transmembrane protein 173

Target id: 2902

Nomenclature: transmembrane protein 173

Abbreviated Name: STING

Family: Other pattern recognition receptors

Annotation status:  image of a grey circle Awaiting annotation/under development. Please contact us if you can help with annotation.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     transmembrane protein 173 has curated GtoImmuPdb data

Gene and Protein Information
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 4 379 5q31.2 TMEM173 transmembrane protein 173
Mouse 4 379 18 B3 Tmem173 transmembrane protein 173
Rat - 379 18p11 Tmem173 transmembrane protein 173
Gene and Protein Information Comments
For the human and mouse genes alternate splicing is reported to result in multiple transcript variants, and protein isoforms. We provide details for the longest transcripts and proteins here. The Entrez gene links provide full details of other variants identified.
Previous and Unofficial Names
STimulator of INterferon Genes | NET23 | STING
Database Links
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project
Human Protein Atlas
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
Selected 3D Structures
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  Crystal structure of STING in complex with cGAMP
Ligand:  2'3'-cGAMP
Resolution:  1.88Å
Species:  Human
References:  13

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
2'3'-cGAMP Hs Agonist 8.3 – 8.4 pKd 13
pKd 8.3 – 8.4 (Kd 4.59x10-9 – 3.79x10-9 M) [13]
Immunopharmacology Comments
STING functions as a major regulator of the innate immune response to viral and bacterial infections. Located in the endoplasmic reticulum, it acts as a pattern recognition receptor, activating type I interferon (IFN) responses upon direct binding to a variety of different cyclic-di-nucleotides (for example of pathogenic origin) [1,3,6-7]. Mechanistically, STING mediates DNA-induced TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) activation, which in turn coordinates the phosphorylation-induced activation of IRF3 (an interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF)) leading to transcriptional regulation of immune response genes including type I IFNs and antiviral IFN-stimulated genes. In cancer, STING is reported to mediate immune recognition of immunogenic tumours, by activating the cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-STING-interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) pathway in response to the detection of tumor-cell-derived DNA [12].
Pharmacological stimulation of innate type I IFN responses by STING agonists is being investigated by the pharma industry as a novel way to combat pathogens [10]. Identification of activating STING mutations as the cause of infantile-onset STING-associated vasculopathy (SAVI) [5,9] has instigated the search for pharmacological inhibitors of STING, as a therapeutic strategy not only for SAVI but also for other DNA-induced type I interferonopathies, including systemic lupus erythematosus [4,8].
Immuno Process Associations
Immuno Process:  Inflammation
Immuno Process ID:  2
GO Annotation:  Associated to GO processes
GO Processes:  activation of innate immune response (GO:0002218) IMP
neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
innate immune response (GO:0045087) IDA
Immuno Process:  Immune regulation
Immuno Process ID:  6
GO Annotation:  Associated to GO processes
GO Processes:  activation of innate immune response (GO:0002218) IMP
positive regulation of defense response to virus by host (GO:0002230) IMP
Immuno Process:  Cytokine production & signalling
Immuno Process ID:  9
GO Annotation:  Associated to GO processes
GO Processes:  regulation of type I interferon production (GO:0032479) TAS
positive regulation of type I interferon production (GO:0032481) IDA
interferon-beta production (GO:0032608) IDA
cellular response to interferon-beta (GO:0035458) IEA
Immuno Process:  Cellular signalling
Immuno Process ID:  11
GO Annotation:  Associated to GO processes
GO Processes:  neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
Physiological Functions
STING mediates synthesis of type I interferon and initiation of immune responses upon detection of aberrant DNA species or cyclic di-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) in the cytosol
Species:  Human
References:  2
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology
Disease:  STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy
Description: An autoinflammatory interferonopathy characterised by neonatal-onset of systemic inflammation especially affecting the skin, blood vessels, and lungs.
Synonyms: SAVI
STING-associated vasculopathy, infantile-onset
OMIM: 615934
References:  9,11
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Amino acid change Nucleotide change Description Reference
Missense Human S102P + F279L p.Ser102Pro is located within the transmembrane region of STING, and p.Phe279Leu is located in the cytoplasmic domain. These domains are believed to be involved in homodimerization and maintenance of proper subcellular localisation. 11
Missense, gain of function Human V147L 9
Missense, gain of function Human N154S 9
Missense, gain of function Human V155M 9


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1. Barber GN. (2014) STING-dependent cytosolic DNA sensing pathways. Trends Immunol.35 (2): 88-93. [PMID:24309426]

2. Barber GN. (2015) STING: infection, inflammation and cancer. Nat. Rev. Immunol.15 (12): 760-70. [PMID:26603901]

3. Burdette DL, Monroe KM, Sotelo-Troha K, Iwig JS, Eckert B, Hyodo M, Hayakawa Y, Vance RE. (2011) STING is a direct innate immune sensor of cyclic di-GMP. Nature478 (7370): 515-8. [PMID:21947006]

4. Crow YJ. (2011) Type I interferonopathies: a novel set of inborn errors of immunity. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.1238: 91-8. [PMID:22129056]

5. Crow YJ, Casanova JL. (2014) STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy--a new interferonopathy. N. Engl. J. Med.371 (6): 568-71. [PMID:25029336]

6. Ishikawa H, Barber GN. (2011) The STING pathway and regulation of innate immune signaling in response to DNA pathogens. Cell. Mol. Life Sci.68 (7): 1157-65. [PMID:21161320]

7. Ishikawa H, Ma Z, Barber GN. (2009) STING regulates intracellular DNA-mediated, type I interferon-dependent innate immunity. Nature461 (7265): 788-92. [PMID:19776740]

8. Jeremiah N, Neven B, Gentili M, Callebaut I, Maschalidi S, Stolzenberg MC, Goudin N, Frémond ML, Nitschke P, Molina TJ et al.. (2014) Inherited STING-activating mutation underlies a familial inflammatory syndrome with lupus-like manifestations. J. Clin. Invest.124 (12): 5516-20. [PMID:25401470]

9. Liu Y, Jesus AA, Marrero B, Yang D, Ramsey SE, Montealegre Sanchez GA, Tenbrock K, Wittkowski H, Jones OY, Kuehn HS et al.. (2014) Activated STING in a vascular and pulmonary syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med.371 (6): 507-18. [PMID:25029335]

10. Sali TM, Pryke KM, Abraham J, Liu A, Archer I, Broeckel R, Staverosky JA, Smith JL, Al-Shammari A, Amsler L et al.. (2015) Characterization of a Novel Human-Specific STING Agonist that Elicits Antiviral Activity Against Emerging Alphaviruses. PLoS Pathog.11 (12): e1005324. [PMID:26646986]

11. Seo J, Kang JA, Suh DI, Park EB, Lee CR, Choi SA, Kim SY, Kim Y, Park SH, Ye M et al.. (2016) Tofacitinib relieves symptoms of stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy caused by 2 de novo variants in TMEM173. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.,  [Epub ahead of print]. [PMID:28041677]

12. Woo SR, Fuertes MB, Corrales L, Spranger S, Furdyna MJ, Leung MY, Duggan R, Wang Y, Barber GN, Fitzgerald KA et al.. (2014) STING-dependent cytosolic DNA sensing mediates innate immune recognition of immunogenic tumors. Immunity41 (5): 830-42. [PMID:25517615]

13. Zhang X, Shi H, Wu J, Zhang X, Sun L, Chen C, Chen ZJ. (2013) Cyclic GMP-AMP containing mixed phosphodiester linkages is an endogenous high-affinity ligand for STING. Mol. Cell51 (2): 226-35. [PMID:23747010]

How to cite this page

Other pattern recognition receptors: transmembrane protein 173. Last modified on 02/03/2017. Accessed on 23/10/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,