CCR3 | Chemokine receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

CCR3

Target id: 60

Nomenclature: CCR3

Family: Chemokine receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     CCR3 has curated GtoImmuPdb data

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 355 3p21.3 CCR3 C-C motif chemokine receptor 3 12,14,42
Mouse 7 359 9 F Ccr3 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3 20
Rat 7 359 8q32 Ccr3 C-C motif chemokine receptor 3 25
Previous and Unofficial Names
CC CKR3 [12,14] | MIP-1αRL-2 (mouse) [20] | CKR3 | CC-CKR-3 | CD193 | chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB ccr3_human (Hs), ccr3_mouse (Mm), ccr3_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
CCL15 {Sp: Human}
CCL5 {Sp: Human}
CCL7 {Sp: Human}
CCL11 {Sp: Human}
CCL13 {Sp: Human}
CCL8 {Sp: Human}
CCL24 {Sp: Human}
CCL26 {Sp: Human}
CCL2 {Sp: Human}
CCL28 {Sp: Human}
CCL11 {Sp: Mouse}
CCL7 {Sp: Mouse}
CCL8 {Sp: Mouse}
CCL24 {Sp: Mouse}
CCL2 {Sp: Mouse}
CCL28 {Sp: Mouse}
CCL5 {Sp: Mouse, Rat}
CCL7 {Sp: Rat}
CCL11 {Sp: Rat}
CCL2 {Sp: Rat}
CXCL9 {Sp: Human}
CXCL10 {Sp: Human}
CXCL11 {Sp: Human}
CXCL9 {Sp: Mouse}
CXCL10 {Sp: Mouse}
CXCL11 {Sp: Mouse}
CXCL10 {Sp: Rat}
Comments: CCL11, CCL24 and CCL26 are the principal endogenous agonists

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
CCL11 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 9.7 – 10.0 pKi 14
pKi 9.7 – 10.0 [14]
CCL11 {Sp: Mouse} Hs Full agonist 9.5 – 10.0 pKi 14
pKi 9.5 – 10.0 [14]
CCL5 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 8.5 – 9.3 pKi 14
pKi 8.5 – 9.3 [14]
CCL7 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 8.6 – 9.2 pKi 14
pKi 8.6 – 9.2 [14]
CCL2 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 7.2 – 7.8 pKi 14
pKi 7.2 – 7.8 [14]
CCL13 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 8.7 – 10.3 pIC50 32,43
pIC50 8.7 – 10.3 [32,43]
CCL11 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 8.7 – 9.0 pIC50 15,28,32,40,43
pIC50 8.7 – 9.0 (IC50 1.99x10-9 – 1x10-9 M) [15,28,32,40,43]
CCL24 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 8.0 – 9.4 pIC50 32,37
pIC50 8.0 – 9.4 [32,37]
CCL15 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 8.6 pIC50 13
pIC50 8.6 [13]
CCL26 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 7.9 – 8.9 pIC50 28,32,37
pIC50 7.9 – 8.9 [28,32,37]
HIV-Tat Hs Full agonist 7.2 pIC50 2
pIC50 7.2 [2]
CCL8 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist - -
CCL28 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist - -
Agonist Comments
It has been shown that CCL8 (MCP-2) is a ligand for the CCR3 receptor [22].
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
[125I]CCL11 (human) Hs Antagonist 8.3 pKd 45
pKd 8.3 (Kd 5.01x10-9 M) [45]
[3H]banyu (I) Hs Inverse agonist 8.3 pKd 45
pKd 8.3 [45]
banyu (I) Hs Inverse agonist 8.5 pKi 45
pKi 8.5 (Ki 3.16x10-9 M) [45]
AZD3778 Hs Antagonist 8.2 pKi 6
pKi 8.2 (Ki 6.3x10-9 M) [6]
Description: Assay using sodium salt of the compound
BMS compound 87b Hs Antagonist 8.1 pKi 44
pKi 8.1 (Ki 7.94x10-9 M) [44]
RO116-9132/238 Hs Antagonist 9.0 pIC50 9
pIC50 9.0 [9]
RO320-2947/001 Hs Antagonist 8.4 pIC50 9
pIC50 8.4 [9]
RO330-0802/001 Hs Antagonist 8.3 pIC50 9
pIC50 8.3 [9]
Met-Ckβ7 Hs Antagonist 8.2 pIC50 35
pIC50 8.2 [35]
GW766994 Hs Antagonist 8.0 pIC50 38
pIC50 8.0 (IC50 1x10-8 M) [38]
YM-355179 Hs Antagonist 7.6 – 8.1 pIC50 32
pIC50 7.6 – 8.1 [32]
CCL18 {Sp: Human} Hs Antagonist 6.5 – 8.5 pIC50 29
pIC50 6.5 – 8.5 (IC50 3.176x10-7 – 2.9x10-9 M) [29]
RO116-4875/608 Hs Antagonist 7.2 pIC50 9
pIC50 7.2 [9]
UCB35625 Hs Antagonist 7.0 pIC50 40
pIC50 7.0 (IC50 9.36x10-8 M) [40]
Description: Measuring antagonism of CCL11-induced chemotaxis in vitro.
CXCL10 {Sp: Human} Hs Antagonist - -
CXCL11 {Sp: Human} Hs Antagonist - -
CXCL9 {Sp: Human} Hs Antagonist - -
Antagonist Comments
CCL9 and CCL10 are CCR3 antagonists.
Immunopharmacology Comments
CCR3 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
Cell Type Associations
Immuno Cell Type:  T cells
Cell Ontology Term:   T-helper 2 cell (CL:0000546)
Comment:  CCR3 is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes.
References:  34
Immuno Cell Type:  Granulocytes
Cell Ontology Term:   eosinophil (CL:0000771)
basophil (CL:0000767)
Comment:  CCR3 is highly expressed on eosinophils, and is the promary receptor mediating their differentiation, chemotaxis and degranulation. It is also expressed on basophils, mast cells, and Th2 lymphocytes.
References:  1,30,34
Immuno Cell Type:  Mast cells
Cell Ontology Term:   mast cell (CL:0000097)
Comment:  CCR3 is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes
References:  34
Immuno Process Associations
Immuno Process:  Inflammation
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes
GO:0006954 inflammatory response TAS
Immuno Process:  Cytokine production & signalling
GO Annotations:  Associated to 2 GO processes
GO:0004950 chemokine receptor activity TAS
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0016493 C-C chemokine receptor activity IEA
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gi/Go family Calcium channel
References: 
Tissue Distribution
Platelets.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR and flow cytometry.
References:  11
Basophils.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  24
Blood dendritic cells.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  4
Primary adult microglia and astrocytes.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Flow cytometry.
References:  16
Microvascular endothelial cells.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RNase protection assay.
References:  41
Microglia.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Flow cytometry.
References:  3
Th2-type lymphocytes.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Flow cytometry.
References:  21
Th2-type lymphocytes.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  33
Basophils and eosinophils.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Flow cytometry and Northern blotting.
References:  43
Basophils.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Flow cytometry.
References:  24,36
Osteoblasts.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  46
Spleen.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Northern blotting.
References:  25
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
Measurement of chemotaxis of eosinophils endogenously expressing the CCR3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Eosinophils.
Response measured:  Chemotaxis.
References:  17,28,35
Measurement of Ca2+ levels in human CD34+ blood progenitor cells endogenously expressing the CCR3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CD34+ blood progenitor cells.
Response measured:  Ca2+ mobilisation.
References:  30
Measurement of chemotaxis of CD34+ blood progenitor cells endogenously expressing the CCR3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CD34+ blood progenitor cells.
Response measured:  Chemotaxis.
References:  30
Detection of HIV-1 fusion in HeLa cells transfected with CD4 and the CCR3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HeLa-CD4 cells.
Response measured:  HIV-1 fusion and infection.
References:  10
Measurement of MAP kinase activity in eosinophils endogenously expressing the CCR3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Eosinophils.
Response measured:  Activation of MAP kinases.
References:  7,26
Measurement of Ca2+ levels in eosinophils endogenously expressing the CCR3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Eosinophils.
Response measured:  Ca2+ influx.
References:  18,35
Measurement of superoxide anion levels in eosinophils endogenously expressing the CCR3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Eosinophils.
Response measured:  Superoxide anion production.
References:  5
Physiological Functions
Degranulation.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Eosinophils.
References:  5,18
Angiogenesis.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Aortic rings.
References:  41
Chemotaxis.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Leukocytes.
References:  17
Eosinophil recruitment.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  8,23,31,39
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
CCR3 receptor knockout mice with induced pulmonary inflammation exhibit reduced trafficking of eosinophils from the blood into the lung parenchyma and increased numbers of intraepithelial mast cells in the trachea. Cholinergic stimulation resulted in airway hyperresponsiveness.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  23
CCR3 knockout mice with induced skin inflammation exhibit impaired recruitment of eosinophils to lung parenchyma and bronchoalveolar lavage. Cholinergic stimulation did not result in airway hyperresponsiveness.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  31
CCR3 receptor knockout mice have decreased levels of eosinophils in the blood, spleen and jejunum. Following induced inflammation, the knockout mice exhibit a 6-fold increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood compared to the wild-type.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  39
CCR3 receptor knockout mice lack allergen-induced eosinophil accumulation in the esophagus normally seen with the wild-type eosinophilic esophagitis mouse model.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  8
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Ccr3tm1Cge Ccr3tm1Cge/Ccr3tm1Cge
involves: 129S4/SvJae * BALB/c
MGI:104616  MP:0002334 abnormal airway responsiveness PMID: 11877470 
Ccr3tm1Cge Ccr3tm1Cge/Ccr3tm1Cge
involves: 129S4/SvJae * BALB/c
MGI:104616  MP:0002602 abnormal eosinophil cell number PMID: 11830666 
Ccr3tm1Cge Ccr3tm1Cge/Ccr3tm1Cge
involves: 129S4/SvJae * BALB/c
MGI:104616  MP:0002465 abnormal eosinophil physiology PMID: 11830666  11877470 
Ccr3tm1Cge Ccr3tm1Cge/Ccr3tm1Cge
involves: 129S4/SvJae * BALB/c
MGI:104616  MP:0002423 abnormal mast cell physiology PMID: 11830666 
Ccr3tm1Cge Ccr3tm1Cge/Ccr3tm1Cge
involves: 129S4/SvJae * BALB/c
MGI:104616  MP:0005012 decreased eosinophil cell number PMID: 11830666  11877470 
Ccr3tm1Cge Ccr3tm1Cge/Ccr3tm1Cge
involves: 129S4/SvJae * BALB/c
MGI:104616  MP:0008724 impaired eosinophil migration PMID: 11830666 
Ccr3tm1Cge Ccr3tm1Cge/Ccr3tm1Cge
involves: 129S4/SvJae * BALB/c
MGI:104616  MP:0008723 impaired eosinophil recruitment PMID: 11830666  11877470 
Ccr3tm1Cge Ccr3tm1Cge/Ccr3tm1Cge
involves: 129S4/SvJae * BALB/c
MGI:104616  MP:0001952 increased airway responsiveness PMID: 11830666 
Ccr3tm1Cge Ccr3tm1Cge/Ccr3tm1Cge
involves: 129S4/SvJae * BALB/c
MGI:104616  MP:0005011 increased eosinophil cell number PMID: 11830666 
Ccr3tm1Cge Ccr3tm1Cge/Ccr3tm1Cge
involves: 129S4/SvJae * BALB/c
MGI:104616  MP:0008764 increased mast cell degranulation PMID: 11830666 
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  A Thr51 -> Cys polymorphism has been identified in humans and may be associated with the development of asthma.
Amino acid change:  T51C
References:  19
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  A Cys218 -> Ser polymorphism in the CCR3 gene has been identified in human, perhaps with reduced function at the protein level.
Amino acid change:  C218S
References:  27

References

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1. Ahmadi Z, Hassanshahi G, Khorramdelazad H, Zainodini N, Koochakzadeh L. (2016) An Overlook to the Characteristics and Roles Played by Eotaxin Network in the Pathophysiology of Food Allergies: Allergic Asthma and Atopic Dermatitis. Inflammation, 39 (3): 1253-67. [PMID:26861136]

2. Albini A, Ferrini S, Benelli R, Sforzini S, Giunciuglio D, Aluigi MG, Proudfoot AE, Alouani S, Wells TN, Mariani G, Rabin RL, Farber JM, Noonan DM. (1998) HIV-1 Tat protein mimicry of chemokines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 95: 13153-13158. [PMID:9789057]

3. Albright AV, Shieh JT, Itoh T, Lee B, Pleasure D, O'Connor MJ, Doms RW, Gonz├ílez-Scarano F. (1999) Microglia express CCR5, CXCR4, and CCR3, but of these, CCR5 is the principal coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 dementia isolates. J Virol, 73: 205-213. [PMID:9847323]

4. Ayehunie S, Garcia-Zepeda EA, Hoxie JA, Horuk R, Kupper TS, Luster AD, Ruprecht RM. (1997) Human immunodeficiency virus-1 entry into purified blood dendritic cells through CC and CXC chemokine coreceptors. Blood, 90: 1379-1386. [PMID:9269754]

5. Badewa AP, Hudson CE, Heiman AS. (2002) Regulatory effects of eotaxin, eotaxin-2, and eotaxin-3 on eosinophil degranulation and superoxide anion generation. Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 227: 645-651. [PMID:12192108]

6. Bahl A, Barton P, Bowers K, Brough S, Evans R, Luckhurst CA, Mochel T, Perry MW, Rigby A, Riley RJ et al.. (2012) The discovery of CCR3/H1 dual antagonists with reduced hERG risk. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 22 (21): 6688-93. [PMID:23031591]

7. Bandeira-Melo C, Phoofolo M, Weller PF. (2001) Extranuclear lipid bodies, elicited by CCR3-mediated signaling pathways, are the sites of chemokine-enhanced leukotriene C4 production in eosinophils and basophils. J Biol Chem, 276: 22779-22787. [PMID:11274187]

8. Blanchard C, Wang N, Stringer KF, Mishra A, Fulkerson PC, Abonia JP, Jameson SC, Kirby C, Konikoff MR, Collins MH, Cohen MB, Akers R, Hogan SP, Assa'ad AH, Putnam PE, Aronow BJ, Rothenberg ME. (2006) Eotaxin-3 and a uniquely conserved gene-expression profile in eosinophilic esophagitis. J Clin Invest, 116: 536-547. [PMID:16453027]

9. Bryan SA, Jose PJ, Topping JR, Wilhelm R, Soderberg C, Kertesz D, Barnes PJ, Williams TJ, Hansel TT, Sabroe I. (2002) Responses of leukocytes to chemokines in whole blood and their antagonism by novel CC-chemokine receptor 3 antagonists. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 165: 1602-1609. [PMID:12070060]

10. Choe H, Farzan M, Sun Y, Sullivan N, Rollins B, Ponath PD, Wu L, Mackay CR, LaRosa G, Newman W, Gerard N, Gerard C, Sodroski J. (1996) The beta-chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR5 facilitate infection by primary HIV-1 isolates. Cell, 85: 1135-1148. [PMID:8674119]

11. Clemetson KJ, Clemetson JM, Proudfoot AE, Power CA, Baggiolini M, Wells TN. (2000) Functional expression of CCR1, CCR3, CCR4, and CXCR4 chemokine receptors on human platelets. Blood, 96: 4046-4054. [PMID:11110672]

12. Combadiere C, Ahuja SK, Murphy PM. (1995) Cloning and functional expression of a human eosinophil CC chemokine receptor. J Biol Chem, 270: 16491-16494. [PMID:7622448]

13. Coulin F, Power CA, Alouani S, Peitsch MC, Schroeder JM, Moshizuki M, Clark-Lewis I, Wells TN. (1997) Characterisation of macrophage inflammatory protein-5/human CC cytokine-2, a member of the macrophage-inflammatory-protein family of chemokines. Eur J Biochem, 248: 507-515. [PMID:9346309]

14. Daugherty BL, Siciliano SJ, DeMartino JA, Malkowitz L, Sirotina A, Springer MS. (1996) Cloning, expression, and characterization of the human eosinophil eotaxin receptor. J Exp Med, 183: 2349-2354. [PMID:8642344]

15. Duggal P, An P, Beaty TH, Strathdee SA, Farzadegan H, Markham RB, Johnson L, O'Brien SJ, Vlahov D, Winkler CA. (2003) Genetic influence of CXCR6 chemokine receptor alleles on PCP-mediated AIDS progression among African Americans. Genes Immun., 4: 245-250. [PMID:12761559]

16. Flynn G, Maru S, Loughlin J, Romero IA, Male D. (2003) Regulation of chemokine receptor expression in human microglia and astrocytes. J Neuroimmunol, 136: 84-93. [PMID:12620646]

17. Forssmann U, Uguccioni M, Loetscher P, Dahinden CA, Langen H, Thelen M, Baggiolini M. (1997) Eotaxin-2, a novel CC chemokine that is selective for the chemokine receptor CCR3, and acts like eotaxin on human eosinophil and basophil leukocytes. J Exp Med, 185: 2171-2176. [PMID:9182688]

18. Fujisawa T, Kato Y, Nagase H, Atsuta J, Terada A, Iguchi K, Kamiya H, Morita Y, Kitaura M, Kawasaki H, Yoshie O, Hirai K. (2000) Chemokines induce eosinophil degranulation through CCR-3. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 106: 507-513. [PMID:10984371]

19. Fukunaga K, Asano K, Mao XQ, Gao PS, Roberts MH, Oguma T, Shiomi T, Kanazawa M, Adra CN, Shirakawa T, Hopkin JM, Yamaguchi K. (2001) Genetic polymorphisms of CC chemokine receptor 3 in Japanese and British asthmatics. Eur Respir J, 17: 59-63. [PMID:11307756]

20. Gao JL, Murphy PM. (1995) Cloning and differential tissue-specific expression of three mouse beta chemokine receptor-like genes, including the gene for a functional macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha receptor. J Biol Chem, 270: 17494-17501. [PMID:7542241]

21. Gerber BO, Zanni MP, Uguccioni M, Loetscher M, Mackay CR, Pichler WJ, Yawalkar N, Baggiolini M, Moser B. (1997) Functional expression of the eotaxin receptor CCR3 in T lymphocytes co-localizing with eosinophils. Curr Biol, 7: 836-843. [PMID:9480044]

22. Heinemann A, Hartnell A, Stubbs VE, Murakami K, Soler D, LaRosa G, Askenase PW, Williams TJ, Sabroe I. (2000) Basophil responses to chemokines are regulated by both sequential and cooperative receptor signaling. J Immunol, 165: 7224-7233. [PMID:11120855]

23. Humbles AA, Lu B, Friend DS, Okinaga S, Lora J, Al-Garawi A, Martin TR, Gerard NP, Gerard C. (2002) The murine CCR3 receptor regulates both the role of eosinophils and mast cells in allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99: 1479-1484. [PMID:11830666]

24. Iikura M, Miyamasu M, Yamaguchi M, Kawasaki H, Matsushima K, Kitaura M, Morita Y, Yoshie O, Yamamoto K, Hirai K. (2001) Chemokine receptors in human basophils: inducible expression of functional CXCR4. J Leukoc Biol, 70: 113-120. [PMID:11435493]

25. Jiang Y, Salafranca MN, Adhikari S, Xia Y, Feng L, Sonntag MK, deFiebre CM, Pennell NA, Streit WJ, Harrison JK. (1998) Chemokine receptor expression in cultured glia and rat experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol, 86: 1-12. [PMID:9655467]

26. Kampen GT, Stafford S, Adachi T, Jinquan T, Quan S, Grant JA, Skov PS, Poulsen LK, Alam R. (2000) Eotaxin induces degranulation and chemotaxis of eosinophils through the activation of ERK2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Blood, 95: 1911-1917. [PMID:10706854]

27. Kato H, Tsuchiya N, Izumi S, Miyamasu M, Nakajima T, Kawasaki H, Hirai K, Tokunaga K. (1999) New variations of human CC-chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR4. Genes Immun, 1: 97-104. [PMID:11196669]

28. Kitaura M, Suzuki N, Imai T, Takagi S, Suzuki R, Nakajima T, Hirai K, Nomiyama H, Yoshie O. (1999) Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (Eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine receptor 3. J. Biol. Chem., 274: 27975-27980. [PMID:10488147]

29. Krohn SC, Bonvin P, Proudfoot AE. (2013) CCL18 exhibits a regulatory role through inhibition of receptor and glycosaminoglycan binding. PLoS ONE, 8 (8): e72321. [PMID:23951310]

30. Lamkhioued B, Abdelilah SG, Hamid Q, Mansour N, Delespesse G, Renzi PM. (2003) The CCR3 receptor is involved in eosinophil differentiation and is up-regulated by Th2 cytokines in CD34+ progenitor cells. J Immunol, 170: 537-547. [PMID:12496441]

31. Ma W, Bryce PJ, Humbles AA, Laouini D, Yalcindag A, Alenius H, Friend DS, Oettgen HC, Gerard C, Geha RS. (2002) CCR3 is essential for skin eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of allergic skin inflammation. J Clin Invest, 109: 621-628. [PMID:11877470]

32. Morokata T, Suzuki K, Masunaga Y, Taguchi K, Morihira K, Sato I, Fujii M, Takizawa S, Torii Y, Yamamoto N, Kaneko M, Yamada T, Takahashi K, Shimizu Y. (2005) A novel, selective, and orally available antagonist for CC chemokine receptor 3. J Pharmacol Exp Ther,: -. [PMID:16339911]

33. Nanki T, Lipsky PE. (2000) Lack of correlation between chemokine receptor and T(h)1/T(h)2 cytokine expression by individual memory T cells. Int Immunol, 12: 1659-1667. [PMID:11099305]

34. Neighbour H, Boulet LP, Lemiere C, Sehmi R, Leigh R, Sousa AR, Martin J, Dallow N, Gilbert J, Allen A et al.. (2014) Safety and efficacy of an oral CCR3 antagonist in patients with asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin. Exp. Allergy, 44 (4): 508-16. [PMID:24286456]

35. Nibbs RJ, Salcedo TW, Campbell JD, Yao XT, Li Y, Nardelli B, Olsen HS, Morris TS, Proudfoot AE, Patel VP, Graham GJ. (2000) C-C chemokine receptor 3 antagonism by theβ-chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 4, a property strongly enhanced by an amino-terminal alanine-methionine swap. J. Immunol., 164: 1488-1497. [PMID:10640766]

36. Ochensberger B, Tassera L, Bifrare D, Rihs S, Dahinden CA. (1999) Regulation of cytokine expression and leukotriene formation in human basophils by growth factors, chemokines and chemotactic agonists. Eur J Immunol, 29: 11-22. [PMID:9933081]

37. Parody TR, Stone MJ. (2004) High level expression, activation, and antagonism of CC chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR3 in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Cytokine, 27: 38-46. [PMID:15207250]

38. Pease J, Horuk R. (2012) Chemokine receptor antagonists. J. Med. Chem., 55 (22): 9363-92. [PMID:22931505]

39. Pope SM, Zimmermann N, Stringer KF, Karow ML, Rothenberg ME. (2005) The eotaxin chemokines and CCR3 are fundamental regulators of allergen-induced pulmonary eosinophilia. J Immunol, 175: 5341-5350. [PMID:16210640]

40. Sabroe I, Peck MJ, Van Keulen BJ, Jorritsma A, Simmons G, Clapham PR, Williams TJ, Pease JE. (2000) A small molecule antagonist of chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR3. Potent inhibition of eosinophil function and CCR3-mediated HIV-1 entry. J Biol Chem, 275: 25985-25992. [PMID:10854442]

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Israel F. Charo, Rebecca Hills, Richard Horuk, Kouji Matsushima, Philip M. Murphy, Joost J. Oppenheim.
Chemokine receptors: CCR3. Last modified on 19/02/2018. Accessed on 15/11/2018. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=60.