apelin receptor

Target id: 36

Nomenclature: apelin receptor

Family: Apelin receptor

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     Currently no data for apelin receptor in GtoImmuPdb

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 380 11q12 APLNR apelin receptor 32
Mouse 7 377 2 E1 Aplnr apelin receptor 9
Rat 7 377 3q24 Aplnr apelin receptor 14,31
Previous and Unofficial Names
angiotensin receptor-like 1
AGTRL1
APJ
APJR
angiotensin II receptor-like 1
B78
GPCR34
G-protein coupled receptor APJ
msr/apj
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB apj_human (Hs), apj_mouse (Mm), apj_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
apelin-36 {Sp: Human}
apelin-13 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat}
apelin-17 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat}
apelin-36 {Sp: Mouse, Rat}
apelin receptor early endogenous ligand {Sp: Human} , apelin receptor early endogenous ligand {Sp: Mouse}
[Pyr1]apelin-13 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat}
Potency order of endogenous ligands (Human)
[Pyr1]apelin-13 (APLN, Q9ULZ1) ≥ apelin-13 (APLN, Q9ULZ1) > apelin-36 (APLN, Q9ULZ1)  [11,37]

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
[125I][Nle75,Tyr77]apelin-36 (human) Hs Full agonist 11.2 pKd 18
pKd 11.2 (Kd 6.3x10-12 M) [18]
[125I][Glp65Nle75,Tyr77]apelin-13 Hs Full agonist 10.7 pKd 14
pKd 10.7 (Kd 2.23x10-11 M) [14]
[125I](Pyr1)apelin-13 Hs Full agonist 9.5 pKd 17
pKd 9.5 (Kd 3x10-10 M) [17]
apelin receptor early endogenous ligand {Sp: Human} Hs Agonist 9.3 pKd 8
pKd 9.3 (Kd 5.1x10-10 M) [8]
[125I]apelin-13 Hs Full agonist 9.2 pKd 11
pKd 9.2 (Kd 7x10-10 M) [11]
[3H](Pyr1)[Met(0)11]-apelin-13 Hs Full agonist 8.6 pKd 30
pKd 8.6 (Kd 2.7x10-9 M) [30]
E339-3D6 Hs Agonist 6.4 pKi 16
pKi 6.4 [16]
CMF-019 Hs Biased agonist 10.0 pEC50 33
pEC50 10.0 [33]
Conditions: For in vivo studies the potassium salt of this compound was used.
MM07 Hs Biased agonist 9.5 pEC50 3
pEC50 9.5 [3]
compound 1 [PMID: 25241924] Hs Full agonist 7.5 pEC50 29
pEC50 7.5 (EC50 3.37x10-8 M) [29]
cyclo apelin-12 (7-12) Hs Full agonist 7.1 pEC50 13
pEC50 7.1 (EC50 7.862x10-8 M) [13]
cyclourea apelin-12 (1-7) Hs Full agonist 6.8 pEC50 13
pEC50 6.8 (EC50 1.443x10-7 M) [13]
cyclo apelin-12 (1-12) Hs Full agonist 6.3 pEC50 13
pEC50 6.3 (EC50 4.932x10-7 M) [13]
apelin-13 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 8.8 – 9.5 pIC50 11,14,30
pIC50 8.8 – 9.5 [11,14,30]
Elabela/Toddler-32 {Sp: Human} Hs Agonist 8.7 pIC50 39
pIC50 8.7 [39]
Elabela/Toddler-21 {Sp: Human} Hs Agonist 8.7 pIC50 39
pIC50 8.7 [39]
apelin-17 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Hs Agonist 7.9 – 9.0 pIC50 10,30
pIC50 7.9 – 9.0 [10,30]
apelin-36 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 8.2 – 8.6 pIC50 11,14,18,30
pIC50 8.2 – 8.6 [11,14,18,30]
[Pyr1]apelin-13 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 7.0 – 8.8 pIC50 18,30
pIC50 7.0 – 8.8 [18,30]
Elabela/Toddler-11 {Sp: Human} Hs Agonist 7.2 pIC50 39
pIC50 7.2 [39]
ML233 Hs Full agonist - - 19
[19]
Agonist Comments
No binding data is available for ML223 at the apelin receptor [19].
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
MM54 Hs Antagonist 8.2 pKi 24
pKi 8.2 (Ki 7.1x10-9 M) [24]
ALX40-4C Hs Antagonist 5.5 pIC50 40
pIC50 5.5 [40]
ML221 Hs Antagonist - - 25
[25]
Antagonist Comments
ALX40-4C is also an antagonist of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and binds to the second extracellular loop of this receptor.
(Ala13)-apelin-13 is the first reported functional antagonist that blocks the hypotensive actions of apelin in a dose dependent manner. However, pIC50 values were not reported in this study [23].

Binding data for antagonist ML221 are not available [25].
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gi/Go family Adenylate cyclase inhibition
Comments:  Downstream of Gi activation apelin triggers a sharp increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels and activates ERKs via a PKC dependent pathway. Apelin dependent activation of ERK and PI3Kinase leads to activation of p70S6 kinase in endothelial cells.
References:  6,12,14,27-28
Tissue Distribution
Heart, coronary artery, aorta, internal mammary artery, pulmonary artery and saphenous vein.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  17
Lung: endothelial cells of small pulmonary vessels > vascular smooth muscle cells of pulmonary vessels.
Not found in the alveolar epithelium or connective tissue.
Species:  Human
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  21
Kidney: Endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells of small intrarenal vessels.
Not found in the glomerulli, renal tubular epithelial cells or connective tissue.
Species:  Human
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  21
Adrenal gland: endothelial cells of surrounding arteries, small resistance arteries within the capsular plexus and central vein.
Species:  Human
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  21
Neurones and oligodendrocytes > astrocytes.
Not found in primary microglia or monocyte-derived macrophages.
Species:  Human
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  6
Large conduit vessels: endothelial cells lining walls of saphenous veins, coronary arteries, radial arteries and left internal mammary arteries and vascular smooth muscle cells forming vessel walls.
Species:  Human
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  21
Heart: endothelial cells lining the intramyocardial vessels, small coronary arteries, endocardial endothelial cells > cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells of cardiac blood vessels.
Species:  Human
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  21
Lung: Bronchial epithelial cells > endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells from pulmonary vessels.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  21
Heart: Endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells from small intramyocardial vessels > cardiomyocytes.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  21
Vascular smooth muscle of the medial layer of rat aorta and pulmonary artery.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  21
Cerebellum, lung, heart, kidney cortex.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  17
Brain: neurones of the lateral cerebellar nucleus > endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells from small cerebellar vessels.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  21
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
Inhibition of HIV infection in CD4 positive cell lines expressing APJ.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Cf2Th cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of HIV infection.
References:  4
Measurement of cAMP levels in CHO cells transfected with the APJ receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of forskolin-induced cAMP formation.
References:  12,18
Measurement of cAMP levels in HRK 293 cells transfected with the human APJ receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation.
References:  30
Measurement of Ca2+ levels in RBL-2H3 cells transfected with the human APJ receptor using a fluorimetric imaging plate reader (FLIPR).
Species:  Human
Tissue:  RBL-2H3 cells.
Response measured:  Ca2+ mobilisation.
References:  30
Measurement of cAMP levels in CHO cells transfected with the rat APJ receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation.
References:  34
Inhibition of HIV infection in CD4 positive cell lines expressing APJ.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of HIV infection.
References:  40
Inhibition of HIV infection in CD4 positive cell lines expressing APJ.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  NP-2 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of HIV infection.
References:  41
Physiological Functions
Vasoconstriction.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Saphenous vein.
References:  17
Vasodilation.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  5,22,34,38
Vasodilation.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  15
Positive inotrope.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Isolated perfused heart.
References:  35
Positive inotrope.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  1-2
Modulation of water intake.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  7,22,34,36
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
In APJ receptor knockout mice baseline blood pressure is not changed compared to wild-type animals. Vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II however are significantly more pronounced in the knockout animals.
Species:  Human
Tissue: 
Technique:  Transgenesis.
References:  15
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Aplnrtm1.1Tq Aplnrtm1.1Tq/Aplnrtm1.1Tq
C57BL/6-Aplnr
MGI:1346086  MP:0002332 abnormal exercise endurance PMID: 19767528 
Aplnrtm1.1Tq Aplnrtm1.1Tq/Aplnrtm1.1Tq
C57BL/6-Aplnr
MGI:1346086  MP:0000267 abnormal heart development PMID: 19767528 
Aplnr+|Aplnrtm1.1Tq Aplnrtm1.1Tq/Aplnr+
C57BL/6-Aplnr
MGI:1346086  MP:0008779 abnormal maternal behavior PMID: 19767528 
Aplnrtm1.1Tq Aplnrtm1.1Tq/Aplnrtm1.1Tq
C57BL/6-Aplnr
MGI:1346086  MP:0008779 abnormal maternal behavior PMID: 19767528 
Aplnrtm1.1Tq Aplnrtm1.1Tq/Aplnrtm1.1Tq
C57BL/6-Aplnr
MGI:1346086  MP:0004215 abnormal myocardial fiber physiology PMID: 19767528 
Aplnrtm1Afu Aplnrtm1Afu/Aplnrtm1Afu
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:1346086  MP:0000230 abnormal systemic arterial blood pressure PMID: 15087458 
Aplnrtm1.1Tq Aplnrtm1.1Tq/Aplnrtm1.1Tq
C57BL/6-Aplnr
MGI:1346086  MP:0005140 decreased cardiac muscle contractility PMID: 19767528 
Aplnr+|Aplnrtm1.1Tq Aplnrtm1.1Tq/Aplnr+
C57BL/6-Aplnr
MGI:1346086  MP:0001935 decreased litter size PMID: 19767528 
Aplnrtm1.1Tq Aplnrtm1.1Tq/Aplnrtm1.1Tq
C57BL/6-Aplnr
MGI:1346086  MP:0001730 embryonic growth arrest PMID: 19767528 
Aplnrtm1.1Tq Aplnrtm1.1Tq/Aplnrtm1.1Tq
C57BL/6-Aplnr
MGI:1346086  MP:0002080 prenatal lethality PMID: 19767528 
General Comments
The biology of the apelin receptor system has recently been comprehensively reviewed in the works of Kleinz et al. (2005) and Masri et al. (2005) [20,26].

References

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1. Ashley EA, Powers J, Chen M, Kundu R, Finsterbach T, Caffarelli A, Deng A, Eichhorn J, Mahajan R, Agrawal R, Greve J, Robbins R, Patterson AJ, Bernstein D, Quertermous T. (2005) The endogenous peptide apelin potently improves cardiac contractility and reduces cardiac loading in vivo. Cardiovasc Res.65: 73-82. [PMID:15621035]

2. Berry MF, Pirolli TJ, Jayasankar V, Burdick J, Morine KJ, Gardner TJ, Woo YJ. (2004) Apelin has in vivo inotropic effects on normal and failing hearts. Circulation.110: II187-II193. [PMID:15364861]

3. Brame AL, Maguire JJ, Yang P, Dyson A, Torella R, Cheriyan J, Singer M, Glen RC, Wilkinson IB, Davenport AP. (2015) Design, characterization, and first-in-human study of the vascular actions of a novel biased apelin receptor agonist. Hypertension65 (4): 834-40. [PMID:25712721]

4. Cayabyab M, Hinuma S, Farzan M, Choe H, Fukusumi S, Kitada C, Nishizawa N, Hosoya M, Nishimura O, Messele T, Pollakis G, Goudsmit J, Fujino M, Sodroski J. (2000) Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan seven-transmembrane receptor APJ, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry. J Virol.74: 11972-11976. [PMID:11090199]

5. Cheng X, Cheng XS, Pang CC. (2003) Venous dilator effect of apelin, an endogenous peptide ligand for the orphan APJ receptor, in conscious rats. Eur J Pharmacol.470: 171-175. [PMID:12798955]

6. Choe W, Albright A, Sulcove J, Jaffer S, Hesselgesser J, Lavi E, Crino P, Kolson DL. (2000) Functional expression of the seven-transmembrane HIV-1 co-receptor APJ in neural cells. J Neurovirol.6: S61-S69. [PMID:10871767]

7. De Mota N, Reaux-Le Goazigo A, El Messari S, Chartrel N, Roesch D, Dujardin C, Kordon C, Vaudry H, Moos F, Llorens-Cortes C. (2004) Apelin, a potent diuretic neuropeptide counteracting vasopressin actions through inhibition of vasopressin neuron activity and vasopressin release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.101: 10464-10469. [PMID:15231996]

8. Deng C, Chen H, Yang N, Feng Y, Hsueh AJ. (2015) Apela regulates fluid homeostasis by binding to the APJ receptor to activate Gi signaling. J. Biol. Chem.,  [Epub ahead of print]. [PMID:25995451]

9. Devic E, Rizzoti K, Bodin S, Knibiehler B, Audigier Y. (1999) Amino acid sequence and embryonic expression of msr/apj, the mouse homolog of Xenopus X-msr and human APJ. Mech Dev.84: 199-203. [PMID:10473142]

10. El Messari S, Iturrioz X, Fassot C, De Mota N, Roesch D, Llorens-Cortes C. (2004) Functional dissociation of apelin receptor signaling and endocytosis: implications for the effects of apelin on arterial blood pressure. J. Neurochem.90 (6): 1290-301. [PMID:15341513]

11. Fan X, Zhou N, Zhang X, Mukhtar M, Lu Z, Fang J, DuBois GC, Pomerantz RJ. (2003) Structural and functional study of the apelin-13 peptide, an endogenous ligand of the HIV-1 coreceptor, APJ. Biochemistry.42: 10163-10168. [PMID:12939143]

12. Habata Y, Fujii R, Hosoya M, Fukusumi S, Kawamata Y, Hinuma S, Kitada C, Nishizawa N, Murosaki S, Kurokawa T, Onda H, Tatemoto K, Fujino M. (1999) Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, is abundantly secreted in the colostrum. Biochim Biophys Acta.1452: 25-35. [PMID:10525157]

13. Hamada J, Kimura J, Ishida J, Kohda T, Morishita S, Ichihara S, Fukamizu A. (2008) Evaluation of novel cyclic analogues of apelin. Int. J. Mol. Med.22 (4): 547-52. [PMID:18813863]

14. Hosoya M, Kawamata Y, Fukusumi S, Fujii R, Habata Y, Hinuma S, Kitada C, Honda S, Kurokawa T, Onda H, Nishimura O, Fujino M. (2000) Molecular and functional characteristics of APJ. Tissue distribution of mRNA and interaction with the endogenous ligand apelin. J Biol Chem.275: 21061-21067. [PMID:10777510]

15. Ishida J, Hashimoto T, Hashimoto Y, Nishiwaki S, Iguchi T, Harada S, Sugaya T, Matsuzaki H, Yamamoto R, Shiota N, Okunishi H, Kihara M, Umemura S, Sugiyama F, Yagami K, Kasuya Y, Mochizuki N, Fukamizu A. (2004) Regulatory roles for APJ, a seven-transmembrane receptor related to angiotensin-type 1 receptor in blood pressure in vivo. J Biol Chem.279: 26274-26279. [PMID:15087458]

16. Iturrioz X, Alvear-Perez R, De Mota N, Franchet C, Guillier F, Leroux V, Dabire H, Le Jouan M, Chabane H, Gerbier R et al.. (2010) Identification and pharmacological properties of E339-3D6, the first nonpeptidic apelin receptor agonist. FASEB J.24 (5): 1506-17. [PMID:20040517]

17. Katugampola SD, Maguire JJ, Matthewson SR, Davenport AP. (2001) [(125)I]-(Pyr(1))Apelin-13 is a novel radioligand for localizing the APJ orphan receptor in human and rat tissues with evidence for a vasoconstrictor role in man. Br J Pharmacol.132: 1255-1260. [PMID:11250876]

18. Kawamata Y, Habata Y, Fukusumi S, Hosoya M, Fujii R, Hinuma S, Nishizawa N, Kitada C, Onda H, Nishimura O, Fujino M. (2001) Molecular properties of apelin: tissue distribution and receptor binding. Biochim Biophys Acta.1538: 162-171. [PMID:11336787]

19. Khan P, Maloney PR, Hedrick M, Gosalia P, Milewski M, Li L, Roth GP, Sergienko E, Suyama E, Sugarman E et al.. (2011) Functional Agonists of the Apelin (APJ) Receptor. Probe Reports from the NIH Molecular Libraries Program, . [PMID:22834038]

20. Kleinz MJ, Davenport AP. (2005) Emerging roles of apelin in biology and medicine. Pharmacol Ther.107: 198-211. [PMID:15907343]

21. Kleinz MJ, Skepper JN, Davenport AP. (2005) Immunocytochemical localisation of the apelin receptor, APJ, to human cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Regul Pept.126: 233-240. [PMID:15664671]

22. Lee DK, Cheng R, Nguyen T, Fan T, Kariyawasam AP, Liu Y, Osmond DH, George SR, O'Dowd BF. (2000) Characterization of apelin, the ligand for the APJ receptor. J Neurochem.74: 34-41. [PMID:10617103]

23. Lee DK, Saldivia VR, Nguyen T, Cheng R, George SR, O'Dowd BF. (2005) Modification of the terminal residue of apelin-13 antagonizes its hypotensive action. Endocrinology.146: 231-236. [PMID:15486224]

24. Macaluso NJ, Pitkin SL, Maguire JJ, Davenport AP, Glen RC. (2011) Discovery of a competitive apelin receptor (APJ) antagonist. ChemMedChem6 (6): 1017-23. [PMID:21560248]

25. Maloney PR, Khan P, Hedrick M, Gosalia P, Milewski M, Li L, Roth GP, Sergienko E, Suyama E, Sugarman E et al.. (2012) Discovery of 4-oxo-6-((pyrimidin-2-ylthio)methyl)-4H-pyran-3-yl 4-nitrobenzoate (ML221) as a functional antagonist of the apelin (APJ) receptor. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.22 (21): 6656-60. [PMID:23010269]

26. Masri B, Knibiehler B, Audigier Y. (2005) Apelin signalling: a promising pathway from cloning to pharmacology. Cell Signal.17: 415-426. [PMID:15601620]

27. Masri B, Lahlou H, Mazarguil H, Knibiehler B, Audigier Y. (2002) Apelin (65-77) activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases via a PTX-sensitive G protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.290: 539-545. [PMID:11779205]

28. Masri B, Morin N, Cornu M, Knibiehler B, Audigier Y. (2004) Apelin (65-77) activates p70 S6 kinase and is mitogenic for umbilical endothelial cells. FASEB J.18: 1909-1911. [PMID:15385434]

29. McKeown SC, Zecri FJ, Fortier E, Taggart A, Sviridenko L, Adams CM, McAllister KH, Pin SS. (2014) The design and implementation of a generic lipopeptide scanning platform to enable the identification of 'locally acting' agonists for the apelin receptor. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.24 (20): 4871-5. [PMID:25241924]

30. Medhurst AD, Jennings CA, Robbins MJ, Davis RP, Ellis C, Winborn KY, Lawrie KW, Hervieu G, Riley G, Bolaky JE, Herrity NC, Murdock P, Darker JG. (2003) Pharmacological and immunohistochemical characterization of the APJ receptor and its endogenous ligand apelin. J Neurochem.84: 1162-1172. [PMID:12603839]

31. O'Carroll AM, Selby TL, Palkovits M, Lolait SJ. (2000) Distribution of mRNA encoding B78/apj, the rat homologue of the human APJ receptor, and its endogenous ligand apelin in brain and peripheral tissues. Biochim Biophys Acta.1492: 72-80. [PMID:11004481]

32. O'Dowd BF, Heiber M, Chan A, Heng HH, Tsui LC, Kennedy JL, Shi X, Petronis A, George SR, Nguyen T. (1993) A human gene that shows identity with the gene encoding the angiotensin receptor is located on chromosome 11. Gene.136: 355-360. [PMID:8294032]

33. Read C, Fitzpatrick CM, Yang P, Kuc RE, Maguire JJ, Glen RC, Foster RE, Davenport AP. (2016) Cardiac action of the first G protein biased small molecule apelin agonist. Biochem. Pharmacol.116: 63-72. [PMID:27475715]

34. Reaux A, De Mota N, Skultetyova I, Lenkei Z, El Messari S, Gallatz K, Corvol P, Palkovits M, Llorens-Cortes C. (2001) Physiological role of a novel neuropeptide, apelin, and its receptor in the rat brain. J Neurochem.77: 1085-1096. [PMID:11359874]

35. Szokodi I, Tavi P, Foldes G, Voutilainen-Myllyla S, Ilves M, Tokola H, Pikkarainen S, Piuhola J, Rysa J, Toth M, Ruskoaho H. (2002) Apelin, the novel endogenous ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, regulates cardiac contractility. Circ Res.91: 434-440. [PMID:12215493]

36. Taheri S, Murphy K, Cohen M, Sujkovic E, Kennedy A, Dhillo W, Dakin C, Sajedi A, Ghatei M, Bloom S. (2002) The effects of centrally administered apelin-13 on food intake, water intake and pituitary hormone release in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.291: 1208-1212. [PMID:11883945]

37. Tatemoto K, Hosoya M, Habata Y, Fujii R, Kakegawa T, Zou MX, Kawamata Y, Fukusumi S, Hinuma S, Kitada C, Kurokawa T, Onda H, Fujino M. (1998) Isolation and characterization of a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the human APJ receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.251: 471-476. [PMID:9792798]

38. Tatemoto K, Takayama K, Zou MX, Kumaki I, Zhang W, Kumano K, Fujimiya M. (2001) The novel peptide apelin lowers blood pressure via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Regul Pept.99: 87-92. [PMID:11384769]

39. Yang P, Maguire JJ, Kuc RE, Siew K, Haris L, Torella R, Glen RC, Davenport AP. ELABELA/Toddler, a critical regulator of cardiac development, is expressed in the human cardiovascular system and binds the apelin receptor. Accessed on 07/07/2015. Modified on 07/07/2015. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/130/Suppl_2/A15352

40. Zhou N, Fan X, Mukhtar M, Fang J, Patel CA, DuBois GC, Pomerantz RJ. (2003) Cell-cell fusion and internalization of the CNS-based, HIV-1 co-receptor, APJ. Virology.307: 22-36. [PMID:12667811]

41. Zou MX, Liu HY, Haraguchi Y, Soda Y, Tatemoto K, Hoshino H. (2000) Apelin peptides block the entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). FEBS Lett.473: 15-18. [PMID:10802050]

Contributors

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How to cite this page

Anthony P. Davenport, Matthias Kleinz, Janet J. Maguire, Peiran Yang.
Apelin receptor: apelin receptor. Last modified on 10/02/2017. Accessed on 24/07/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=36.