Germ cell nuclear factor

Nomenclature: Germ cell nuclear factor

Systematic Nomenclature: NR6A1

Family: 6A. Germ cell nuclear factor receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

Gene and Protein Information
Species AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 560 9q33.3 NR6A1 nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1 1,14,19-20,22
Mouse 495 2B Nr6a1 nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1 23-24,29
Rat 451 3q11 Nr6a1 nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1 29
Previous and Unofficial Names
GCNF1
GCNF
retinoid receptor-related testis-specific receptor
RTR
nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1
NCNF
1700113M01Rik
Database Links
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
GeneCards
GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project
HomoloGene
Human Protein Reference Database
InterPro
KEGG Gene
NURSA Receptor
OMIM
PharmGKB Gene
PhosphoSitePlus
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
TreeFam
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
Comments: Orphan
DNA Binding
Structure:  Homodimer
HRE core sequence:  TCA AGGTCA
Response element:  Other DR, Half site, Other - see comments
DNA Binding Comments
GCNF has been shown to bind to DNA on extended half site sequences identical to the SF-1 response element (SFRE : TCA AGGTCA) [3,8,13,24]). Binding to DRO element (AGGTCA AGGTCA ; which also encompasses the SFRE) was also observed, apparently with a better affinity [8,13,24,27]. PCR-coupled EMSA selection of specific binding sites indicated that the preferential target sequence is : TCA AG(G/T)TCA [27]. Although recombinant GCNF has been shown to bind DNA as a homodimer, endogenous GCNF binds DNA as hexamer first identified as the TRIF complex in P19 and ES cells [2,5-7,10]. No interaction with RXR has been detected [2,5].
Co-binding Partners
Name Interaction Effect Reference
Steroidogenic factor 1 Functional DNA binding 3,5-6
Estrogen-related receptor-α Functional DNA binding 12
Estrogen-related receptor-β Functional DNA binding 12
Estrogen-related receptor-γ Functional DNA binding 12
COUP-TF1 Functional DNA binding 6
COUP-TF2 Functional DNA binding 6
Liver receptor homolog-1 Functional DNA binding 9
CREM tau Functional DNA binding 12
Main Co-regulators
Name Activity Specific Ligand dependent AF-2 dependent Comments References
NCOR1 Co-repressor No No No 6,25
NCOR2 Co-repressor - No No 6,25
UIMC1 Other Yes No - RAP80 interaction inhibits GCNF/NCoR interaction 26
Main Target Genes
Name Species Effect Technique Comments References
POU5F1 Human Repressed ChIP, Transient transfection, EMSA, Other GCNF represses Oct4 expression upon RA induced differentiation (also shown in mice and rat) 5-7
Prm1 Mouse Repressed Transient transfection, EMSA 13
Prm2 Mouse Repressed Transient transfection, EMSA 5
Bmp15 Mouse Repressed Transient transfection, EMSA, Other Repression of BMP15 was validated in CreLox KO of GCNF in the oocyte 18
Gdf9 Mouse Repressed Transient transfection,EMSA ,Other Repression of GDF9 was validated in CreLox KO of GCNF in the oocyte. GCNF also represses expression of Nanog upon ES cell differentiation through binding to DR0 elements in the promoter and 3' untranslated region. 18
Tissue Distribution
Embryonic tissue (developing brain, embryonic stem cells, embryocarcinoma cell lines, ectodermal cells, primitive streak, early nervous system tissues) and adult (testis, ovary, liver and kidney, germ lines cells)
Species:  Human
Technique:  Northern, in situ, Western, immunohistology
References:  1,4,15,17,19,21,29
Tissue Distribution Comments
This gene is also expressed in mice and rat. In the mouse two mRNA (7.5 and 2.4 kb) were observed due to the differential use of alternative polyadenylation sites [3,11,15,28]. In human the size of the smaller transcript is 2.2 kb [1,14,19-20,22]. Expression of GCNF in embryos and in developping brain was observed in the mouse. GCNF expression is induced in embryonic stem cells and embryocarcinoma cell lines by retinoic acid and subsequently repressed but its expression is repressed upon differentiation. Northern blot analysis has also demonstrated expression of GCNF during mouse gastrulation and early organogenesis. In situ hybridization revealed that the early expression is localized in ectodermal cells as well as in the primitive streak . At later developmental stages, the expression appears to be more restricted to the cells of the developing nervous system. In adult, the first expression studies carried out in the mouse has revealed a very narrow expression pattern in testis with very low levels in ovary, liver and kidney. In situ hybridization studies have shown a specific expression in both male and female germ cells, both in mouse and human. Northern blot analysis allowed precise determination of the expression stage of GCNF during male germ cell differentiation to the round spermatid stage. More recently, it has been shown both at the RNA and protein levels that in adult mouse testis GCNF is expressed in late pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. This suggests a role of GCNF in regulating both meoitic and post-meiotic events.
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
GCNF null mice: Homozygotes for targeted null mutations have cardiovascular abnormalities, defective trunk development, impaired somite formation, failure to turn, open neural tube and hindgut, protrusion of the tailbud outside the yolk sac and die by embryonic day 10(1/2). There is a failure to repress pluripotency genes Oct 4 and Nanog expression in the KO embryos.
Species:  None
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene knock out in the mouse by gene targeting in ES cells.
References:  4-6,16
Tissue specific knock out in the oocyte: These mice displayed hypofertility due to prolonged diestrus phase of the estrous cycle and aberrant steroidogenesis. These reproductive defects are secondary to a primary defect in the oocytes, in which expression of the paracrine transforming growth factor-beta signaling molecules, bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9), are up-regulated in females at diestrus. Authors conclude that GCNF directly regulates paracrine communication between the oocyte and somatic cells by regulating the expression of BMP-15 and GDF-9, to affect female fertility.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  oocytes
Technique:  Cre/Lox Knock Out
References:  18
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Nr6a1tm2Coo Nr6a1tm2Coo/Nr6a1tm2Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0001726 abnormal allantois morphology PMID: 12381721 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0001726 abnormal allantois morphology PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0000913 abnormal brain development PMID: 16530751 
Nr6a1tm2Coo Nr6a1tm2Coo/Nr6a1tm2Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0002836 abnormal chorion morphology PMID: 12381721 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0002836 abnormal chorion morphology PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0001056 abnormal cranial nerve morphology PMID: 16530751 
Nr6a1tm2Coo Nr6a1tm2Coo/Nr6a1tm2Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0002084 abnormal developmental patterning PMID: 12381721 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0002084 abnormal developmental patterning PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1tm3Coo|Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw Nr6a1tm3Coo/Nr6a1tm3Coo,Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MGI:2176186  MP:0009010 abnormal diestrus PMID: 12912906 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0001672 abnormal embryogenesis/ development PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1Gt(RRA042)Byg Nr6a1Gt(RRA042)Byg/Nr6a1Gt(RRA042)Byg
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0001672 abnormal embryogenesis/ development PMID: 19164181 
Nr6a1tm2Coo Nr6a1tm2Coo/Nr6a1tm2Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0002085 abnormal embryonic tissue morphology PMID: 12381721 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0002085 abnormal embryonic tissue morphology PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1tm2Coo Nr6a1tm2Coo/Nr6a1tm2Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0002086 abnormal extraembryonic tissue morphology PMID: 12381721 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0002086 abnormal extraembryonic tissue morphology PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1tm2Coo Nr6a1tm2Coo/Nr6a1tm2Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0008786 abnormal hindgut morphology PMID: 12381721 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0008786 abnormal hindgut morphology PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1tm2Coo Nr6a1tm2Coo/Nr6a1tm2Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0003720 abnormal neural tube closure PMID: 12381721 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0003720 abnormal neural tube closure PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0001061 abnormal oculomotor nerve morphology PMID: 16530751 
Nr6a1tm3Coo|Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw Nr6a1tm3Coo/Nr6a1tm3Coo,Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MGI:2176186  MP:0001125 abnormal oocyte morphology PMID: 12912906 
Nr6a1tm2Coo Nr6a1tm2Coo/Nr6a1tm2Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0002231 abnormal primitive streak morphology PMID: 12381721 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0002231 abnormal primitive streak morphology PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0004174 abnormal spine curvature PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0001063 abnormal trochlear nerve morphology PMID: 16530751 
Nr6a1tm3Coo|Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw Nr6a1tm3Coo/Nr6a1tm3Coo,Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MGI:2176186  MP:0005181 decreased circulating estradiol level PMID: 12912906 
Nr6a1tm3Coo|Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw Nr6a1tm3Coo/Nr6a1tm3Coo,Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MGI:2176186  MP:0002790 decreased circulating follicle stimulating hormone level PMID: 12912906 
Nr6a1tm3Coo|Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw Nr6a1tm3Coo/Nr6a1tm3Coo,Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MGI:2176186  MP:0005185 decreased circulating progesterone level PMID: 12912906 
Nr6a1tm3Coo|Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw Nr6a1tm3Coo/Nr6a1tm3Coo,Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MGI:2176186  MP:0002780 decreased circulating testosterone level PMID: 12912906 
Nr6a1tm3Coo|Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw Nr6a1tm3Coo/Nr6a1tm3Coo,Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MGI:2176186  MP:0001935 decreased litter size PMID: 12912906 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0000292 distended pericardium PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1tm2Coo Nr6a1tm2Coo/Nr6a1tm2Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0006206 embryonic lethality before turning of embryo PMID: 12381721 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0006207 embryonic lethality during organogenesis PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1Gt(RRA042)Byg Nr6a1Gt(RRA042)Byg/Nr6a1Gt(RRA042)Byg
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0006207 embryonic lethality during organogenesis PMID: 19164181 
Nr6a1tm2Coo Nr6a1tm2Coo/Nr6a1tm2Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0004556 enlarged allantois PMID: 12381721 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0004556 enlarged allantois PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1tm2Coo Nr6a1tm2Coo/Nr6a1tm2Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0000291 enlarged pericardium PMID: 12381721 
Nr6a1tm2Coo Nr6a1tm2Coo/Nr6a1tm2Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0009657 failure of chorioallantoic fusion PMID: 12381721 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0009657 failure of chorioallantoic fusion PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1tm2Coo Nr6a1tm2Coo/Nr6a1tm2Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0004180 failure of initiation of embryo turning PMID: 12381721 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0004180 failure of initiation of embryo turning PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1tm2Coo Nr6a1tm2Coo/Nr6a1tm2Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0001689 incomplete somite formation PMID: 12381721 
Nr6a1tm1Coo Nr6a1tm1Coo/Nr6a1tm1Coo
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MP:0001689 incomplete somite formation PMID: 11134352 
Nr6a1tm3Coo|Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw Nr6a1tm3Coo/Nr6a1tm3Coo,Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MGI:2176186  MP:0009433 polyovular ovarian follicle PMID: 12912906 
Nr6a1tm3Coo|Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw Nr6a1tm3Coo/Nr6a1tm3Coo,Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MGI:2176186  MP:0009011 prolonged diestrus PMID: 12912906 
Nr6a1tm3Coo|Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw Nr6a1tm3Coo/Nr6a1tm3Coo,Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MGI:2176186  MP:0009006 prolonged estrous cycle PMID: 12912906 
Nr6a1tm3Coo|Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw Nr6a1tm3Coo/Nr6a1tm3Coo,Tg(Zp3-cre)93Knw/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352459  MGI:2176186  MP:0001923 reduced female fertility PMID: 12912906 
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  GCNF 2, uses two alternate in-frame splice sites compared to the canonical GCNF. The resulting isoform has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to GCNF.
References:  14
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  GCNF 3, lacks an alternate in-frame segment and uses an alternate in-frame splice site compared to canonical GCNF. The resulting isoform has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to GCNF.
References:  14

References

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1. Agoulnik IY, Cho Y, Niederberger C, Kieback DG, Cooney AJ. (1998) Cloning, expression analysis and chromosomal localization of the human nuclear receptor gene GCNF. FEBS Lett.424 (1-2): 73-8. [PMID:9537518]

2. Borgmeyer U. (1997) Dimeric binding of the mouse germ cell nuclear factor. Eur. J. Biochem.244 (1): 120-7. [PMID:9063454]

3. Chen F, Cooney AJ, Wang Y, Law SW, O'Malley BW. (1994) Cloning of a novel orphan receptor (GCNF) expressed during germ cell development. Mol. Endocrinol.8 (10): 1434-44. [PMID:7854358]

4. Chung AC, Katz D, Pereira FA, Jackson KJ, DeMayo FJ, Cooney AJ, O'Malley BW. (2001) Loss of orphan receptor germ cell nuclear factor function results in ectopic development of the tail bud and a novel posterior truncation. Mol. Cell. Biol.21 (2): 663-77. [PMID:11134352]

5. Cooney AJ, Hummelke GC, Herman T, Chen F, Jackson KJ. (1998) Germ cell nuclear factor is a response element-specific repressor of transcription. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.245 (1): 94-100. [PMID:9535790]

6. Fuhrmann G, Chung AC, Jackson KJ, Hummelke G, Baniahmad A, Sutter J, Sylvester I, Schöler HR, Cooney AJ. (2001) Mouse germline restriction of Oct4 expression by germ cell nuclear factor. Dev. Cell1 (3): 377-87. [PMID:11702949]

7. Fuhrmann G, Sylvester I, Schöler HR. (1999) Repression of Oct-4 during embryonic cell differentiation correlates with the appearance of TRIF, a transiently induced DNA-binding factor. Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand)45 (5): 717-24. [PMID:10512201]

8. Greschik H, Wurtz JM, Hublitz P, Köhler F, Moras D, Schüle R. (1999) Characterization of the DNA-binding and dimerization properties of the nuclear orphan receptor germ cell nuclear factor. Mol. Cell. Biol.19 (1): 690-703. [PMID:9858592]

9. Gu P, Goodwin B, Chung AC, Xu X, Wheeler DA, Price RR, Galardi C, Peng L, Latour AM, Koller BH, Gossen J, Kliewer SA, Cooney AJ. (2005) Orphan nuclear receptor LRH-1 is required to maintain Oct4 expression at the epiblast stage of embryonic development. Mol. Cell. Biol.25 (9): 3492-505. [PMID:15831456]

10. Gu P, Morgan DH, Sattar M, Xu X, Wagner R, Raviscioni M, Lichtarge O, Cooney AJ. (2005) Evolutionary trace-based peptides identify a novel asymmetric interaction that mediates oligomerization in nuclear receptors. J. Biol. Chem.280 (36): 31818-29. [PMID:15994320]

11. Hirose T, O'Brien DA, Jetten AM. (1995) RTR: a new member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is highly expressed in murine testis. Gene152 (2): 247-51. [PMID:7835709]

12. Hummelke GC, Cooney AJ. (2004) Reciprocal regulation of the mouse protamine genes by the orphan nuclear receptor germ cell nuclear factor and CREMtau. Mol. Reprod. Dev.68 (4): 394-407. [PMID:15236322]

13. Hummelke GC, Meistrich ML, Cooney AJ. (1998) Mouse protamine genes are candidate targets for the novel orphan nuclear receptor, germ cell nuclear factor. Mol. Reprod. Dev.50 (4): 396-405. [PMID:9669523]

14. Kapelle M, Krätzschmar J, Husemann M, Schleuning WD. (1997) cDNA cloning of two closely related forms of human germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF). Biochim. Biophys. Acta1352 (1): 13-7. [PMID:9177477]

15. Katz D, Niederberger C, Slaughter GR, Cooney AJ. (1997) Characterization of germ cell-specific expression of the orphan nuclear receptor, germ cell nuclear factor. Endocrinology138 (10): 4364-72. [PMID:9322952]

16. Lan ZJ, Chung AC, Xu X, DeMayo FJ, Cooney AJ. (2002) The embryonic function of germ cell nuclear factor is dependent on the DNA binding domain. J. Biol. Chem.277 (52): 50660-7. [PMID:12381721]

17. Lan ZJ, Gu P, Xu X, Cooney AJ. (2003) Expression of the orphan nuclear receptor, germ cell nuclear factor, in mouse gonads and preimplantation embryos. Biol. Reprod.68 (1): 282-9. [PMID:12493724]

18. Lan ZJ, Gu P, Xu X, Jackson KJ, DeMayo FJ, O'Malley BW, Cooney AJ. (2003) GCNF-dependent repression of BMP-15 and GDF-9 mediates gamete regulation of female fertility. EMBO J.22 (16): 4070-81. [PMID:12912906]

19. Lei W, Hirose T, Zhang LX, Adachi H, Spinella MJ, Dmitrovsky E, Jetten AM. (1997) Cloning of the human orphan receptor germ cell nuclear factor/retinoid receptor-related testis-associated receptor and its differential regulation during embryonal carcinoma cell differentiation. J. Mol. Endocrinol.18 (2): 167-76. [PMID:9134503]

20. Schneider-Hirsch S, Bauer UM, Heiermann R, Rentrop M, Maelicke A. (1998) Cloning of the human NCNF gene. J. Recept. Signal Transduct. Res.18 (1): 1-13. [PMID:9493564]

21. Süsens U, Aguiluz JB, Evans RM, Borgmeyer U. (1997) The germ cell nuclear factor mGCNF is expressed in the developing nervous system. Dev. Neurosci.19 (5): 410-20. [PMID:9323461]

22. Süsens U, Borgmeyer U. (1996) Characterization of the human germ cell nuclear factor gene. Biochim. Biophys. Acta1309 (3): 179-82. [PMID:8982251]

23. Süsens U, Borgmeyer U. (2000) Genomic structure of the gene for mouse germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF). Genome Biol.1 (3): RESEARCH0006. [PMID:11178239]

24. Süsens U, Borgmeyer U. (2001) Genomic structure of the gene for mouse germ-cell nuclear factor (GCNF). II. Comparison with the genomic structure of the human GCNF gene. Genome Biol.2 (5): RESEARCH0017. [PMID:11387038]

25. Yan Z, Jetten AM. (2000) Characterization of the repressor function of the nuclear orphan receptor retinoid receptor-related testis-associated receptor/germ cell nuclear factor. J. Biol. Chem.275 (45): 35077-85. [PMID:10940306]

26. Yan Z, Kim YS, Jetten AM. (2002) RAP80, a novel nuclear protein that interacts with the retinoid-related testis-associated receptor. J. Biol. Chem.277 (35): 32379-88. [PMID:12080054]

27. Yan ZH, Medvedev A, Hirose T, Gotoh H, Jetten AM. (1997) Characterization of the response element and DNA binding properties of the nuclear orphan receptor germ cell nuclear factor/retinoid receptor-related testis-associated receptor. J. Biol. Chem.272 (16): 10565-72. [PMID:9099702]

28. Yang G, Zhang YL, Buchold GM, Jetten AM, O'Brien DA. (2003) Analysis of germ cell nuclear factor transcripts and protein expression during spermatogenesis. Biol. Reprod.68 (5): 1620-30. [PMID:12606326]

29. Zhang Z, Burch PE, Cooney AJ, Lanz RB, Pereira FA, Wu J, Gibbs RA, Weinstock G, Wheeler DA. (2004) Genomic analysis of the nuclear receptor family: new insights into structure, regulation, and evolution from the rat genome. Genome Res.14 (4): 580-90. [PMID:15059999]

How to cite this page

6A. Germ cell nuclear factor receptors: Germ cell nuclear factor. Last modified on 13/12/2013. Accessed on 22/08/2014. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=634.