PLoS ONE, 10 (2): e0117319. [PMID:25714705]

14. Fedeli A, Braconi S, Economidou D, Cannella N, Kallupi M, Guerrini R, Calò G, Cifani C, Massi M, Ciccocioppo R. (2009) The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is a neuroanatomical substrate for the inhibition of palatable food intake by neuropeptide S. Eur. J. Neurosci., 30 (8): 1594-602. [PMID:19821837]

15. Fendt M, Buchi M, Bürki H, Imobersteg S, Ricoux B, Suply T, Sailer AW. (2011) Neuropeptide S receptor deficiency modulates spontaneous locomotor activity and the acoustic startle response. Behav. Brain Res., 217 (1): 1-9. [PMID:20888368]

16. Gardella E, Romei C, Cavallero A, Trapella C, Fedele E, Raiteri L. (2013) Neuropeptide S inhibits release of 5-HT and glycine in mouse amygdala and frontal/prefrontal cortex through activation of the neuropeptide S receptor. Neurochem. Int., 62 (4): 360-6. [PMID:23411412]

17. Ghazal P, Corsi M, Roth A, Faggioni F, Corti C, Merlo Pick E, Pucciarelli S, Ciccocioppo R, Ubaldi M. (2014) Paradoxical response to the sedative effects of diazepam and alcohol in C57BL/6J mice lacking the neuropeptide S receptor. Peptides, 61: 107-13. [PMID:25240770]

18. Gottlieb DJ, O'Connor GT, Wilk JB. (2007) Genome-wide association of sleep and circadian phenotypes. BMC Med. Genet., 8 Suppl 1: S9. [PMID:17903308]

19. Guerrini R, Camarda V, Trapella C, Caló G, Rizzi A, Ruzza C, Fiorini S, Marzola E, Reinscheid RK, Regoli D et al.. (2009) Further studies at neuropeptide s position 5: discovery of novel neuropeptide S receptor antagonists. J. Med. Chem., 52 (13): 4068-71. [PMID:19473027]

20. Gupte J, Cutler G, Chen JL, Tian H. (2004) Elucidation of signaling properties of vasopressin receptor-related receptor 1 by using the chimeric receptor approach. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 101: 1508-1513. [PMID:14757815]

21. Han RW, Chang M, Peng YL, Qiao LY, Yin XQ, Li W, Wang R. (2009) Central Neuropeptide S inhibits distal colonic transit through activation of central Neuropeptide S receptor in mice. Peptides, 30 (7): 1313-7. [PMID:19540430]

22. Han RW, Xu HJ, Zhang RS, Wang P, Chang M, Peng YL, Deng KY, Wang R. (2014) Neuropeptide S interacts with the basolateral amygdala noradrenergic system in facilitating object recognition memory consolidation. Neurobiol Learn Mem, 107: 32-6. [PMID:24211255]

23. Han RW, Yin XQ, Chang M, Peng YL, Li W, Wang R. (2009) Neuropeptide S facilitates spatial memory and mitigates spatial memory impairment induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist in mice. Neurosci. Lett., 455 (1): 74-7. [PMID:19429110]

24. Han RW, Zhang RS, Xu HJ, Chang M, Peng YL, Wang R. (2013) Neuropeptide S enhances memory and mitigates memory impairment induced by MK801, scopolamine or Aβ₁₋₄₂ in mice novel object and object location recognition tasks. Neuropharmacology, 70: 261-7. [PMID:23454528]

25. Holanda AD, Asth L, Santos AR, Guerrini R, de P Soares-Rachetti V, Calo' G, André E, Gavioli EC. (2015) Central adenosine A1 and A2A receptors mediate the antinociceptive effects of neuropeptide S in the mouse formalin test. Life Sci., 120: 8-12. [PMID:25447449]

26. Jüngling K, Seidenbecher T, Sosulina L, Lesting J, Sangha S, Clark SD, Okamura N, Duangdao DM, Xu YL, Reinscheid RK et al.. (2008) Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala. Neuron, 59 (2): 298-310. [PMID:18667157]

27. Kallupi M, Cannella N, Economidou D, Ubaldi M, Ruggeri B, Weiss F, Massi M, Marugan J, Heilig M, Bonnavion P et al.. (2010) Neuropeptide S facilitates cue-induced relapse to cocaine seeking through activation of the hypothalamic hypocretin system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 107 (45): 19567-72. [PMID:20974945]

28. Kumsta R, Chen FS, Pape HC, Heinrichs M. (2013) Neuropeptide S receptor gene is associated with cortisol responses to social stress in humans. Biol Psychol, 93 (2): 304-7. [PMID:23466585]

29. Kushikata T, Yoshida H, Kudo M, Salvadori S, Calo G, Hirota K. (2011) The effects of neuropeptide S on general anesthesia in rats. Anesth. Analg., 112 (4): 845-9. [PMID:21288975]

30. Laas K, Reif A, Kiive E, Domschke K, Lesch KP, Veidebaum T, Harro J. (2014) A functional NPSR1 gene variant and environment shape personality and impulsive action: a longitudinal study. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford), 28 (3): 227-36. [PMID:23325374]

31. Laitinen T, Polvi A, Rydman P, Vendelin J, Pulkkinen V, Salmikangas P, Makela S, Rehn M, Pirskanen A, Rautanen A, Zucchelli M, Gullsten H, Leino M, Alenius H, Petays T, Haahtela T, Laitinen A, Laprise C, Hudson TJ, Laitinen LA, Kere J. (2004) Characterization of a common susceptibility locus for asthma-related traits. Science, 304: 300-304. [PMID:15073379]

32. Lennertz L, Franke PE, Grabe HJ, Rampacher F, Schulze-Rauschenbach S, Guttenthaler V, Ruhrmann S, Pukrop R, Klosterkötter J, Falkai P et al.. (2013) The functional coding variant Asn107Ile of the neuropeptide S receptor gene (NPSR1) influences age at onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol., 16 (9): 1951-8. [PMID:23680103]

33. Lennertz L, Quednow BB, Schuhmacher A, Petrovsky N, Frommann I, Schulze-Rauschenbach S, Landsberg MW, Steinbrecher A, Höfels S, Pukrop R et al.. (2012) The functional coding variant Asn107Ile of the neuropeptide S receptor gene (NPSR1) is associated with schizophrenia and modulates verbal memory and the acoustic startle response. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol., 15 (9): 1205-15. [PMID:22078257]

34. Leonard SK, Dwyer JM, Sukoff Rizzo SJ, Platt B, Logue SF, Neal SJ, Malberg JE, Beyer CE, Schechter LE, Rosenzweig-Lipson S et al.. (2008) Pharmacology of neuropeptide S in mice: therapeutic relevance to anxiety disorders. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 197 (4): 601-11. [PMID:18311561]

35. Leonard SK, Ring RH. (2011) Immunohistochemical localization of the neuropeptide S receptor in the rat central nervous system. Neuroscience, 172: 153-63. [PMID:20950671]

36. Li W, Chang M, Peng YL, Gao YH, Zhang JN, Han RW, Wang R. (2009) Neuropeptide S produces antinociceptive effects at the supraspinal level in mice. Regul. Pept., 156 (1-3): 90-5. [PMID:19345242]

37. Liao Y, Lu B, Ma Q, Wu G, Lai X, Zang J, Shi Y, Liu D, Han F, Zhou N. (2016) Human Neuropeptide S Receptor Is Activated via a Gαq Protein-biased Signaling Cascade by a Human Neuropeptide S Analog Lacking the C-terminal 10 Residues. J. Biol. Chem., 291 (14): 7505-16. [PMID:26865629]

38. Lukas M, Neumann ID. (2012) Nasal application of neuropeptide S reduces anxiety and prolongs memory in rats: social versus non-social effects. Neuropharmacology, 62 (1): 398-405. [PMID:21871467]

39. Medina G, Ji G, Grégoire S, Neugebauer V. (2014) Nasal application of neuropeptide S inhibits arthritis pain-related behaviors through an action in the amygdala. Mol Pain, 10: 32. [PMID:24884567]

40. Meis S, Bergado-Acosta JR, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, Stork O, Munsch T. (2008) Identification of a neuropeptide S responsive circuitry shaping amygdala activity via the endopiriform nucleus. PLoS ONE, 3 (7): e2695. [PMID:18628994]

41. Melamed JY, Zartman AE, Kett NR, Gotter AL, Uebele VN, Reiss DR, Condra CL, Fandozzi C, Lubbers LS, Rowe BA et al.. (2010) Synthesis and evaluation of a new series of Neuropeptide S receptor antagonists. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 20 (15): 4700-3. [PMID:20510609]

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Girolamo Caló, Chiara Ruzza.
Neuropeptide S receptor: NPS receptor. Last modified on 20/02/2018. Accessed on 14/11/2018. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=302.