CXCR3 | Chemokine receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

CXCR3

Target id: 70

Nomenclature: CXCR3

Family: Chemokine receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     CXCR3 has curated GtoImmuPdb data

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 368 Xq13 CXCR3 C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 16
Mouse 7 367 X C3 Cxcr3 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 22
Rat 7 367 Xq31 Cxcr3 C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 25
Previous and Unofficial Names
GPR9 | CD183 | MigR | G protein-coupled receptor 9 | CXC-R3 | interferon-inducible protein 10 receptor | IP-10 receptor | Cxcr3 | CKR-L2 | chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB cxcr3_human (Hs), cxcr3_mouse (Mm), cxcr3_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
CXCL10 {Sp: Human}
CXCL11 {Sp: Human}
CXCL9 {Sp: Human} , CXCL9 {Sp: Mouse}
CXCL10 {Sp: Mouse}
CXCL11 {Sp: Mouse}
CXCL10 {Sp: Rat}

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
CXCL11 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 10.4 – 10.5 pKi 7
pKi 10.4 – 10.5 [7]
CXCL10 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 7.8 – 9.8 pKi 7,26
pKi 7.8 – 9.8 [7,26]
CXCL9 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 7.3 – 8.3 pKi 7,26
pKi 7.3 – 8.3 [7,26]
CCL13 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 7.2 pKi 26
pKi 7.2 [26]
CCL20 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 6.8 pKi 26
pKi 6.8 [26]
CCL5 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 6.4 pKi 26
pKi 6.4 [26]
CXCL12α {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 6.4 pKi 26
pKi 6.4 [26]
CCL19 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 5.9 pKi 26
pKi 5.9 [26]
Agonist Comments
It has been reported that CCL11, despite binding with high affinity, may be neither an agonist or an antagonist of the CXCR3 receptor, but sequesters available CCL11 resulting in a lowered response at other receptors [28].
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
NBI-74330 Hs Antagonist 8.3 – 8.8 pKi 7
pKi 8.3 – 8.8 [7]
CCL11 {Sp: Human} Hs Antagonist 7.2 pKi 26
pKi 7.2 [26]
CCL7 {Sp: Human} Hs Antagonist 6.6 pKi 26
pKi 6.6 [26]
duramycin Hs Antagonist 7.0 pIC50 18
pIC50 7.0 [18]
dioscin Hs Antagonist 6.3 pIC50 18
pIC50 6.3 [18]
hypoglaucin A Hs Antagonist 5.7 pIC50 18
pIC50 5.7 [18]
kallstroemin D Hs Antagonist 5.5 pIC50 18
pIC50 5.5 [18]
Immunopharmacology Comments
CXCR3 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. CXCR3 is the receptor for CXCL9, -10 and -11, three CXC chemokines that are preferentially expressed on Th1 lymphocytes.
Cell Type Associations
Immuno Cell Type:  T cells
Cell Ontology Term:   T-helper 1 cell (CL:0000545)
References:  16,21
Immuno Cell Type:  Dendritic cells
Comment:  N.B. inflammatory dentritic cells
Immuno Cell Type:  Macrophages & monocytes
Cell Ontology Term:   macrophage (CL:0000235)
Immuno Cell Type:  B cells
Cell Ontology Term:   B cell (CL:0000236)
Immuno Cell Type:  Natural killer cells
Cell Ontology Term:   natural killer cell (CL:0000623)
Immuno Process Associations
Immuno Process:  Cytokine production & signalling
GO Annotations:  Associated to 3 GO processes
GO:0004950 chemokine receptor activity TAS
GO:0071954 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11 production IDA
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0016494 C-X-C chemokine receptor activity IEA
Immuno Process:  Chemotaxis & migration
GO Annotations:  Associated to 3 GO processes
GO:0071954 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11 production IDA
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0002685 regulation of leukocyte migration IEA
GO:0010818 T cell chemotaxis IEA
Immuno Process:  Inflammation
GO Annotations:  Associated to 3 GO processes, IEA only
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0002685 regulation of leukocyte migration IEA
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IEA
GO:0010818 T cell chemotaxis IEA
Immuno Process:  Immune regulation
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes, IEA only
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0002685 regulation of leukocyte migration IEA
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gi/Go family Calcium channel
References:  5,13,16,25
Tissue Distribution
Glomerular podocytes.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  8
T lymophocytes.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Flow cytometry.
References:  15
CD4+ T lymphocytes.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Flow cytometry.
References:  11
Osteoblasts.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR and flow cytometry.
References:  14
B cells.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Flow cytometry.
References:  23
Primary adult microglia and astrocytes.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Flow cytometry.
References:  6
Th1-type lymphocytes.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  17
Tracheocytes.
Species:  Human
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  10
Lung mast cells (HLMCs).
Species:  Human
Technique:  Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence.
References:  2
Peripheral blood T lymphocytes.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  13
Intestinal myofibroblasts.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  12
T cells, B cells and natural killer cells.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Three color immunofluorescence.
References:  19
Differential expression of CXCR3-A and CXCR3-B on subsets of endothelial cells.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry.
References:  13
Eosinophils.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR.
References:  9
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
Measurement of Ca2+ levels in mouse pre-B cells transfected with the CXCR3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Mouse pre-B cells, 300-19.
Response measured:  Ca2+ mobilisation.
References:  16
Measurement of chemotaxis in mouse pre-B cells transfected with the CXCR3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Mouse pre-B cells, 300-19.
Response measured:  Chemotaxis.
References:  16
Measurement of Ca2+ levels in HEK 293 cells transfected with the mouse CXCR3 receptors.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells.
Response measured:  Ca2+ mobilisation.
References:  22
Measurement if Ca2+ levels in HEK 293 cells transfected with the rat CXCR3 receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells.
Response measured:  Ca2+ mobilisation.
References:  25
Measurement if Ca2+ levels in HEK 293 cells transfected with the human CXCR3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells.
Response measured:  Ca2+ mobilisation.
References:  25
Measurement of Cl- conductance in microglia endogenously expressing the CXCR3 receptor.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Microglia.
Response measured:  Stimulation of a Cl- current.
References:  20
Measurement of chemotaxis of microglia endogenously expressing the CXCR3 receptor.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Microglia.
Response measured:  Chemotaxis.
References:  20
Measurement of cell proliferation and 3H-thymidine incorporation in human bronchial epithelial cells endogenously expressing the CXCR3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Bronchial epithelial cells.
Response measured:  Cell proliferation and 3H-thymidine incorporation.
References:  1
Measurement of MAPK pathway activity in human bronchial epithelial cells endogenously expressing the CXCR3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Bronchial epithelial cells.
Response measured:  ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation.
References:  1
Measurement of PKB activity in intestinal myofibroblasts endogenously expressing the CXCR3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Intestinal myofibroblasts.
Response measured:  PI3K-dependent PKB phosphorylation.
References:  12
Measurement of MAPK pathway activity in intestinal myofibroblasts endogenously expressing the CXCR3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Intestinal myofibroblasts.
Response measured:  ERK1/2 and p90RSK phosphorylation.
References:  12
Physiological Functions
Chemotaxis.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Microglia.
References:  20
Leukocyte recruitment.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  4,24
Neovascularisation (angiogenesis).
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  24
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
CXCR3 receptor knockout mice exhibit impaired neovascular (angiogenic) response.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  24
Following bacterial inoculation of the lung, CXCR3 receptor knockout mice exhibit decreased lymphocyte and NK cell recruitment as well as delayed clearence of bacteria.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  27
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Cxcr3tm1Wwh
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0009858 abnormal cellular extravasation PMID: 15152045  15718500 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Y
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0009858 abnormal cellular extravasation PMID: 15718500 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Cxcr3tm1Wwh
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0008750 abnormal interferon level PMID: 15254596 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Y
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0008750 abnormal interferon level PMID: 15254596 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Cxcr3tm1Wwh
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0003710 abnormal physiological neovascularization PMID: 15718500 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Y
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0003710 abnormal physiological neovascularization PMID: 15718500 
Cxcr3tm1Raks Cxcr3tm1Raks/Cxcr3tm1Raks
B6.129P2-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0002871 albuminuria PMID: 19734217 
Cxcr3tm1Raks Cxcr3tm1Raks/Cxcr3tm1Raks
B6.129P2-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0005566 decreased blood urea nitrogen level PMID: 19734217 
Cxcr3tm1Raks Cxcr3tm1Raks/Cxcr3tm1Raks
B6.129P2-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0005554 decreased circulating creatinine level PMID: 19734217 
Cxcr3tm1Raks Cxcr3tm1Raks/Cxcr3tm1Raks
B6.129P2-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0005166 decreased susceptibility to injury PMID: 19734217 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Cxcr3tm1Wwh
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0002410 decreased susceptibility to viral infection PMID: 15152045 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Cxcr3tm1Wwh
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0009790 decreased susceptibility to viral infection induced morbidity/mortality PMID: 15152045 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Cxcr3tm1Wwh
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0003045 fibrosis PMID: 15254596 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Y
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0003045 fibrosis PMID: 15254596 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Cxcr3tm1Wwh
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0005496 impaired macrophage recruitment PMID: 15718500 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Y
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0005496 impaired macrophage recruitment PMID: 15718500 
Cxcr3tm1Dgen Cxcr3tm1Dgen/Y
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:1277207  MP:0005559 increased circulating glucose level
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Cxcr3tm1Wwh
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0004751 increased length of allograft survival PMID: 11085753 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Y
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0004751 increased length of allograft survival PMID: 11085753 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh|Tg(TRAMP)8247Ng Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Cxcr3tm1Wwh,Tg(TRAMP)8247Ng/?
involves: C57BL/6
MGI:1277207  MGI:2680364  MP:0003721 increased tumor growth/size PMID: 16941672 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Cxcr3tm1Wwh
Not Specified
MGI:1277207  MP:0002020 increased tumor incidence PMID: 20713880 
Cxcr3tm1Raks Cxcr3tm1Raks/Cxcr3tm1Raks
B6.129P2-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0001859 kidney inflammation PMID: 19734217 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Cxcr3tm1Wwh
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0001861 lung inflammation PMID: 15254596 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Y
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0001861 lung inflammation PMID: 15254596 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Cxcr3tm1Wwh
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0003426 pulmonary interstitial fibrosis PMID: 15254596 
Cxcr3tm1Wwh Cxcr3tm1Wwh/Y
B6.Cg-Cxcr3
MGI:1277207  MP:0003426 pulmonary interstitial fibrosis PMID: 15254596 
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  CXCR3-B is a splice variant of the CXCR3 (or CXCR3-A) receptor and has been found in human airway epithelial cells.
References:  1,10,13
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  A polymorphism in intron 1, c.12+234G > A, may be associated with asthma development.
References:  3
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The CXCR3-B splice variant is a 416 amino acid receptor with a longer N-terminal. It differs from CXCR3-A in its signalling properties by activating AC and increasing cAMP levels as well as being associated with reduced DNA synthesis and increased apoptosis. CXCR3-A and CXCR3-B are differentially expressed on subsets of endothelial cells and differentially recognise CXCL4 (platelet factor 4).
References:  13

References

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1. Aksoy MO, Yang Y, Ji R, Reddy PJ, Shahabuddin S, Litvin J, Rogers TJ, Kelsen SG. (2005) CXCR3 Surface Expression in Human Airway Epithelial Cells: Cell Cycle Dependence and Effect on Cell Proliferation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol,: -. [PMID:16339779]

2. Brightling CE, Kaur D, Berger P, Morgan AJ, Wardlaw AJ, Bradding P. (2005) Differential expression of CCR3 and CXCR3 by human lung and bone marrow-derived mast cells: implications for tissue mast cell migration. J Leukoc Biol, 77: 759-766. [PMID:15673545]

3. Cheong HS, Park CS, Kim LH, Park BL, Uh ST, Kim YH, Lym GI, Lee JY, Lee JK, Kim HT, Ryu HJ, Han BG, Kim JW, Park C, Kimm K, Shin HD, Oh B. (2005) CXCR3 polymorphisms associated with risk of asthma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 334: 1219-1225. [PMID:16043121]

4. Christensen JE, Nansen A, Moos T, Lu B, Gerard C, Christensen JP, Thomsen AR. (2004) Efficient T-cell surveillance of the CNS requires expression of the CXC chemokine receptor 3. J Neurosci, 24: 4849-4858. [PMID:15152045]

5. Colvin RA, Campanella GS, Sun J, Luster AD. (2004) Intracellular domains of CXCR3 that mediate CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 function. J Biol Chem, 279: 30219-30227. [PMID:15150261]

6. Flynn G, Maru S, Loughlin J, Romero IA, Male D. (2003) Regulation of chemokine receptor expression in human microglia and astrocytes. J Neuroimmunol, 136: 84-93. [PMID:12620646]

7. Heise CE, Pahuja A, Hudson SC, Mistry MS, Putnam AL, Gross MM, Gottlieb PA, Wade WS, Kiankarimi M, Schwarz D, Crowe P, Zlotnik A, Alleva DG. (2005) Pharmacological characterization of CXC chemokine receptor 3 ligands and a small molecule antagonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 313: 1263-1271. [PMID:15761110]

8. Huber TB, Reinhardt HC, Exner M, Burger JA, Kerjaschki D, Saleem MA, Pavenstädt H. (2002) Expression of functional CCR and CXCR chemokine receptors in podocytes. J Immunol, 168: 6244-6252. [PMID:12055238]

9. Jinquan T, Jing C, Jacobi HH, Reimert CM, Millner A, Quan S, Hansen JB, Dissing S, Malling HJ, Skov PS, Poulsen LK. (2000) CXCR3 expression and activation of eosinophils: role of IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 and monokine induced by IFN-gamma. J Immunol, 165: 1548-1556. [PMID:10903763]

10. Kelsen SG, Aksoy MO, Yang Y, Shahabuddin S, Litvin J, Safadi F, Rogers TJ. (2004) The chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its splice variant are expressed in human airway epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol, 287: L584-L591. [PMID:15155273]

11. Kivisäkk P, Trebst C, Lee JC, Tucky BH, Rudick RA, Campbell JJ, Ransohoff RM. (2003) Expression of CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR3 by CD4+ T cells is stable during a 2-year longitudinal study but varies widely between individuals. J Neurovirol, 9: 291-299. [PMID:12775413]

12. Kouroumalis A, Nibbs RJ, Aptel H, Wright KL, Kolios G, Ward SG. (2005) The chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 differentially stimulate G alpha i-independent signaling and actin responses in human intestinal myofibroblasts. J Immunol, 175: 5403-5411. [PMID:16210647]

13. Lasagni L, Francalanci M, Annunziato F, Lazzeri E, Giannini S, Cosmi L, Sagrinati C, Mazzinghi B, Orlando C, Maggi E, Marra F, Romagnani S, Serio M, Romagnani P. (2003) An alternatively spliced variant of CXCR3 mediates the inhibition of endothelial cell growth induced by IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC, and acts as functional receptor for platelet factor 4. J Exp Med, 197: 1537-1549. [PMID:12782716]

14. Lisignoli G, Toneguzzi S, Piacentini A, Cattini L, Lenti A, Tschon M, Cristino S, Grassi F, Facchini A. (2003) Human osteoblasts express functional CXC chemokine receptors 3 and 5: activation by their ligands, CXCL10 and CXCL13, significantly induces alkaline phosphatase and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase release. J Cell Physiol, 194: 71-79. [PMID:12447991]

15. Lisignoli G, Toneguzzi S, Piacentini A, Cristino S, Cattini L, Grassi F, Facchini A. (2004) Recruitment and proliferation of T lymphocytes is supported by IFNgamma- and TNFalpha-activated human osteoblasts: Involvement of CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD106 (VCAM-1) adhesion molecules and CXCR3 chemokine receptor. J Cell Physiol, 198: 388-398. [PMID:14755544]

16. Loetscher M, Loetscher P, Brass N, Meese E, Moser B. (1998) Lymphocyte-specific chemokine receptor CXCR3: regulation, chemokine binding and gene localization. Eur J Immunol, 28: 3696-3705. [PMID:9842912]

17. Nanki T, Lipsky PE. (2000) Lack of correlation between chemokine receptor and T(h)1/T(h)2 cytokine expression by individual memory T cells. Int Immunol, 12: 1659-1667. [PMID:11099305]

18. Ondeykal JG, Herath KB, Jayasuriya H, Polishook JD, Bills GF, Dombrowski AW, Mojena M, Koch G, DiSalvo J, DeMartino J, Guan Z, Nanakorn W, Morenberg CM, Balick MJ, Stevenson DW, Slattery M, Borris RP, Singh SB. (2005) Discovery of structurally diverse natural product antagonists of chemokine receptor CXCR3. Mol Divers, 9: 123-129. [PMID:15789559]

19. Qin S, Rottman JB, Myers P, Kassam N, Weinblatt M, Loetscher M, Koch AE, Moser B, Mackay CR. (1998) The chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 mark subsets of T cells associated with certain inflammatory reactions. J. Clin. Invest., 101: 746-754. [PMID:9466968]

20. Rappert A, Biber K, Nolte C, Lipp M, Schubel A, Lu B, Gerard NP, Gerard C, Boddeke HW, Kettenmann H. (2002) Secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (CCL21) activates CXCR3 to trigger a Cl- current and chemotaxis in murine microglia. J Immunol, 168: 3221-3226. [PMID:11907075]

21. Sallusto F, Lenig D, Mackay CR, Lanzavecchia A. (1998) Flexible programs of chemokine receptor expression on human polarized T helper 1 and 2 lymphocytes. J. Exp. Med., 187: 875-883. [PMID:9500790]

22. Soto H, Wang W, Strieter RM, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Hedrick J, Zlotnik A. (1998) The CC chemokine 6Ckine binds the CXC chemokine receptor CXCR3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95: 8205-8210. [PMID:9653165]

23. Sørensen TL, Roed H, Sellebjerg F. (2002) Chemokine receptor expression on B cells and effect of interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol, 122: 125-131. [PMID:11777551]

24. Waeckel L, Mallat Z, Potteaux S, Combadiere C, Clergue M, Duriez M, Bao L, Gerard C, Rollins BJ, Tedgui A, Levy BI, Silvestre JS. (2005) Impairment in postischemic neovascularization in mice lacking the CXC chemokine receptor 3. Circ Res, 96: 576-582. [PMID:15718500]

25. Wang X, Li X, Schmidt DB, Foley JJ, Barone FC, Ames RS, Sarau HM. (2000) Identification and molecular characterization of rat CXCR3: receptor expression and interferon-inducible protein-10 binding are increased in focal stroke. Mol Pharmacol, 57: 1190-1198. [PMID:10825390]

26. Weng Y, Siciliano SJ, Waldburger KE, Sirotina-Meisher A, Staruch MJ, Daugherty BL, Gould SL, Springer MS, DeMartino JA. (1998) Binding and functional properties of recombinant and endogenous CXCR3 chemokine receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 273: 18288-18291. [PMID:9660793]

27. Widney DP, Hu Y, Foreman-Wykert AK, Bui KC, Nguyen TT, Lu B, Gerard C, Miller JF, Smith JB. (2005) CXCR3 and its ligands participate in the host response to Bordetella bronchiseptica infection of the mouse respiratory tract but are not required for clearance of bacteria from the lung. Infect Immun, 73: 485-493. [PMID:15618188]

28. Xanthou G, Duchesnes CE, Williams TJ, Pease JE. (2003) CCR3 functional responses are regulated by both CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11. Eur J Immunol, 33: 2241-2250. [PMID:12884299]

Contributors

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How to cite this page

Israel F. Charo, Rebecca Hills, Richard Horuk, Kouji Matsushima, Philip M. Murphy, Joost J. Oppenheim.
Chemokine receptors: CXCR3. Last modified on 19/02/2018. Accessed on 14/11/2018. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=70.