<i>TAAR9</i> | Class A Orphans | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

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Target not currently curated in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 173

Nomenclature: TAAR9

Family: Class A Orphans

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor: pseudogene in some individuals
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 348 6q23.2 TAAR9 trace amine associated receptor 9 (gene/pseudogene)
Mouse 7 348 10 A4 Taar9 trace amine-associated receptor 9
Rat 7 338 1p12 Taar9 trace amine-associated receptor 9
Previous and Unofficial Names
TRAR3 | trace amine receptor 3 | trace amine receptor 9
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB taar9_human (Hs), taar9_mouse (Mm), taar9_rat (Rn)
Other databases
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
Tissue Distribution
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  1
Pituitary gland, skeletal muscle
Species:  Human
Technique:  Northern blot
References:  4
Olfactory epithelium
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR and in situ hybridisation.
References:  3
Tissue Distribution Comments
No expression of TAAR9 was detected by RT-PCR in the Grueneberg ganglion [2]. TAAR9 expression was not detected by Northern blot analysis in thalamus, amygdala, midbrain, hippocampus, putamen, caudate, frontal cortex, pons, prostate, stomach, heart, bladder, small intestine, colon or uterus [4].
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Amino acid change:  A278T
Global MAF (%):  3
Subpopulation MAF (%):  AFR|AMR|ASN|EUR: 1|4|2|5
Minor allele count:  A=0.032/69
Comment on frequency:  Low frequency (<10% in all tested populations)
SNP accession: 
Validation:  1000 Genomes, HapMap, Frequency
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Amino acid change:  S335L
Global MAF (%):  3
Subpopulation MAF (%):  AFR|AMR: 11|1
Minor allele count:  T=0.028/60
SNP accession: 
Validation:  1000 Genomes, Frequency, Cluster
General Comments
TAAR9 appears to be functional in most individuals but has a polymorphic premature stop codon at amino acid 61 (rs2842899) with an allele frequency of 10–30% in different populations [4].


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1. Borowsky B, Adham N, Jones KA, Raddatz R, Artymyshyn R, Ogozalek KL, Durkin MM, Lakhlani PP, Bonini JA, Pathirana S, Boyle N, Pu X, Kouranova E, Lichtblau H, Ochoa FY, Branchek TA, Gerald C. (2001) Trace amines: identification of a family of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98: 8966-8971. [PMID:11459929]

2. Fleischer J, Schwarzenbacher K, Breer H. (2007) Expression of trace amine-associated receptors in the Grueneberg ganglion. Chem. Senses, 32 (6): 623-31. [PMID:17556730]

3. Liberles SD, Buck LB. (2006) A second class of chemosensory receptors in the olfactory epithelium. Nature, 442: 645-650. [PMID:16878137]

4. Vanti WB, Muglia P, Nguyen T, Cheng R, Kennedy JL, George SR, O'Dowd BF. (2003) Discovery of a null mutation in a human trace amine receptor gene. Genomics, 82: 531-536. [PMID:14559210]


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How to cite this page

Stephen P.H. Alexander, Jim Battey, Helen E. Benson, Richard V. Benya, Tom I. Bonner, Anthony P. Davenport, Satoru Eguchi, Anthony Harmar, Nick Holliday, Robert T. Jensen, Sadashiva Karnik, Evi Kostenis, Wen Chiy Liew, Amy E. Monaghan, Chido Mpamhanga, Richard Neubig, Adam J. Pawson, Jean-Philippe Pin, Joanna L. Sharman, Michael Spedding, Eliot Spindel, Leigh Stoddart, Laura Storjohann, Walter (Wally) Thomas, Kalyan Tirupula, Patrick Vanderheyden.
Class A Orphans: TAAR9. Last modified on 31/07/2015. Accessed on 19/04/2019. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=173.