GAL<sub>1</sub> receptor | Galanin receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

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GAL1 receptor

Target id: 243

Nomenclature: GAL1 receptor

Family: Galanin receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     Currently no data for GAL1 receptor in GtoImmuPdb

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 349 18q23 GALR1 galanin receptor 1 67
Mouse 7 348 18 E3-E4 Galr1 galanin receptor 1 38,98
Rat 7 346 18q12.3 Galr1 galanin receptor 1 15
Previous and Unofficial Names
GALNR | GALNR1
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB galr1_human (Hs), galr1_mouse (Mm), galr1_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
galanin {Sp: Human} , galanin {Sp: Mouse, Rat}
galanin-like peptide {Sp: Human} , galanin-like peptide {Sp: Mouse} , galanin-like peptide {Sp: Rat}
Comments: Galanin is more potent than galanin-like peptide
Potency order of endogenous ligands (Human)
galanin (GAL, P22466) > galanin-like peptide (GALP, Q9UBC7)  [68]

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
[125I][Tyr26]galanin (pig) Rn Agonist 9.5 – 10.7 pKd 15,20,22,71,85-86
pKd 9.5 – 10.7 (Kd 3x10-10 – 1.9x10-11 M) Two populations of binding sites have been identified in transfected cells with Kds of 0.3 and 0.019nM. [15,20,22,71,85-86]
[125I][Tyr26]galanin (rat/mouse) Mm Agonist 9.9 pKd 98
pKd 9.9 (Kd 1.34x10-10 M) [98]
[125I][Tyr26]galanin (pig) Hs Agonist 9.8 pKd 11
pKd 9.8 (Kd 1.5x10-10 M) [11]
[19Lys,26Leu]-galparan Rn Agonist 9.1 pKd 46
pKd 9.1 (Kd 7.1x10-10 M) [46]
galanin {Sp: Pig} Rn Full agonist 9.1 pKd 46
pKd 9.1 (Kd 7.4x10-10 M) [46]
galanin {Sp: Pig} Hs Full agonist 9.1 pKd 29
pKd 9.1 (Kd 8x10-10 M) [29]
[125I][Tyr26]galanin (human) Hs Agonist 7.8 – 10.3 pKd 24
pKd 10.3 (Kd 4.89x10-11 M) High affinity receptors [24]
pKd 7.8 (Kd 1.47x10-8 M) Low affinity receptors [24]
galparan Rn Agonist 8.2 pKd 46
pKd 8.2 (Kd 6.4x10-9 M) [46]
galanin(1-13)amide Rn Agonist 6.9 pKd 46
pKd 6.9 (Kd 1.25x10-7 M) [46]
[2Ala]-galparan Rn Agonist 5.8 pKd 46
pKd 5.8 (Kd 1.585x10-6 M) [46]
galanin {Sp: Pig} Hs Full agonist 9.6 – 10.6 pKi 11,24,29
pKi 9.6 – 10.6 (Ki 2.3x10-10 – 2.5x10-11 M) [11,24,29]
galanin {Sp: Mouse, Rat} Mm Full agonist 9.3 – 10.3 pKi 70,98
pKi 9.3 – 10.3 (Ki 4.6x10-10 – 4.7x10-11 M) [70,98]
galanin {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 9.1 – 10.5 pKi 11,24,29,82
pKi 9.1 – 10.5 (Ki 8x10-10 – 3.1x10-11 M) [11,24,29,82]
M617 Hs Agonist 9.6 pKi 55
pKi 9.6 (Ki 2.3x10-10 M) [55]
M242 Hs Agonist 9.6 pKi 82
pKi 9.6 (Ki 2.5x10-10 M) [82]
galanin {Sp: Mouse, Rat} Rn Full agonist 9.0 – 10.1 pKi 15,86,94,96-97
pKi 9.0 – 10.1 (Ki 1x10-9 – 8x10-11 M) [15,86,94,96-97]
galanin {Sp: Pig} Rn Full agonist 9.1 – 10.0 pKi 15,71,85-86
pKi 9.1 – 10.0 (Ki 8.2x10-10 – 1x10-10 M) [15,71,85-86]
galanin {Sp: Human} Rn Full agonist 9.2 – 9.9 pKi 15,86
pKi 9.2 – 9.9 (Ki 6x10-10 – 1.4x10-10 M) [15,86]
galanin {Sp: Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 8.8 – 10.1 pKi 11,29,53,55,78,81,88
pKi 8.8 – 10.1 (Ki 1.75x10-9 – 8x10-11 M) [11,29,53,55,78,81,88]
Gal-(K)4 Hs Agonist 9.4 pKi 106
pKi 9.4 (Ki 4x10-10 M) [106]
Gal-B2-MPEG4 Hs Agonist 9.3 pKi 106
pKi 9.3 (Ki 5x10-10 M) [106]
Gal-B2-C8 Hs Agonist 9.1 pKi 106
pKi 9.1 (Ki 7x10-10 M) [106]
Gal-B2-dPEG24 Hs Agonist 8.9 pKi 105
pKi 8.9 (Ki 1.3x10-9 M) [105]
Gal-B2-C10 Hs Agonist 8.9 pKi 106
pKi 8.9 (Ki 1.3x10-9 M) [106]
Gal-B2-C12 Hs Agonist 8.9 pKi 106
pKi 8.9 (Ki 1.4x10-9 M) [106]
galanin(1-16) (rat/mouse/pig) Mm Agonist 8.7 – 9.0 pKi 70,98
pKi 8.7 – 9.0 (Ki 2.2x10-9 – 1.02x10-9 M) [70,98]
galanin(1-16) (rat/mouse/pig) Hs Agonist 8.3 – 9.3 pKi 11,14,24,29
pKi 8.3 – 9.3 (Ki 5x10-9 – 5x10-10 M) [11,14,24,29]
Gal-B2-C14 Hs Agonist 8.6 pKi 106
pKi 8.6 (Ki 2.6x10-9 M) [106]
galanin(1-16) (rat/mouse/pig) Rn Agonist 8.1 – 9.0 pKi 15,71,85-86,94,96-97
pKi 8.1 – 9.0 (Ki 9x10-9 – 9.5x10-10 M) [15,71,85-86,94,96-97]
Gal-B2 Hs Agonist 8.5 pKi 14
pKi 8.5 (Ki 3.5x10-9 M) [14]
Gal-B2-C18 Hs Agonist 8.4 pKi 106
pKi 8.4 (Ki 4x10-9 M) [106]
galanin(1-15) Rn Agonist 7.9 – 8.5 pKi 71,85
pKi 7.9 – 8.5 (Ki 1.15x10-8 – 3x10-9 M) [71,85]
galanin(7-29) (pig) Hs Agonist 8.2 pKi 11
pKi 8.2 (Ki 6.76x10-9 M) [11]
galanin(2-29) (pig) Rn Full agonist 7.1 – 8.1 pKi 15,71
pKi 7.1 – 8.1 (Ki 8.25x10-8 – 7.14x10-9 M) [15,71]
galanin(7-29) (pig) Rn Agonist 7.6 pKi 86
pKi 7.6 (Ki 2.455x10-8 M) [86]
J20 (galanin analogue) Hs Agonist 7.6 pKi 79
pKi 7.6 (Ki 2.5x10-8 M) [79]
galanin(2-29) (pig) Hs Full agonist 7.6 pKi 11
pKi 7.6 (Ki 2.63x10-8 M) [11]
galanin(2-29) (rat/mouse) Mm Full agonist 7.1 – 8.0 pKi 70,98
pKi 7.1 – 8.0 (Ki 8.46x10-8 – 1.08x10-8 M) [70,98]
galanin(2-30) (human) Hs Agonist 7.3 pKi 17
pKi 7.3 (Ki 5.2x10-8 M) [17]
M1151 Hs Agonist 7.0 pKi 81
pKi 7.0 (Ki 9.86x10-8 M) [81]
J18 (galanin analogue) Hs Agonist 6.9 pKi 79
pKi 6.9 (Ki 1.38x10-7 M) [79]
galanin(2-29) (rat/mouse) Rn Full agonist 6.0 – 7.1 pKi 94,96-97
pKi 6.0 – 7.1 (Ki 1.1x10-6 – 8.5x10-8 M) [94,96-97]
[N-Me,des-Sar]Gal-B2 Hs Agonist 6.4 pKi 77
pKi 6.4 (Ki 3.645x10-7 M) [77]
Gal-B5 Hs Agonist 6.4 pKi 14
pKi 6.4 (Ki 3.87x10-7 M) [14]
M1145 Hs Agonist 6.2 pKi 78
pKi 6.2 (Ki 5.87x10-7 M) [78]
galanin(D-Trp2) (pig) Hs Agonist 6.2 pKi 11
pKi 6.2 (Ki 6.31x10-7 M) [11]
galanin(D-Trp2) (pig) Rn Agonist 6.0 – 6.4 pKi 85-86
pKi 6.0 – 6.4 (Ki 1x10-6 – 4.074x10-7 M) [85-86]
galanin(3-29) (pig) Rn Agonist <6.0 pKi 15,71,85-86
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [15,71,85-86]
galanin(3-29) (rat/mouse) Rn Agonist <6.0 pKi 94,97
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [94,97]
galanin(10-29) (pig) Rn Agonist <6.0 pKi 71
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [71]
galanin(3-29) (rat/mouse) Mm Agonist <5.8 pKi 70
pKi <5.8 (Ki >1.65x10-6 M) [70]
galanin(10-29) (rat/mouse) Mm Agonist <5.8 pKi 70
pKi <5.8 (Ki >1.67x10-6 M) [70]
M1153 Hs Agonist 5.7 pKi 81
pKi 5.7 (Ki 1.89x10-6 M) [81]
M1152 Hs Agonist 5.6 pKi 81
pKi 5.6 (Ki 2.37x10-6 M) [81]
galanin(3-29) (pig) Hs Agonist <5.0 – 6.0 pKi 11,29
pKi <5.0 – 6.0 (Ki >1x10-5 – 1x10-6 M) [11,29]
galanin(2-11) Hs Agonist <5.3 pKi 53
pKi <5.3 (Ki >5x10-6 M) [53]
galnon Hs Agonist 4.9 pKi 5,87
pKi 4.9 (Ki 1.17x10-5 M) [5,87]
M1160 Hs Agonist 4.8 pKi 80
pKi 4.8 (Ki 1.55x10-5 M) [80]
galmic Hs Agonist 4.5 pKi 5,87
pKi 4.5 (Ki 3.42x10-5 M) [5,87]
galanin {Sp: Mouse, Rat} Rn Full agonist 9.8 pEC50 68
pEC50 9.8 (EC50 1.6x10-10 M) [68]
galanin-like peptide {Sp: Pig} Rn Agonist 7.5 pEC50 68
pEC50 7.5 (EC50 3x10-8 M) [68]
galanin {Sp: Human} Rn Full agonist 10.1 – 10.2 pIC50 33,91
pIC50 10.1 – 10.2 (IC50 7x10-11 – 6x10-11 M) [33,91]
galanin {Sp: Pig} Rn Full agonist 10.1 – 10.2 pIC50 33,91
pIC50 10.1 – 10.2 (IC50 7x10-11 – 6x10-11 M) [33,91]
galanin {Sp: Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 9.9 pIC50 22
pIC50 9.9 (IC50 1.3x10-10 M) [22]
galanin {Sp: Pig} Hs Full agonist 9.8 – 9.9 pIC50 22,91
pIC50 9.8 – 9.9 (IC50 1.6x10-10 – 1.4x10-10 M) [22,91]
galanin(1-19) (human) Rn Agonist 9.8 pIC50 91
pIC50 9.8 (IC50 1.5x10-10 M) [91]
galanin {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 9.6 – 9.9 pIC50 22,49,91
pIC50 9.6 – 9.9 (IC50 2.7x10-10 – 1.3x10-10 M) [22,49,91]
galanin(1-16) (rat/mouse/pig) Rn Agonist 9.6 pIC50 33,91
pIC50 9.6 (IC50 2.7x10-10 M) [33,91]
galanin(1-19) (human) Hs Agonist 9.5 pIC50 91
pIC50 9.5 (IC50 3.4x10-10 M) [91]
galanin {Sp: Mouse, Rat} Rn Full agonist 8.9 – 10.0 pIC50 13,68
pIC50 8.9 – 10.0 (IC50 1.4x10-9 – 9.7x10-11 M) [13,68]
[Sar1, D-Ala12]galanin(1-16) Hs Agonist 9.4 pIC50 47
pIC50 9.4 (IC50 4x10-10 M) [47]
galanin(1-16) (rat/mouse/pig) Hs Agonist 9.0 – 9.2 pIC50 22,91
pIC50 9.0 – 9.2 (IC50 1.01x10-9 – 6x10-10 M) [22,91]
galanin(1-11) Hs Agonist 9.0 pIC50 49
pIC50 9.0 (IC50 1.1x10-9 M) [49]
galanin(1-15) Hs Agonist 8.8 pIC50 22
pIC50 8.8 (IC50 1.68x10-9 M) [22]
galanin-like peptide {Sp: Pig} Rn Agonist 8.4 pIC50 68
pIC50 8.4 (IC50 4.3x10-9 M) [68]
galanin(2-29) (rat/mouse) Rn Full agonist 8.1 pIC50 33,91
pIC50 8.1 (IC50 7.2x10-9 M) [33,91]
galanin(2-29) (rat/mouse) Hs Full agonist 8.0 pIC50 91
pIC50 8.0 (IC50 1x10-8 M) [91]
galanin(2-29) (pig) Hs Full agonist 7.5 pIC50 22
pIC50 7.5 (IC50 3.04x10-8 M) [22]
GALP(3-32) (human) Hs Agonist 7.5 pIC50 44
pIC50 7.5 (IC50 3.3x10-8 M) [44]
galanin-like peptide {Sp: Rat} Rn Agonist 7.3 pIC50 13
pIC50 7.3 (IC50 4.5x10-8 M) [13]
galanin-like peptide {Sp: Human} Hs Agonist 7.1 pIC50 44
pIC50 7.1 (IC50 7.7x10-8 M) [44]
GALP(1-32) (human) Hs Agonist 6.9 pIC50 44
pIC50 6.9 (IC50 1.29x10-7 M) [44]
galanin(2-11) Hs Agonist 6.1 pIC50 49
pIC50 6.1 (IC50 8.79x10-7 M) [49]
galanin(3-29) (pig) Hs Agonist <6.0 pIC50 22
pIC50 <6.0 (IC50 >1x10-6 M) [22]
galanin(3-29) (rat/mouse) Hs Agonist <6.0 pIC50 91
pIC50 <6.0 (IC50 >1x10-6 M) [91]
galanin(3-29) (rat/mouse) Rn Agonist <6.0 pIC50 33,91
pIC50 <6.0 (IC50 >1x10-6 M) [33,91]
alarin {Sp: Rat} Rn Agonist <6.0 pIC50 13
pIC50 <6.0 (IC50 >1x10-6 M) [13]
View species-specific agonist tables
Agonist Comments
Rat and mouse galanin sequences are identical [54]. Binding affinity is lost with removal of amino acids 1 and 2 of galanin [11].
Galanin(D-Trp2) and galanin(2-29) both have higher binding affinity for GAL2 than GAL1 receptors [11].
Many different galanin analogues were trialled in [14] and [77]. The most active compounds are reported in the table above. The Ki values of other analogues are listed in these publications.

[94] and [24] have data for two types of radioligand binding assays; membrane binding and whole-cell binding assays.

NOTE that compounds with -ve log10 affinities <6 have no appreciable agonist function.
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
M15 Hs Antagonist 9.4 – 10.6 pKi 11,24,53
pKi 9.4 – 10.6 (Ki 4x10-10 – 2.7x10-11 M) [11,24,53]
M40 Mm Antagonist 9.4 – 10.4 pKi 70,98
pKi 9.4 – 10.4 (Ki 4.3x10-10 – 4x10-11 M) [70,98]
M32 Hs Antagonist 9.6 – 9.7 pKi 11,82
pKi 9.6 – 9.7 (Ki 2.6x10-10 – 1.8x10-10 M) [11,82]
C7 Hs Antagonist 9.2 – 10.1 pKi 11,24
pKi 9.2 – 10.1 (Ki 6.9x10-10 – 8.2x10-11 M) [11,24]
M35 Hs Antagonist 8.3 – 10.9 pKi 11,24,53
pKi 8.3 – 10.9 (Ki 4.8x10-9 – 1.2x10-11 M) [11,24,53]
M35 Rn Antagonist 9.3 – 9.5 pKi 71,85-86
pKi 9.3 – 9.5 (Ki 4.6x10-10 – 3x10-10 M) [71,85-86]
M40 Hs Antagonist 8.6 – 10.0 pKi 11,24,53
pKi 8.6 – 10.0 (Ki 2.4x10-9 – 1.1x10-10 M) [11,24,53]
M32 Rn Antagonist 9.2 – 9.2 pKi 85-86
pKi 9.2 – 9.2 (Ki 6.8x10-10 – 6x10-10 M) [85-86]
C7 Mm Antagonist 8.7 – 9.0 pKi 70,98
pKi 8.7 – 9.0 (Ki 2x10-9 – 9.6x10-10 M) [70,98]
C7 Rn Antagonist 7.8 – 9.6 pKi 71,85-86
pKi 7.8 – 9.6 (Ki 1.6x10-8 – 2.8x10-10 M) [71,85-86]
M15 Rn Antagonist 8.0 – 9.2 pKi 71,85-86,96
pKi 8.0 – 9.2 (Ki 1x10-8 – 6.5x10-10 M) [71,85-86,96]
M15 Mm Antagonist 8.2 – 8.6 pKi 70,98
pKi 8.2 – 8.6 (Ki 6.3x10-9 – 2.24x10-9 M) [70,98]
M40 Rn Antagonist 7.9 – 8.4 pKi 71,85-86
pKi 7.9 – 8.4 (Ki 1.13x10-8 – 4x10-9 M) [71,85-86]
M871 Hs Antagonist 6.4 pKi 88
pKi 6.4 (Ki 4.2x10-7 M) [88]
Sch 202596 Hs Antagonist 5.8 pKi 16
pKi 5.8 (Ki 1.7x10-6 M) [16]
GalR3ant Hs Antagonist <5.0 pKi 52
pKi <5.0 (Ki >1x10-5 M) [52]
M35 Rn Antagonist 11.0 pIC50 33,91
pIC50 11.0 (IC50 1x10-11 M) [33,91]
M35 Hs Antagonist 10.4 pIC50 91
pIC50 10.4 (IC50 4x10-11 M) [91]
M40 Hs Antagonist 9.3 pIC50 91
pIC50 9.3 (IC50 5x10-10 M) [91]
M40 Rn Antagonist 9.1 pIC50 33,91
pIC50 9.1 (IC50 9x10-10 M) [33,91]
M15 Rn Antagonist 9.0 pIC50 33,91
pIC50 9.0 (IC50 1x10-9 M) [33,91]
M15 Hs Antagonist 8.8 – 8.8 pIC50 22,91
pIC50 8.8 – 8.8 (IC50 1.5x10-9 – 1.46x10-9 M) [22,91]
C7 Hs Antagonist 8.2 – 9.0 pIC50 22,91
pIC50 8.2 – 9.0 (IC50 6.3x10-9 – 1.04x10-9 M) [22,91]
C7 Rn Antagonist 8.3 pIC50 33,91
pIC50 8.3 (IC50 4.9x10-9 M) [33,91]
dithiipin-1,1,4,4-tetroxide analogue 7 Hs Antagonist 6.7 pIC50 84
pIC50 6.7 (IC50 1.9x10-7 M) [84]
2,3-dihydro-1,4-dithiin-1,1,4,4-tetroxide Hs Antagonist 5.6 pIC50 84
pIC50 5.6 (IC50 2.7x10-6 M) [84]
View species-specific antagonist tables
Antagonist Comments
In [84] a series of compounds was tested. The IC50 values for two of the analogues at the human GAL1 receptor are reported in the table above. Analogue 7 is reported as the first non-peptidic sub-micromolar antagonist to human GAL1 receptor.
GalR3ant displays receptor selectivity for GAL3 receptor, with low affinity for GAL1 and GAL2 receptors [53].
[24] has radioligand binding data for both membrane and whole-cell based assays.
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gi/Go family Adenylate cyclase inhibition
Potassium channel
Comments:  Stimulation of GAL1 receptor transfected cells inhibits forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner [24,29,71,85]. GAL1 receptor activation opens G-protein-regulated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels [86] and stimulates pertussis-toxin sensitive MAPK activity, which is inhibited by expression of the C-terminus of β-adrenergic receptor kinase (which specifically inhibits G-βγ signalling). This demonstrates that GAL1 receptor couples to a Gi/βγ signalling pathway to mediate MAPK activation [95] (reviewed in [45]).
References:  7,29,71,86
Tissue Distribution
GAL1 receptor expressed in human gastrointestinal tract from oesophagus to rectum: largest amount in duodenum and least amount in gastric fundus.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  51
Bowes melanoma cell line > small intestine and fetal brain. None in colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) or human liver.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Northern blot.
References:  29
Low expression. In periphery, most abundant in heart, small intestine, prostate, testes; in central nervous system, most abundant in cerebral cortex, amygdala, substantia nigra (not detectable in cerebellum).
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  91
Broad distribution of GAL1 receptor mRNA, especially heart, large intestines and testes (brain not included in this analysis).
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  91
Brain; spinal cord >> small intestine. No expression in anterior pituitary, spleen, stomach, large intestine, adrenal gland, liver, lung, kidney, heart
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Northern blot.
References:  71
High: nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, temporal pole of CA1 region of hippocampus.Moderate: piriform cortex, lateral septum, nucleus accumbens shell, ventral pallidum, bed nucleus stria terminalis, substantia innominata, amygdalopiriform region; anterior portion of paraventricular thalamic nucleus, centromedial nucleus, paracentral nucleus, rhomboid nucleus, subparafascicular nucleus; medial preoptic area, medial preoptic nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, perifornical region, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (lateral and medial zones of posterior magnocellular subdivision); central grey area of mesencephalon; external subdivision of lateral parabrachial nucleus, pontine reticular nucleus, reticulotegmental nucleus, gigantocellular, paramedian, lateral reticular nuclei, raphe magnus; dorsal horn at all levels of spinal cord (mostly laminae 1 and 2, and a few at laminae 3 and 4). Weak: glomerular and internal granular layers of the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, dorsal endopiriform nucleus, horizontal nucleus of the diagonal band, posterior ventral medial amygdaloid nucleus, amygdalohippocampal area; posterior intralaminar nucleus, caudal zona incerta; anterior hypothalamic area, several hypothalamic nuclei (dorsomedial, ventromedial, supraoptic, dorsal premammillary, medial mammillary, supramammillary); anterior and olivary pretectal nuclei, intermediate gray of the superior colliculus, rostral periolivary nucleus, dorsal raphe, paramedian raphe; locus coeruleus, subcoeruleus, A5 region of the pons, dorsal tegmental nucleus, medial aspect of solitary tract nucleus, dorsal vagal complex. None (or very little); sensorimotor cortex, dorsal hippocampus, cerebellum.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  In situ hybridisation.
References:  28
GAL1 receptor mRNA in > 20% of all lumbar 4 and 5 dorsal root ganglion neuron profiles, mainly small and medium sized neurons; almost all expressed CGRP mRNA. GAL1 receptor mRNA levels were transiently down-regulated by inflammation and more strongly by peripheral nerve injury
Species:  Rat
Technique:  In situ hybridisation.
References:  104
Bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract > Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (lateral magnocellular); thalamic paraventricular nucleus; subiculum (ventral); lateral parabrachial nucleus > supraoptic nucleus; dorsomedial nucleus; thalamic central medial nucleus; paracentral nucleus; CA1 (ventral region); medial (anteroventral) amygdala > insular cortex (granular); lateral septum (dorsal, ventral regions); bed nucleus of stria terminalis; medial preoptic area; anterior medial preoptic nucleus; medial preoptic nucleus; hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (medial parvocellular); lateroanterior hypothalamic nucleus; ventromedial nucleus (ventrolateral region); lateral habenula; anterior cortical amygdala; basolmedial amygdala; amygdaloid piriform transition; posterior cortical nucleus; locus coeruleus; pontine reticular formation > taenia tecta (anterior region); septohippocampal nucleus; lateral preoptic area; subfornical organ; anterior hypothalamic area; lateral hypothalamus (tuberal region); mammillary nuclei; posterior hypothalamic area; anterodorsal thalamic nucleus; intermediodorsal nucleus; zona incerta; subincertal nucleus; precommissural nucleus; entorhinal cortex; medial amygdala (anterodorsal); central nucleus of the amygdala; ventral tegmental area; central grey; lateral substantia nigra.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  In situ hybridisation.
References:  71
Amygdala (anterior cortical amygdaloid and parastrial nuclei, amygdalohippocampal area), thalamus (subthalamic, mediodorsal, interanteromedial thalamic nuclei), ventral part of the hippocampus (CA1 field), medulla oblongata (parabrachial, vestibular, reticular, spinal, motor trigeminal nuclei); dorsal part of spinal cord (3rd and 4th layers).
Species:  Rat
Technique:  In situ hybridisation.
References:  15
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
GAL1 receptor activation opens GIRK channels.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Oocytes.
Response measured:  Measurement of activation of G-protein-regulated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels in an oocyte expressing GAL1, GIRK1 and GIRK4.
References:  86
Reduced forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation, presumably via interaction with pertussis toxin sensitive Gi/Go protein.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Measurement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in GAL1-transfected CHO cells following application of galanin.
References:  98
Galanin stimulated pertussis-toxin sensitive MAPK activity, which was inhibited by expression of the C-terminus of β-adrenergic receptor kinase (which specifically inhibits Gβγ signalling); but was not affected by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, bis[indolylmaleimide] or cellular depletion of PKC. These data demonstrate that GAL1 couples to a Giβγ signalling pathway to mediate MAPK activation.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Measurement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in GAL1-transfected CHO cells following application of galanin.
References: 
Exposure to a fluorescein-N-galanin (F-Gal) stimulated rapid and extensive (78%) internalisation of surface F-Gal into GAL1-transfected CHO cells (and also substantial homodimerisation of the receptor).
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Measurement of receptor internalisation in GAL1-transfected CHO cells.
References:  93,101
Galanin reduced basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation, which was blocked by treatement with pertussis toxin. Galanin did not activate inositol phospholipid turnover.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Measurement of forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation in GAL1-transfected CHO cells following application of galanin.
References:  7,71,85