GAL<sub>3</sub> receptor | Galanin receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

GAL3 receptor

Target id: 245

Nomenclature: GAL3 receptor

Family: Galanin receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     Currently no data for GAL3 receptor in GtoImmuPdb

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 368 22q13.1 GALR3 galanin receptor 3 15,34
Mouse 7 370 15 E1 Galr3 galanin receptor 3 39
Rat 7 370 7q34 Galr3 galanin receptor 3 15,34
Previous and Unofficial Names
GALR3 | Galnr3
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB galr3_human (Hs), galr3_mouse (Mm), galr3_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
galanin {Sp: Human} , galanin {Sp: Mouse, Rat}
galanin-like peptide {Sp: Human} , galanin-like peptide {Sp: Mouse} , galanin-like peptide {Sp: Rat}
Comments: Galanin-like peptide is more potent than galanin
Potency order of endogenous ligands (Human)
galanin-like peptide (GALP, Q9UBC7) > galanin (GAL, P22466)  [19]

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
[125I][Tyr26]galanin (pig) Rn Agonist 9.0 – 9.3 pKd 34,39
pKd 9.0 – 9.3 (Kd 9.7x10-10 – 5.5x10-10 M) [34,39]
[125I][Tyr26]galanin (pig) Hs Agonist 8.6 pKd 8,34
pKd 8.6 (Kd 2.24x10-9 M) [8,34]
M1160 Hs Agonist <5.0 pKd 30
pKd <5.0 (Kd >1x10-5 M) [30]
galanin {Sp: Mouse, Rat} Rn Partial agonist 8.1 – 8.8 pKi 24,34,38-39
pKi 8.1 – 8.8 (Ki 7.4x10-9 – 1.47x10-9 M) [24,34,38-39]
galanin(1-19) (rat/mouse) Rn Agonist 8.2 pKi 39
pKi 8.2 (Ki 6.25x10-9 M) [39]
galanin {Sp: Pig} Rn Full agonist 8.1 pKi 34
pKi 8.1 (Ki 7.24x10-9 M) [34]
galanin {Sp: Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 7.9 – 8.4 pKi 8,28,31,34-35
pKi 7.9 – 8.4 (Ki 1.23x10-8 – 4.49x10-9 M) [8,28,31,34-35]
galanin {Sp: Pig} Hs Full agonist 8.0 pKi 8,34
pKi 8.0 (Ki 9.77x10-9 M) [8,34]
galanin(2-29) (rat/mouse) Rn Agonist 7.9 pKi 38-39
pKi 7.9 (Ki 1.26x10-8 M) [38-39]
J20 (galanin analogue) Hs Agonist 7.9 pKi 29
pKi 7.9 (Ki 1.3x10-8 M) [29]
galanin(7-29) (pig) Rn Agonist 7.5 pKi 34
pKi 7.5 (Ki 3.02x10-8 M) [34]
galanin(7-29) (pig) Hs Agonist 7.4 pKi 8,34
pKi 7.4 (Ki 3.548x10-8 M) [8,34]
M617 Hs Agonist 7.3 pKi 35
pKi 7.3 (Ki 4.9x10-8 M) [35]
galanin {Sp: Human} Rn Full agonist 7.3 pKi 34
pKi 7.3 (Ki 5.248x10-8 M) [34]
galanin(2-29) (pig) Hs Agonist 7.2 pKi 8
pKi 7.2 (Ki 6.026x10-8 M) [8]
galanin(1-16) (rat/mouse/pig) Rn Agonist 7.1 – 7.3 pKi 34,38-39
pKi 7.1 – 7.3 (Ki 8.913x10-8 – 4.96x10-8 M) [34,38-39]
galanin {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 7.2 pKi 8,34
pKi 7.2 (Ki 6.918x10-8 M) [8,34]
J18 (galanin analogue) Hs Agonist 6.9 pKi 29
pKi 6.9 (Ki 1.12x10-7 M) [29]
galanin(2-11) Hs Agonist 6.7 pKi 28
pKi 6.7 (Ki 1.99x10-7 M) [28]
M1153 Hs Agonist 6.6 pKi 31
pKi 6.6 (Ki 2.3x10-7 M) [31]
galanin(2-11) Rn Agonist 6.6 pKi 23
pKi 6.6 (Ki 2.71x10-7 M) [23]
galanin(1-16) (rat/mouse/pig) Hs Agonist 6.5 pKi 8,34
pKi 6.5 (Ki 3.162x10-7 M) [8,34]
M1145 Hs Agonist 6.3 pKi 28
pKi 6.3 (Ki 4.97x10-7 M) [28]
M1152 Hs Agonist 6.2 pKi 31
pKi 6.2 (Ki 6.56x10-7 M) [31]
M1151 Hs Agonist 6.1 pKi 31
pKi 6.1 (Ki 8.74x10-7 M) [31]
galanin(3-29) (pig) Hs Agonist <6.0 pKi 8,34
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [8,34]
galanin(3-29) (pig) Rn Agonist <6.0 pKi 34
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [34]
galanin(3-29) (rat/mouse) Rn Agonist <6.0 pKi 38-39
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [38-39]
galanin(10-29) (pig) Rn Agonist <6.0 pKi 39
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [39]
galanin(D-Trp2) (pig) Hs Agonist <6.0 pKi 34
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [34]
galanin(D-Trp2) (pig) Rn Agonist <6.0 pKi 8,34
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [8,34]
(D-Thr6, D-Trp8,9)galanin(1-15)ol Rn Agonist <6.0 pKi 39
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [39]
M1160 Hs Agonist <5.0 pKi 30
pKi <5.0 (Ki >1x10-5 M) [30]
galanin-like peptide {Sp: Rat} Rn Agonist 8.8 pIC50 9
pIC50 8.8 (IC50 1.53x10-9 M) [9]
galanin-like peptide {Sp: Human} Hs Agonist 8.0 pIC50 19
pIC50 8.0 (IC50 1x10-8 M) [19]
galanin {Sp: Pig} Hs Full agonist 7.9 pIC50 15
pIC50 7.9 (IC50 1.2x10-8 M) [15]
galanin {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 7.1 pIC50 15
pIC50 7.1 (IC50 7.5x10-8 M) [15]
galanin {Sp: Mouse, Rat} Rn Full agonist 7.0 pIC50 9
pIC50 7.0 (IC50 1.084x10-7 M) [9]
alarin {Sp: Rat} Rn Agonist <6.0 pIC50 9
pIC50 <6.0 (IC50 >1x10-6 M) [9]
View species-specific agonist tables
Agonist Comments
GAL3 receptor requires amino acids 17-19 of galanin for binding, and binding affinity is lost following removal of amino acids 1 and 2 of the peptide [8].

Various peptide fragments derived from porcine galanin message-associated peptide (GMAP, residues 65-123) have been tested for binding against GAL3 receptor but have been reported to have very weak [GMAP(1-30), GMAP(1-41), GMAP(44-59) [39]] or no measuirable binding [GMAP(1-41), GMAP(16-41), GMAP(25-41), GMAP(44-59) [34]].

NOTE that compounds with -ve log10 affinities <6 have no appreciable agonist function.
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
M32 Rn Antagonist 8.9 pKi 34
pKi 8.9 (Ki 1.23x10-9 M) [34]
C7 Rn Antagonist 8.4 – 9.1 pKi 34,39
pKi 8.4 – 9.1 (Ki 4.47x10-9 – 7.5x10-10 M) [34,39]
M35 Rn Antagonist 8.1 – 8.7 pKi 24,34,39
pKi 8.1 – 8.7 (Ki 7.5x10-9 – 2.09x10-9 M) [24,34,39]
SNAP 398299 Hs Antagonist 8.3 pKi 16-17,36
pKi 8.3 (Ki 5.33x10-9 M) [16-17,36]
M32 Hs Antagonist 8.2 pKi 8,34
pKi 8.2 (Ki 6.03x10-9 M) [8,34]
C7 Hs Antagonist 8.1 pKi 8,34
pKi 8.1 (Ki 8.31x10-9 M) [8,34]
M35 Hs Antagonist 7.8 – 7.8 pKi 8,34-35
pKi 7.8 – 7.8 (Ki 1.6x10-8 – 1.445x10-8 M) [8,34-35]
SNAP 37889 Hs Antagonist 7.8 – 7.8 pKi 16-17,36
pKi 7.8 – 7.8 (Ki 1.744x10-8 – 1.7x10-8 M) [16-17,36]
GalR3ant Rn Antagonist 7.7 – 7.8 pKi 18,24
pKi 7.7 – 7.8 (Ki 2x10-8 – 1.5x10-8 M) [18,24]
[Ala6, D-Trp8]galanin-(1-15)-ol Rn Antagonist 7.8 pKi 39
pKi 7.8 (Ki 1.79x10-8 M) [39]
M15 Rn Antagonist 7.1 – 8.0 pKi 24,34,39
pKi 7.1 – 8.0 (Ki 8.5x10-8 – 1.05x10-8 M) [24,34,39]
M15 Hs Antagonist 7.4 pKi 8,34
pKi 7.4 (Ki 3.981x10-8 M) [8,34]
M40 Rn Antagonist 7.1 – 7.3 pKi 24,34,39
pKi 7.1 – 7.3 (Ki 7.943x10-8 – 5.4x10-8 M) [24,34,39]
M40 Hs Antagonist 6.5 – 7.3 pKi 8,34-35
pKi 6.5 – 7.3 (Ki 2.884x10-7 – 5.2x10-8 M) [8,34-35]
M871 Hs Antagonist <5.0 pKi 35
pKi <5.0 (Ki >1x10-5 M) [35]
View species-specific antagonist tables
Antagonist Comments
GalR3ant displays receptor selectivity for GAL3 receptor, with low affinity for GAL1 receptor and GAL2 receptor [24].
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gi/Go family Adenylate cyclase inhibition
Potassium channel
Comments:  Signalling properties of GAL3 receptor are still ill-defined, but several studies suggest GAL3 receptor couples to Gi/G0 proteins to inhibit adenylate cyclase, and to stimulate a pertussis-sensitive activation of an inward K+ current when coexpressed with GIRK1 and GIRK4 in Xenopus oocytes [15,34] (reviewed in [20]).
References:  15,34
Tissue Distribution
Cholinergic neurons in anterior nucleus basalis.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Single cell RNA amplification and custom cDNA array analysis.
References:  12
GAL3 receptor mRNA found in pituitary adenoma tissue from patients who relapsed shortly after surgical intervention.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  10
GAL3 receptor mRNA in human forebrain, locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe nucleus .
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  21
Testis > thyroid, adrenal gland, brain, skeletal muscle, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, placenta.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Northern blot.
References:  15
Pluripotent R1 embryonic stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  1,22
Skin; vagal (nodose) sensory ganglia.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  27,33
Pancreas – acinar & islet cells.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  In situ hybridisation, RT-PCR.
References:  6
Locus coeruleus, hippocampus > ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra > nucleus accumbens.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry.
References:  14
Ventral mesencephalon of embryo.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  13
Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) – low levels of GAL3 receptor mRNA throughout GIT (mostly confined to colon).
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  2-3
Hypothalamus, pituitary > olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata, caudate putamen, cerebellum, spinal cord; liver, kidney, stomach, testicle, adrenal cortex. None detected in hippocampus, substantia nigra; heart, uterus, vas deferens, choroid plexus, dorsal root ganglion.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Solution hybridisation/RNase protection analysis.
References:  34
PC12 cell line (derived from phaeochromocytoma of rat adrenal medulla) and B104 cell line (derived from rat neuroblastoma).
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  11
Minimal in jejunum.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Northern blot.
References:  38
Moderate expression in many cortical regions, including anterior cingulate, frontoparietal, retrosplenial areas; dense expression in olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, islands of Calleja; some expression in taenia tecta, lateral septal nuclei, choroid plexus. Further dense expression in hippocampal CA regions and dentate gyrus; some expression in medial habenula, zona incerta; small amounts in some thalamic nuclei. Several hypothalamic nuclei display some expression - ventromedial, arcuate, paraventricular, supraoptic. Some expression in mammillary nuclei, amygdaloid nuclei, substantia nigra pars compacta, nucleus of Darkschewitsch, central grey. Minimal expression in caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens
Species:  Rat
Technique:  In situ hybridisation.
References:  15
Dorsal root ganglia, lung, kidney, liver > hippocampus, hypothalamus cortex, amygdala, spinal cord, anterior pituitary, spleen. Not detected in heart or large intestine.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Solution hybridisation/RNase protection analysis.
References:  40
Hippocampus, hypothalamus, lung, kidney, liver > cortex, amygdala, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, anterior pituitary, large intestine, spleen.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  40
Heart, testis and spleen with no significant expression in kidney, skeletal muscle, liver, lung or brain.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Northern blot.
References:  39
Immature thymocytes.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  37
Median and medial preoptic areas, ventromedian preoptic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, medial reticular formation, subfornical organ > bed nucleus of stria terminalis, nucleus vertical limb of the diagonal band, nucleus horizontal limb of the diagonal gand, lateral hypothalamic area, posterior hypothalamic area, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, premammillary nuclei, central grey, lateral parabraichial nucleus (external part) > medial septum, medial amygdaloid nuclei, lateral preoptic areas, anterior hypothalamic area, arcuate nucleus, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, periventricular hypothalamic nuclei, dorsal tegmentum, locus coeruleus, spinal cord (laminae I&II, II- VII,X).
Species:  Rat
Technique:  In situ hybridisation.
References:  25
Tissue Distribution Comments
GAL3 receptor appears to be the most important galanin receptor in the human locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe nucleus, versus GAL1 and GAL2 receptors in the rodent brain.
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
Measurement of functional activity of Xenopus oocyte cells tranfected with GAL3 receptor, GIRK1 (G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel 1) and GIRK3. Galanin activated GIRK1 and GIRK4 in GAL3 receptor-cotransfected Xenopus oocyte cells, suggesting involvement of the Gi/Go proteins. Injection of pertussis toxin caused a 98% reduction of galanin currents in GAL3 receptor-expressing oocytes.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Xenopus oocytes.
Response measured:  Activation of GIRK1 and GIRK4 in Xenopus oocytes.
References:  34
Galanin demonstrates a dose-dependent increase in aggregation of pigment in GAL3 receptor-transfected Xenopus melanophores, suggesting Gi coupling and signalling through inhibition of adenylate cyclase.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Xenopus melanophores.
Response measured:  Measurement of aggregation of pigment in Xenopus melanophores.
References:  15
Physiological Functions
GAL3 receptor antagonist SNAP 37889 reduces severity of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Pancreas.
References:  6
Galanin appears to mediate the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on immature rat thymocytes via GAL3 receptor (and GAL1 receptor).
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Thymocytes.
References:  37
GAL3 receptor antagonist, SNAP 37889 reduces stress induced hyperthermia in mice.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  36
GAL3 receptor antagonists SNAP 37889 and SNAP 398299 enhance rat social interaction.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  36
GAL3 receptor mediates inflammatory oedema formation in the skin. SNAP 37889, a GAL3 receptor antagonist, abolishes the anti-oedema effect of galanin.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Skin.
References:  32
GAL3 receptor antagonist SNAP 37889 greatly reduces the early GABAergic IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential) increase often seen in response to galanin in the central amygdala (CeA), suggesting galanin via GAL3 receptor may augment GABAergic transmission in CeA neurons.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Central amygdala.
References:  5
Galanin via GAL3 receptor regulates transepithelial chloride ion transport and fluid secretion in human eccrine sweat gland cells.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Human NCL-SG3 cells (human eccrine sweat gland cell line).
References:  10
In rats, the GAL3 receptor antagonist SNAP 37889 demonstrates anxiolytic activity, with increased punished drinking the the Vogel conflict test, antidepressant-like effects, with a decrease in immobility in the forced swim test. SNAP 37889 significantly reverses galanin-induced inhibition of dorsal raphe neuronal firing, inhibits galanin-evoked hyperpolarising currents and partially antagonises galanin-evoked reduction in hippocampal serotonin (completely antagonised when administered in combination with 5HT1A antagonist WAY100635).
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo/ventral hippocampus/dorsal raphe nucleus and dorsal raphe neurons.
References:  36
GAL3 receptor antagonist SNAP 37889 reduces operant responding for ethanol in alcohol preferring rats, as well as for sucrose and saccharin.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  4
Gene Expression and Pathophysiology Comments
GAL3 receptor is highly expressed in neuroblastoma [26].
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The combination of the GAL3 receptor rs3091367 risk allele and GAL (galanin) risk diplotype led to an increased odds ratio for alcoholism (compared to either GAL or GAL3 receptor alone).
Global MAF (%):  22
SNP accession: 
Validation:  1000 Genomes
References:  7

References

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1. Anisimov SV, Tarasov KV, Tweedie D, Stern MD, Wobus AM, Boheler KR. (2002) SAGE identification of gene transcripts with profiles unique to pluripotent mouse R1 embryonic stem cells. Genomics, 79 (2): 169-76. [PMID:11829487]

2. Anselmi L, Lakhter A, Hirano AA, Tonini M, Sternini C. (2005) Expression of galanin receptor messenger RNAs in different regions of the rat gastrointestinal tract. Peptides, 26 (5): 815-9. [PMID:15808911]

3. Anselmi L, Stella Jr SL, Lakhter A, Hirano A, Tonini M, Sternini C. (2005) Galanin receptors in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Neuropeptides, 39 (3): 349-52. [PMID:16044511]

4. Ash BL, Zanatta SD, Williams SJ, Lawrence AJ, Djouma E. (2011) The galanin-3 receptor antagonist, SNAP 37889, reduces operant responding for ethanol in alcohol-preferring rats. Regul. Pept., 166 (1-3): 59-67. [PMID:20736033]

5. Bajo M, Madamba SG, Lu X, Sharkey LM, Bartfai T, Siggins GR. (2012) Receptor subtype-dependent galanin actions on gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission and ethanol responses in the central amygdala. Addict Biol, 17 (4): 694-705. [PMID:21955024]

6. Barreto SG, Bazargan M, Zotti M, Hussey DJ, Sukocheva OA, Peiris H, Leong M, Keating DJ, Schloithe AC, Carati CJ et al.. (2011) Galanin receptor 3--a potential target for acute pancreatitis therapy. Neurogastroenterol. Motil., 23 (3): e141-51. [PMID:21303427]

7. Belfer I, Hipp H, Bollettino A, McKnight C, Evans C, Virkkunen M, Albaugh B, Max MB, Goldman D, Enoch MA. (2007) Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. Genes Brain Behav., 6 (5): 473-81. [PMID:17083333]

8. Borowsky B, Walker MW, Huang LY, Jones KA, Smith KE, Bard J, Branchek TA, Gerald C. (1998) Cloning and characterization of the human galanin GALR2 receptor. Peptides, 19 (10): 1771-81. [PMID:9880084]

9. Boughton CK, Patterson M, Bewick GA, Tadross JA, Gardiner JV, Beale KE, Chaudery F, Hunter G, Busbridge M, Leavy EM et al.. (2010) Alarin stimulates food intake and gonadotrophin release in male rats. Br. J. Pharmacol., 161 (3): 601-13. [PMID:20880399]

10. Bovell DL, Holub BS, Odusanwo O, Brodowicz B, Rauch I, Kofler B, Lang R. (2013) Galanin is a modulator of eccrine sweat gland secretion. Exp. Dermatol., 22 (2): 141-3. [PMID:23278944]

11. Cheng S, Yuan CG. (2007) Differential effect of galanin on proliferation of PC12 and B104 cells. Neuroreport, 18 (13): 1379-83. [PMID:17762717]

12. Counts SE, Chen EY, Che S, Ikonomovic MD, Wuu J, Ginsberg SD, Dekosky ST, Mufson EJ. (2006) Galanin fiber hypertrophy within the cholinergic nucleus basalis during the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord, 21 (4): 205-14. [PMID:16410678]

13. Counts SE, McGuire SO, Sortwell CE, Crawley JN, Collier TJ, Mufson EJ. (2002) Galanin inhibits tyrosine hydroxylase expression in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. J. Neurochem., 83 (2): 442-51. [PMID:12423254]

14. Hawes JJ, Picciotto MR. (2004) Characterization of GalR1, GalR2, and GalR3 immunoreactivity in catecholaminergic nuclei of the mouse brain. J. Comp. Neurol., 479 (4): 410-23. [PMID:15514977]

15. Kolakowski Jr LF, O'Neill GP, Howard AD, Broussard SR, Sullivan KA, Feighner SD, Sawzdargo M, Nguyen T, Kargman S, Shiao LL et al.. (1998) Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3. J. Neurochem., 71 (6): 2239-51. [PMID:9832121]

16. Konkel MJ, Lagu B, Boteju LW, Jimenez H, Noble S, Walker MW, Chandrasena G, Blackburn TP, Nikam SS, Wright JL et al.. (2006) 3-arylimino-2-indolones are potent and selective galanin GAL3 receptor antagonists. J. Med. Chem., 49 (13): 3757-8. [PMID:16789730]

17. Konkel MJ, Packiarajan M, Chen H, Topiwala UP, Jimenez H, Talisman IJ, Coate H, Walker MW. (2006) Amino substituted analogs of 1-phenyl-3-phenylimino-2-indolones with potent galanin Gal3 receptor binding affinity and improved solubility. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 16 (15): 3950-4. [PMID:16730981]

18. Konkel, Michael et al.. (2004) 3-Imino-2-indolones for the treatment of depression and/or anxiety. Patent number: US20040082615. Assignee: Synaptic (transfered fron Lundbeck). Priority date: 07/08/2002. Publication date: 29/04/2004.

19. Lang R, Berger A, Santic R, Geisberger R, Hermann A, Herzog H, Kofler B. (2005) Pharmacological and functional characterization of galanin-like peptide fragments as potent galanin receptor agonists. Neuropeptides, 39 (3): 179-84. [PMID:15944009]

20. Lang R, Gundlach AL, Kofler B. (2007) The galanin peptide family: receptor pharmacology, pleiotropic biological actions, and implications in health and disease. Pharmacol. Ther., 115 (2): 177-207. [PMID:17604107]

21. Le Maître E, Barde SS, Palkovits M, Diaz-Heijtz R, Hökfelt TG. (2013) Distinct features of neurotransmitter systems in the human brain with focus on the galanin system in locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 110 (6): E536-45. [PMID:23341594]

22. Louridas M, Letourneau S, Lautatzis ME, Vrontakis M. (2009) Galanin is highly expressed in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and facilitates migration of cells both in vitro and in vivo. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 390 (3): 867-71. [PMID:19840773]

23. Lu X, Lundström L, Bartfai T. (2005) Galanin (2-11) binds to GalR3 in transfected cell lines: limitations for pharmacological definition of receptor subtypes. Neuropeptides, 39 (3): 165-7. [PMID:15944007]

24. Lu X, Lundström L, Langel U, Bartfai T. (2005) Galanin receptor ligands. Neuropeptides, 39 (3): 143-6. [PMID:15944002]

25. Mennicken F, Hoffert C, Pelletier M, Ahmad S, O'Donnell D. (2002) Restricted distribution of galanin receptor 3 (GalR3) mRNA in the adult rat central nervous system. J. Chem. Neuroanat., 24 (4): 257-68. [PMID:12406501]

26. NCBI. LPHN2 - Ovarian cancer and depression. Accessed on 02/05/2013. Modified on 02/05/2013. NCBI Geoprofiles, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geoprofiles

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Andrew L. Gundlach, Philip J. Ryan.
Galanin receptors: GAL3 receptor. Last modified on 13/07/2015. Accessed on 18/11/2018. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=245.