CatSper and Two-Pore channels C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).

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CatSper channels (CatSper1-4, nomenclature as agreed by NC-IUPHAR [10]) are putative 6TM, voltage-gated, calcium permeant channels that are presumed to assemble as a tetramer of α-like subunits and mediate the current ICatSper [15]. In mammals, CatSper subunits are structurally most closely related to individual domains of voltage-activated calcium channels (Cav) [26]. CatSper1 [26], CatSper2 [25] and CatSpers 3 and 4 [14,19,24], in common with a putative 2TM auxiliary CatSperβ protein [18] and two putative 1TM associated CatSperγ and CatSperδ proteins [8,30], are restricted to the testis and localised to the principle piece of sperm tail.

Two-pore channels (TPCs) are structurally related to CatSpers, CaVs and NaVs. TPCs have a 2x6TM structure with twice the number of TMs of CatSpers and half that of CaVs. There are three animal TPCs (TPC1-TPC3). Humans have TPC1 and TPC2, but not TPC3. TPC1 and TPC2 are localized in endosomes and lysosomes [2]. TPC3 is also found on the plasma membrane and forms a voltage-activated, non-inactivating Na+ channel [3]. All the three TPCs are Na+-selective under whole-cell or whole-organelle patch clamp recording [4-5,32]. The channels may also conduct Ca2+ [22].

Channels and Subunits

CatSper1 C Show summary » More detailed page

CatSper2 C Show summary » More detailed page

CatSper3 C Show summary » More detailed page

CatSper4 C Show summary » More detailed page

TPC1 C Show summary » More detailed page

TPC2 C Show summary » More detailed page


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Further reading

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NC-IUPHAR subcommittee and family contributors

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation:

David E. Clapham. CatSper and Two-Pore channels. Accessed on 25/11/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Catterall WA, Kelly E, Marrion N, Peters JA, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA and CGTP Collaborators (2015) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Voltage-gated ion channels. Br J Pharmacol. 172: 5904-5941.