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Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).
Aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins are membrane channels that allow the permeation of water and certain other small solutes across the cell membrane. Since the isolation and cloning of the first aquaporin (AQP1) , 12 additional members of the family have been identified, although little is known about the functional properties of two of these (AQP11; Q8NBQ7 and AQP12A; Q8IXF9). The other 11 aquaporins can be divided into two families (aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins) depending on whether they are permeable to glycerol . One or more members of this family of proteins have been found to be expressed in almost all tissues of the body. Individual AQP subunits have six transmembrane domains with an inverted symmetry between the first three and last three domains . Functional AQPs exist as tetramers but, unusually, each subunit contains a separate pore, so each channel has four pores.
* Key recommended reading is highlighted with an asterisk
Agre P. (2006) The aquaporin water channels. Proc Am Thorac Soc, 3 (1): 5-13. [PMID:16493146]
Agre P, King LS, Yasui M, Guggino WB, Ottersen OP, Fujiyoshi Y, Engel A, Nielsen S. (2002) Aquaporin water channels--from atomic structure to clinical medicine. J. Physiol. (Lond.), 542 (Pt 1): 3-16. [PMID:12096044]
* Amiry-Moghaddam M, Ottersen OP. (2003) The molecular basis of water transport in the brain. Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 4 (12): 991-1001. [PMID:14682361]
* Carbrey JM, Agre P. (2009) Discovery of the aquaporins and development of the field. Handb Exp Pharmacol, (190): 3-28. [PMID:19096770]
* Castle NA. (2005) Aquaporins as targets for drug discovery. Drug Discov. Today, 10 (7): 485-93. [PMID:15809194]
de Groot BL, Grubmüller H. (2005) The dynamics and energetics of water permeation and proton exclusion in aquaporins. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol., 15 (2): 176-83. [PMID:15837176]
Frigeri A, Nicchia GP, Svelto M. (2007) Aquaporins as targets for drug discovery. Curr. Pharm. Des., 13 (23): 2421-7. [PMID:17692010]
Ishibashi K, Hara S, Kondo S. (2009) Aquaporin water channels in mammals. Clin. Exp. Nephrol., 13 (2): 107-17. [PMID:19085041]
Jeyaseelan K, Sepramaniam S, Armugam A, Wintour EM. (2006) Aquaporins: a promising target for drug development. Expert Opin. Ther. Targets, 10 (6): 889-909. [PMID:17105375]
* Kimelberg HK. (2004) Water homeostasis in the brain: basic concepts. Neuroscience, 129 (4): 851-60. [PMID:15561403]
* King LS, Kozono D, Agre P. (2004) From structure to disease: the evolving tale of aquaporin biology. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol., 5 (9): 687-98. [PMID:15340377]
* Rojek A, Praetorius J, Frøkiaer J, Nielsen S, Fenton RA. (2008) A current view of the mammalian aquaglyceroporins. Annu. Rev. Physiol., 70: 301-27. [PMID:17961083]
Takeda T, Taguchi D. (2009) Aquaporins as potential drug targets for Meniere's disease and its related diseases. Handb Exp Pharmacol, (190): 171-84. [PMID:19096777]
* Verkman AS. (2009) Aquaporins: translating bench research to human disease. J. Exp. Biol., 212 (Pt 11): 1707-15. [PMID:19448080]
Wang F, Feng XC, Li YM, Yang H, Ma TH. (2006) Aquaporins as potential drug targets. Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 27 (4): 395-401. [PMID:16539837]
1. Castle NA. (2005) Aquaporins as targets for drug discovery. Drug Discov. Today, 10 (7): 485-93. [PMID:15809194]
2. King LS, Kozono D, Agre P. (2004) From structure to disease: the evolving tale of aquaporin biology. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol., 5 (9): 687-98. [PMID:15340377]
3. Preston GM, Carroll TP, Guggino WB, Agre P. (1992) Appearance of water channels in Xenopus oocytes expressing red cell CHIP28 protein. Science, 256 (5055): 385-7. [PMID:1373524]
4. Yasui M, Hazama A, Kwon TH, Nielsen S, Guggino WB, Agre P. (1999) Rapid gating and anion permeability of an intracellular aquaporin. Nature, 402 (6758): 184-7. [PMID:10647010]
Database page citation:
Aquaporins. Accessed on 13/10/2015. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/FamilyDisplayForward?familyId=119.
Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:
Alexander SPH, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Catterall WA, Spedding M, Peters JA and Harmar AJ, CGTP Collaborators. (2013) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14: Ion Channels. Br J Pharmacol. 170: 1607–1651.