<i>TAAR6</i> | Class A Orphans | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

TAAR6

Target id: 171

Nomenclature: TAAR6

Family: Class A Orphans

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     Currently no data for TAAR6 in GtoImmuPdb

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 345 6q23.2 TAAR6 trace amine associated receptor 6
Mouse 7 345 10 A4 Taar6 trace amine-associated receptor 6
Rat 7 342 1p12 Taar6 trace amine-associated receptor 6
Previous and Unofficial Names
SCZD5 | TAR4 | Trace amine receptor 4 | TRAR4 | TA4 | trace amine receptor 6
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB taar6_human (Hs), taar6_mouse (Mm), taar6_rat (Rn)
Other databases
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Tissue Distribution
Kidney, amygdala, hippocampus
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  2
Human brain tissues (with the level of expression descending from hippocampus, substantia nigra, amygdala, frontal cortex to basal ganglia), human fetal liver. Not detected in the cerebellum or placenta.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  3
Olfactory sensory neurons
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  in situ hybridisation
References:  6
Grueneberg ganglion (nasal septum, nasal cavity and nasal roof)
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  5
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Gene Expression and Pathophysiology Comments
A protein fragment of TAAR6 found in serum may be a clinical biomarker in the diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment [17]. It was reported that epistasis between TAAR6 and heat shock protein 70 variations may be associated with major mood disorders [9] and schizophrenia [12]. Serretti et al. reported that there may be a positive link between some genotypes in TAAR6 and response to aripiprazole [15].
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Amino acid change:  A228V
Global MAF (%):  5
Subpopulation MAF (%):  AFR|AMR: 20|2
Minor allele count:  T=0.049/106
SNP accession: 
Validation:  1000 Genomes, HapMap, Frequency
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Amino acid change:  C291Y
Global MAF (%):  5
Subpopulation MAF (%):  AFR|AMR|ASN|EUR: 9|5|2|6
Minor allele count:  A=0.053/116
Comment on frequency:  Low frequency (<10% in all tested populations)
SNP accession: 
Validation:  1000 Genomes, HapMap, Frequency
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Amino acid change:  V265I
Global MAF (%):  6
Subpopulation MAF (%):  AFR|AMR|ASN|EUR: 4|6|2|9
Minor allele count:  A=0.055/121
Comment on frequency:  Low frequency (<10% in all tested populations)
SNP accession: 
Validation:  1000 Genomes, HapMap, Frequency
Type:  Naturally occurring SNP
Species:  Human
Amino acid change:  G165S
Comment on frequency:  Low frequency (<10% in tested population)
SNP accession: 
Type:  Naturally occurring SNP
Species:  Human
Amino acid change:  I37T
Comment on frequency:  Low frequency (<10% in tested population)
SNP accession: 
Type:  Naturally occurring SNP
Species:  Human
Amino acid change:  V326I
Comment on frequency:  Low frequency (<10% in tested population)
SNP accession: 
Type:  Naturally occurring SNP
Species:  Human
Amino acid change:  Y173C
SNP accession: 
Biologically Significant Variant Comments
A single SNP (rs4305745) in the TAAR6 gene and two additional SNPs (rs28447873 and rs7452939) in linkage disequilibrium with it were reported to be associated with schizophrenia in North American Caucasian and African-American families [3]. A different SNP in TAAR6 was found to be associated with bipolar disorder in a German case-control sample [1]. SNP rs6903874 in TAAR6 gene was found to be significantly associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in a Korean case control sample [11,13]. A haplotype of 35kb overlapping TAAR6 was also found to be associated with schizophrenia in the Irish Study of High-Density Schizophrenia Families (ISHDSF) [17505468]. TAAR6 variations were suggested being associated with antidepressant response and suicidal behavior [10]. However, association of TAAR6 with schizophrenia was not supported by a family study in the Chinese Han population [4], a Japanese case-control study [7], an Arab-Israeli family sample [1], an Irish case-control study [16], a Caucasian family sample [7], a family-based association study of European ancestry [8], and a large case-control sample from European ancestry [14].

References

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1. Amann D, Avidan N, Kanyas K, Kohn Y, Hamdan A, Ben-Asher E, Macciardi F, Beckmann JS, Lancet D, Lerer B. (2006) The trace amine receptor 4 gene is not associated with schizophrenia in a sample linked to chromosome 6q23. Mol. Psychiatry, 11 (2): 119-21. [PMID:16189505]

2. Borowsky B, Adham N, Jones KA, Raddatz R, Artymyshyn R, Ogozalek KL, Durkin MM, Lakhlani PP, Bonini JA, Pathirana S, Boyle N, Pu X, Kouranova E, Lichtblau H, Ochoa FY, Branchek TA, Gerald C. (2001) Trace amines: identification of a family of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98: 8966-8971. [PMID:11459929]

3. Duan J, Martinez M, Sanders AR, Hou C, Saitou N, Kitano T, Mowry BJ, Crowe RR, Silverman JM, Levinson DF, Gejman PV. (2004) Polymorphisms in the trace amine receptor 4 (TRAR4) gene on chromosome 6q23.2 are associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia. Am J Hum Genet, 75: 624-638. [PMID:15329799]

4. Duan S, Du J, Xu Y, Xing Q, Wang H, Wu S, Chen Q, Li X, Li X, Shen J et al.. (2006) Failure to find association between TRAR4 and schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population. J Neural Transm, 113 (3): 381-5. [PMID:16075187]

5. Fleischer J, Schwarzenbacher K, Breer H. (2007) Expression of trace amine-associated receptors in the Grueneberg ganglion. Chem. Senses, 32 (6): 623-31. [PMID:17556730]

6. Liberles SD, Buck LB. (2006) A second class of chemosensory receptors in the olfactory epithelium. Nature, 442: 645-650. [PMID:16878137]

7. Liu C, Shi J, Badner JA, Zou H, Qian Y, Gershon ES. (2007) No association of trace amine receptor genes with bipolar disorder. Mol. Psychiatry, 12 (11): 979-81. [PMID:17957234]

8. Ludewick HP, Schwab SG, Albus M, Lerer B, Maier W, Trixler M, Wildenauer DB. (2008) No support for an association with TAAR6 and schizophrenia in a linked population of European ancestry. Psychiatr. Genet., 18 (4): 208-10. [PMID:18628684]

9. Pae CU, Drago A, Forlani M, Patkar AA, Serretti A. (2010) Investigation of an epistastic effect between a set of TAAR6 and HSP-70 genes variations and major mood disorders. Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet., 153B (2): 680-3. [PMID:19582769]

10. Pae CU, Drago A, Kim JJ, Patkar AA, Jun TY, De Ronchi D, Serretti A. (2010) TAAR6 variations possibly associated with antidepressant response and suicidal behavior. Psychiatry Res, 180 (1): 20-4. [PMID:20493543]

11. Pae CU, Drago A, Mandelli L, De Ronchi D, Serretti A. (2009) TAAR 6 and HSP-70 variations associated with bipolar disorder. Neurosci. Lett., 465 (3): 257-61. [PMID:19766166]

12. Pae CU, Drago A, Patkar AA, Jun TY, Serretti A. (2009) Epistasis between a set of variations located in the TAAR6 and HSP-70 genes toward schizophrenia and response to antipsychotic treatment. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 19 (11): 806-11. [PMID:19643584]

13. Pae CU, Yu HS, Amann D, Kim JJ, Lee CU, Lee SJ, Jun TY, Lee C, Paik IH, Patkar AA, Lerer B. (2008) Association of the trace amine associated receptor 6 (TAAR6) gene with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in a Korean case control sample. J Psychiatr Res, 42: 35-40. [PMID:17097106]

14. Sanders AR, Duan J, Levinson DF, Shi J, He D, Hou C, Burrell GJ, Rice JP, Nertney DA, Olincy A, Rozic P, Vinogradov S, Buccola NG, Mowry BJ, Freedman R, Amin F, Black DW, Silverman JM, Byerley WF, Crowe RR, Cloninger CR, Martinez M, Gejman PV. (2008) No significant association of 14 candidate genes with schizophrenia in a large European ancestry sample: implications for psychiatric genetics. Am J Psychiatry, 165 (4): 497-506. [PMID:18198266]

15. Serretti A, Pae CU, Chiesa A, Mandelli L, De Ronchi D. (2009) Influence of TAAR6 polymorphisms on response to aripiprazole. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry, 33 (5): 822-6. [PMID:19345712]

16. Vladimirov VI, Maher BS, Wormley B, O'Neill FA, Walsh D, Kendler KS, Riley BP. (2009) The trace amine associated receptor (TAAR6) gene is not associated with schizophrenia in the Irish Case-Control Study of Schizophrenia (ICCSS) sample. Schizophr. Res., 107 (2-3): 249-54. [PMID:18973992]

17. Xi L, Junjian Z, Yumin L, Yunwen L, Hongbin W. (2009) Serum biomarkers of vascular cognitive impairment evaluated by bead-based proteomic technology. Neurosci. Lett., 463 (1): 6-11. [PMID:19631719]

Contributors

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How to cite this page

Anthony P. Davenport, Stephen Alexander, Joanna L. Sharman, Adam J. Pawson, Helen E. Benson, Amy E. Monaghan, Wen Chiy Liew, Chido Mpamhanga, Jim Battey, Richard V. Benya, Robert T. Jensen, Sadashiva Karnik, Evi Kostenis, Eliot Spindel, Laura Storjohann, Kalyan Tirupula, Tom I. Bonner, Richard Neubig, Jean-Philippe Pin, Michael Spedding, Anthony Harmar.
Class A Orphans: TAAR6. Last modified on 16/06/2015. Accessed on 18/11/2018. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=171.