P2X7

Target id: 484

Nomenclature: P2X7

Family: P2X receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     P2X7 has curated GtoImmuPdb data

Gene and Protein Information
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 2 595 12q24.31 P2RX7 purinergic receptor P2X 7 13,73
Mouse 2 595 5 P2rx7 purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7 17
Rat 2 595 12q16 P2rx7 purinergic receptor P2X 7 88
Previous and Unofficial Names
P2X purinoceptor 7 | P2Z receptor | P2X7 receptor | purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 7 | purinergic receptor P2X
Database Links
CATH/Gene3D
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
ATP

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
BzATP Hs Agonist 5.3 pEC50 27
pEC50 5.3 (EC50 4.677x10-6 M) [27]
Description: Measuring agonist-stimulated P2X7 receptor-mediated changes in intracellular calcium concentration.
BzATP Rn Agonist 5.0 pEC50 27
pEC50 5.0 (EC50 1x10-5 M) [27]
Description: Measuring agonist-stimulated P2X7 receptor-mediated changes in intracellular calcium concentration.
BzATP Mm Agonist 4.0 pEC50 27
pEC50 4.0 (EC50 1x10-4 M) [27]
Description: Measuring agonist-stimulated P2X7 receptor-mediated changes in intracellular calcium concentration.
ATP Hs Agonist 3.1 pEC50 49
pEC50 3.1 (EC50 7.8x10-4 M) [49]
View species-specific agonist tables
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
AZ11657312 (salt free) Rn Antagonist 7.8 pA2 5
pA2 7.8 [5]
decavanadate Hs Antagonist 7.4 pA2 64
pA2 7.4 pA2 = 7.4 [64]
AZ11657312 (salt free) Hs Antagonist 6.1 pA2 5
pA2 6.1 [5]
AZ10606120 Hs Antagonist 8.9 pKd 61
pKd 8.9 (Kd 1.4x10-9 M) [61]
Description: Measuring binding of [3H]-AZ10606120 to human P2X7 receptors
AZ10606120 Rn Antagonist 8.7 pKd 61
pKd 8.7 (Kd 1.9x10-9 M) [61]
Description: Measuring binding of [3H]-AZ10606120 to rat P2X7 receptors
JNJ-47965567 Hs Antagonist 7.9 pKi 9
pKi 7.9 (Ki 1.26x10-8 M) [9]
JNJ-47965567 Hs Antagonist 8.3 pIC50 9
pIC50 8.3 (IC50 5x10-9 M) [9]
Description: Measuring antagonism of BzATP induced calcium flux.
A804598 Hs Antagonist ~8.0 pIC50
pIC50 ~8.0 (IC50 ~1x10-8 M)
brilliant blue G Hs Antagonist ~8.0 pIC50 50
pIC50 ~8.0 (IC50 ~1x10-8 M) [50]
A839977 Hs Antagonist ~7.7 pIC50 26-27,47
pIC50 ~7.7 (IC50 ~2x10-8 M) [26-27,47]
A740003 Hs Antagonist 7.4 pIC50 48
pIC50 7.4 (IC50 4x10-8 M) [48]
A438079 Hs Antagonist ~6.9 pIC50 26
pIC50 ~6.9 (IC50 ~1.25x10-7 M) [26]
PF-04905428 Hs Antagonist - - 25,28
[25,28]
View species-specific antagonist tables
Antagonist Comments
Oxidized ATP is an irreversible antagonist of P2X7 [65].
Allosteric Modulators
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Concentration range (M) Voltage-dependent (mV) Reference
chelerythrine Hs Negative 5.3 pIC50 - no 78
pIC50 5.3 (IC50 5.6x10-6 M) [78]
Not voltage dependent
Description: Inhibition of ATP-induced 86Rb+ (K+) efflux in human B-lymphocytes
ivermectin Hs Positive - - - no 69
[69]
Not voltage dependent
AZ11645373 Hs Negative - - - no 63,86
[63,86]
Not voltage dependent
KN62 Hs Negative - - - no 37,78
[37,78]
Not voltage dependent
AZ10606120 Hs Negative - - - no 61
[61]
Not voltage dependent
[61]
Not voltage dependent
GW791343 Hs Negative - - - no 61-62
[61-62]
Not voltage dependent
GW791343 Rn Positive - - - no 61-62
[61-62]
Not voltage dependent
View species-specific allosteric modulator tables
Allosteric Modulator Comments
Effects of the allosteric regulators at P2X7 receptors are species-dependent. See Michel et al. (2008) [62] for an explanation.
No affinity data has been published quantifying the complex interaction of GW791343 with the P2X7 receptor. We have included the interaction in the table above based on extensive experimental evidence provided in [61] and [62]. Polymyxin B is a P2X7 receptor PAM [33].
Immunopharmacology Comments
The P2X7 receptor is involved in NLRP3-type inflammasome formation, and subsequent maturation of IL-1β [58,74]. In human mast cells P2X7 receptor activation causes degranulation and inflammatory mediator release [92], and in mouse mast cells induces IL-6 and TNF-α production [58]. Studies in mice suggest that ATP released from damaged airway tissue engages the P2X7 receptor/pannexin-1 axis, leading to IL-1β maturation and pulmonary fibrosis.[75]. P2X7 receptor antagonism has also been posited as a potential pharmaceutical intervention to treat the salivary gland inflammation and sequelae of Sjögrens syndrome [55].
Immuno Process Associations
Immuno Process:  Cytokine production & signalling
GO Annotations:  Associated to 3 GO processes
GO:0050718 positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta secretion IDA
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0032755 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production IEA
GO:0050717 positive regulation of interleukin-1 alpha secretion IEA
Immuno Process:  Inflammation
GO Annotations:  Associated to 2 GO processes, IEA only
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0001845 phagolysosome assembly IEA
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IEA
Immuno Process:  Antigen presentation
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes, IEA only
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0001845 phagolysosome assembly IEA
Immuno Process:  T cell (activation)
GO Annotations:  Associated to 2 GO processes, IEA only
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0001916 positive regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity IEA
GO:0042098 T cell proliferation IEA
Immuno Process:  B cell (activation)
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes, IEA only
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0001916 positive regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity IEA
Immuno Process:  Immune regulation
GO Annotations:  Associated to 2 GO processes, IEA only
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0001916 positive regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity IEA
GO:0043029 T cell homeostasis IEA
Immuno Process:  Cellular signalling
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes, IEA only
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0042098 T cell proliferation IEA
Tissue Distribution
Brain, lung, prostate, leukocytes
Expression level:  Medium
Species:  Human
Technique:  Northern blot
References:  52,73
Bladder, astrocytes
Expression level:  Low
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  67,70
Heart, liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas, thymus, tonsils, monocytes, macrophages, osteoclasts
Expression level:  High
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry, Northern blot; flow cytometry; RT-PCR
References:  12,31,38,73
Fibroblasts; dendritic cells, osteoblasts, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, keratinocytes, erithrocytes, microglia
Expression level:  Medium
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR, Western blot, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence
References:  8,12,38,40,81-83,94-95
Bone marrow, macrophages, granulocytes, B lymphocytes, mast cells, submandibular glands, lung, microglia, Schwann cells, kidney, osteoclasts, osteoblasts, liver
Expression level:  High
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  In situ hybridisation, RT-PCR, Western blot, Immunofluorescence
References:  17,19-20,29,32,41,44,54,79
Bone marrow, macrophages, osteoclasts
Expression level:  High
Species:  Rat
Technique:  in situ hybridization
References:  19,66
New born brain, lung, spleen, bone marrow, spleen, salivary glands, testis, brain (ependyma,neurons from olfactory nucleus, cerebral cortex, piriform cortex, lateral septal nucleus, hippocampal pyramidal cells, oligodendrocytes, microglia), retina, parotid gland, lacrimal glands, pancreas, liver.
Expression level:  High
Species:  Rat
Technique:  in situ hybridization, RT-PCR, Northern Blot, Western blot, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry
References:  11,19,21,29,35,46,87,90,96
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
Decreased proliferation
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  microglia
Technique:  RNAi
References:  10
Increased proliferation.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  B lymphoblastoid cells.
Technique:  Transfection.
References:  6
Anti-depressant-like behaviour, spatial memory impairment
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  brain
Technique:  Knock-out
References:  7,57
Reduced experimental arthritis, defective bone homeostasis; reduced neuropathic pain; reduced autoimmune hepatitis, reduced inflammation and fibrosis following ureteral obstruction, reduced experimental glomerulonephritis, defective wound healing, defective experimental encephalitis; reduced smoke-induced lung inflammation
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  joint tissue, long bones, nervous system; liver, kidney, cornea, brain, lung
Technique:  Knock-out
References:  16,39,53-54,56,59-60,77,89
Defective IL-1 release; defective intraphagosomal killing
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  macrophages, microglia
Technique:  Knock-out
References:  30,34,76,84
Reduced long term potentiation and allodynia
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  spinal cord
Technique:  RNAi
References:  18,85
Gene Expression and Pathophysiology
Upregulation
Tissue or cell type:  Spinal cord
Pathophysiology:  Multiple sclerosis, Amiotrophic lateral sclerosis
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry, Western blotting
References:  94
Upregulation
Tissue or cell type:  B lymphocytes
Pathophysiology:  Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR, Western blot
References:  2
Upregulation
Tissue or cell type:  Kidney
Pathophysiology:  Experimental diabetes/hypertension
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting
References:  91
Upregulation
Tissue or cell type:  Kidney
Pathophysiology:  Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry
References:  45
Upregulation
Tissue or cell type:  Retina
Pathophysiology:  Retinal degeneration
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry
References:  36
Upregulation
Tissue or cell type:  Neuroblastoma cells
Pathophysiology:  Carcinomas
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  72
Upregulation
Tissue or cell type:  Microglia
Pathophysiology:  Mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Immunofluorescence
References:  71
Upregulation.
Tissue or cell type:  Melanoma, colon carcinoma.
Pathophysiology:  Cancer.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR.
References:  3
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  P2X7B: C-terminally truncated form of the full length P2X7A. This variant is due to transcription of the intron between exons 10 and 11. This inclusion introduces a new stop codon and modifies the last C-terminal 18 amino acids. GenBank accessions are AY847298 (nucleotide) and AAX82087.1 (protein).
Amino acids:  364
References:  1,15
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  Nucleotide substitution causing loss-of-function.
Amino acid change:  E496A
Nucleotide change:  151 A>C
SNP accession: 
References:  43
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  Nucleotide substitution causing loss-of-function.
Amino acid change:  I568N
Nucleotide change:  1729T>A
SNP accession: 
References:  93
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  Nucleotide substitution causing loss-of-function.
Amino acid change:  R307Q
Nucleotide change:  946G>A
SNP accession: 
References:  42
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  Single nucleotide substitution causing gain-of-function.
Amino acid change:  H155Y
Nucleotide change:  489C>T
SNP accession: 
References:  14
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Mouse
Description:  Allelic mutation in the COOH tail of C57BL/6 and DBA mice decreases sensitivity to ATP
References:  4
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Mouse
Description:  Alternative transmembrane domain 1. This variant escapes gene inactivation in P2X7 knock-out mice
Amino acids:  592
Nucleotide accession: 
Protein accession: 
References:  68
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  Splice site mutation at position +1 in intron 1, SNP 151+1g>t (rs35933842:- null allele)
References:  80
General Comments
The role of P2X7 receptor in cancer is discussed in [22-24]. The crystal structure of the truncated (lacking 240 C-terminal residues) P2X7 receptor from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) has been resolved. This has allowed identification of the mechanism of action of several widely used antagonists [51]. Recent crystallographic data suggest that three antagonists (A740003, A804598, JNJ-47965567) previously classified as competitive inhibitors are in fact allosteric, non competitive, inhibitors [51].

References

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2. Adinolfi E, Melchiorri L, Falzoni S, Chiozzi P, Morelli A, Tieghi A, Cuneo A, Castoldi G, Di Virgilio F, Baricordi OR. (2002) P2X7 receptor expression in evolutive and indolent forms of chronic B lymphocytic leukemia. Blood, 99 (2): 706-8. [PMID:11781259]

3. Adinolfi E, Raffaghello L, Giuliani AL, Cavazzini L, Capece M, Chiozzi P, Bianchi G, Kroemer G, Pistoia V, Di Virgilio F. (2012) Expression of P2X7 receptor increases in vivo tumor growth. Cancer Res., 72 (12): 2957-69. [PMID:22505653]

4. Adriouch S, Dox C, Welge V, Seman M, Koch-Nolte F, Haag F. (2002) Cutting edge: a natural P451L mutation in the cytoplasmic domain impairs the function of the mouse P2X7 receptor. J. Immunol., 169 (8): 4108-12. [PMID:12370338]

5. AstraZeneca. AZ11657312. Accessed on 12/09/2014. Modified on 12/09/2014. astrazeneca.com, http://openinnovation.astrazeneca.com/what-we-offer/compound/az11657312/

6. Baricordi OR, Melchiorri L, Adinolfi E, Falzoni S, Chiozzi P, Buell G, Di Virgilio F. (1999) Increased proliferation rate of lymphoid cells transfected with the P2X(7) ATP receptor. J. Biol. Chem., 274 (47): 33206-8. [PMID:10559192]

7. Basso AM, Bratcher NA, Harris RR, Jarvis MF, Decker MW, Rueter LE. (2009) Behavioral profile of P2X7 receptor knockout mice in animal models of depression and anxiety: relevance for neuropsychiatric disorders. Behav. Brain Res., 198 (1): 83-90. [PMID:18996151]

8. Berchtold S, Ogilvie AL, Bogdan C, Mühl-Zürbes P, Ogilvie A, Schuler G, Steinkasserer A. (1999) Human monocyte derived dendritic cells express functional P2X and P2Y receptors as well as ecto-nucleotidases. FEBS Lett., 458 (3): 424-8. [PMID:10570953]

9. Bhattacharya A, Wang Q, Ao H, Shoblock JR, Lord B, Aluisio L, Fraser I, Nepomuceno D, Neff RA, Welty N et al.. (2013) Pharmacological characterization of a novel centrally permeable P2X7 receptor antagonist: JNJ-47965567. Br. J. Pharmacol., 170 (3): 624-40. [PMID:23889535]

10. Bianco F, Ceruti S, Colombo A, Fumagalli M, Ferrari D, Pizzirani C, Matteoli M, Di Virgilio F, Abbracchio MP, Verderio C. (2006) A role for P2X7 in microglial proliferation. J. Neurochem., 99 (3): 745-58. [PMID:16836656]

11. Brändle U, Kohler K, Wheeler-Schilling TH. (1998) Expression of the P2X7-receptor subunit in neurons of the rat retina. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res., 62 (1): 106-9. [PMID:9795168]

12. Buell G, Chessell IP, Michel AD, Collo G, Salazzo M, Herren S, Gretener D, Grahames C, Kaur R, Kosco-Vilbois MH, Humphrey PP. (1998) Blockade of human P2X7 receptor function with a monoclonal antibody. Blood, 92 (10): 3521-8. [PMID:9808543]

13. Buell GN, Talabot F, Gos A, Lorenz J, Lai E, Morris MA, Antonarakis SE. (1998) Gene structure and chromosomal localization of the human P2X7 receptor. Recept. Channels, 5 (6): 347-54. [PMID:9826911]

14. Cabrini G, Falzoni S, Forchap SL, Pellegatti P, Balboni A, Agostini P, Cuneo A, Castoldi G, Baricordi OR, Di Virgilio F. (2005) A His-155 to Tyr polymorphism confers gain-of-function to the human P2X7 receptor of human leukemic lymphocytes. J. Immunol., 175 (1): 82-9. [PMID:15972634]

15. Cheewatrakoolpong B, Gilchrest H, Anthes JC, Greenfeder S. (2005) Identification and characterization of splice variants of the human P2X7 ATP channel. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 332 (1): 17-27. [PMID:15896293]

16. Chessell IP, Hatcher JP, Bountra C, Michel AD, Hughes JP, Green P, Egerton J, Murfin M, Richardson J, Peck WL, Grahames CB, Casula MA, Yiangou Y, Birch R, Anand P, Buell GN. (2005) Disruption of the P2X7 purinoceptor gene abolishes chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Pain, 114 (3): 386-96. [PMID:15777864]

17. Chessell IP, Simon J, Hibell AD, Michel AD, Barnard EA, Humphrey PP. (1998) Cloning and functional characterisation of the mouse P2X7 receptor. FEBS Lett., 439 (1-2): 26-30. [PMID:9849870]

18. Chu YX, Zhang Y, Zhang YQ, Zhao ZQ. (2010) Involvement of microglial P2X7 receptors and downstream signaling pathways in long-term potentiation of spinal nociceptive responses. Brain Behav. Immun., 24 (7): 1176-89. [PMID:20554014]

19. Collo G, Neidhart S, Kawashima E, Kosco-Vilbois M, North RA, Buell G. (1997) Tissue distribution of the P2X7 receptor. Neuropharmacology, 36 (9): 1277-83. [PMID:9364482]

20. Colomar A, Amédée T. (2001) ATP stimulation of P2X(7) receptors activates three different ionic conductances on cultured mouse Schwann cells. Eur. J. Neurosci., 14 (6): 927-36. [PMID:11595031]

21. Coutinho-Silva R, Parsons M, Robson T, Lincoln J, Burnstock G. (2003) P2X and P2Y purinoceptor expression in pancreas from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 204 (1-2): 141-54. [PMID:12850289]

22. Di Virgilio F. (2012) Purines, purinergic receptors, and cancer. Cancer Res., 72 (21): 5441-7. [PMID:23090120]

23. Di Virgilio F. (2016) P2RX7: A receptor with a split personality in inflammation and cancer. Mol Cell Oncol, 3 (2): e1010937. [PMID:27308580]

24. Di Virgilio F, Adinolfi E. (2017) Extracellular purines, purinergic receptors and tumor growth. Oncogene, 36 (3): 293-303. [PMID:27321181]

25. Dombroski MA, Duplantier AJ. (2005) Benzamide inhibitors of the P2X7 receptor. Patent number: US6974812 B2. Assignee: Pfizer Inc.. Priority date: 31/12/2002. Publication date: 13/12/2005.

26. Donnelly-Roberts DL, Jarvis MF. (2007) Discovery of P2X7 receptor-selective antagonists offers new insights into P2X7 receptor function and indicates a role in chronic pain states. Br. J. Pharmacol., 151 (5): 571-9. [PMID:17471177]

27. Donnelly-Roberts DL, Namovic MT, Han P, Jarvis MF. (2009) Mammalian P2X7 receptor pharmacology: comparison of recombinant mouse, rat and human P2X7 receptors. Br. J. Pharmacol., 157 (7): 1203-14. [PMID:19558545]

28. Duplantier AJ, Dombroski MA, Subramanyam C, Beaulieu AM, Chang SP, Gabel CA, Jordan C, Kalgutkar AS, Kraus KG, Labasi JM et al.. (2011) Optimization of the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic attributes in a 6-azauracil series of P2X7 receptor antagonists leading to the discovery of the clinical candidate CE-224,535. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 21 (12): 3708-11. [PMID:21565499]

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30. Fairbairn IP, Stober CB, Kumararatne DS, Lammas DA. (2001) ATP-mediated killing of intracellular mycobacteria by macrophages is a P2X(7)-dependent process inducing bacterial death by phagosome-lysosome fusion. J. Immunol., 167 (6): 3300-7. [PMID:11544318]

31. Falzoni S, Munerati M, Ferrari D, Spisani S, Moretti S, Di Virgilio F. (1995) The purinergic P2Z receptor of human macrophage cells. Characterization and possible physiological role. J. Clin. Invest., 95 (3): 1207-16. [PMID:7883969]

32. Ferrari D, Chiozzi P, Falzoni S, Dal Susino M, Collo G, Buell G, Di Virgilio F. (1997) ATP-mediated cytotoxicity in microglial cells. Neuropharmacology, 36 (9): 1295-301. [PMID:9364484]

33. Ferrari D, Pizzirani C, Adinolfi E, Forchap S, Sitta B, Turchet L, Falzoni S, Minelli M, Baricordi R, Di Virgilio F. (2004) The antibiotic polymyxin B modulates P2X7 receptor function. J. Immunol., 173 (7): 4652-60. [PMID:15383600]

34. Ferrari D, Villalba M, Chiozzi P, Falzoni S, Ricciardi-Castagnoli P, Di Virgilio F. (1996) Mouse microglial cells express a plasma membrane pore gated by extracellular ATP. J. Immunol., 156 (4): 1531-9. [PMID:8568257]

35. Franke H, Günther A, Grosche J, Schmidt R, Rossner S, Reinhardt R, Faber-Zuschratter H, Schneider D, Illes P. (2004) P2X7 receptor expression after ischemia in the cerebral cortex of rats. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 63 (7): 686-99. [PMID:15290894]

36. Franke H, Klimke K, Brinckmann U, Grosche J, Francke M, Sperlagh B, Reichenbach A, Liebert UG, Illes P. (2005) P2X(7) receptor-mRNA and -protein in the mouse retina; changes during retinal degeneration in BALBCrds mice. Neurochem. Int., 47 (4): 235-42. [PMID:15964665]

37. Gargett CE, Wiley JS. (1997) The isoquinoline derivative KN-62 a potent antagonist of the P2Z-receptor of human lymphocytes. Br. J. Pharmacol., 120 (8): 1483-90. [PMID:9113369]

38. Gartland A, Buckley KA, Bowler WB, Gallagher JA. (2003) Blockade of the pore-forming P2X7 receptor inhibits formation of multinucleated human osteoclasts in vitro. Calcif. Tissue Int., 73 (4): 361-9. [PMID:12874700]

39. Gonçalves RG, Gabrich L, Rosário A, Takiya CM, Ferreira ML, Chiarini LB, Persechini PM, Coutinho-Silva R, Leite M. (2006) The role of purinergic P2X7 receptors in the inflammation and fibrosis of unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. Kidney Int., 70 (9): 1599-606. [PMID:16969386]

40. Greig AV, Linge C, Terenghi G, McGrouther DA, Burnstock G. (2003) Purinergic receptors are part of a functional signaling system for proliferation and differentiation of human epidermal keratinocytes. J. Invest. Dermatol., 120 (6): 1007-15. [PMID:12787128]

41. Grol MW, Panupinthu N, Korcok J, Sims SM, Dixon SJ. (2009) Expression, signaling, and function of P2X7 receptors in bone. Purinergic Signal., 5 (2): 205-21. [PMID:19224395]

42. Gu BJ, Sluyter R, Skarratt KK, Shemon AN, Dao-Ung LP, Fuller SJ, Barden JA, Clarke AL, Petrou S, Wiley JS. (2004) An Arg307 to Gln polymorphism within the ATP-binding site causes loss of function of the human P2X7 receptor. J. Biol. Chem., 279 (30): 31287-95. [PMID:15123679]

43. Gu BJ, Zhang W, Worthington RA, Sluyter R, Dao-Ung P, Petrou S, Barden JA, Wiley JS. (2001) A Glu-496 to Ala polymorphism leads to loss of function of the human P2X7 receptor. J. Biol. Chem., 276 (14): 11135-42. [PMID:11150303]

44. Hillman KA, Johnson TM, Winyard PJ, Burnstock G, Unwin RJ, Woolf AS. (2002) P2X(7) receptors are expressed during mouse nephrogenesis and in collecting duct cysts of the cpk/cpk mouse. Exp. Nephrol., 10 (1): 34-42. [PMID:11803203]

45. Hillman KA, Woolf AS, Johnson TM, Wade A, Unwin RJ, Winyard PJ. (2004) The P2X7 ATP receptor modulates renal cyst development in vitro. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 322 (2): 434-9. [PMID:15325248]

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Francesco Di Virgilio, Simonetta Falzoni, John A. Peters.
P2X receptors: P2X7. Last modified on 24/11/2017. Accessed on 18/07/2018. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=484.