SST<sub>1</sub> receptor | Somatostatin receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

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SST1 receptor

Target not currently curated in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 355

Nomenclature: SST1 receptor

Family: Somatostatin receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 391 14q13 SSTR1 somatostatin receptor 1 55-56
Mouse 7 391 12 C1 Sstr1 somatostatin receptor 1 55
Rat 7 391 6q23 Sstr1 somatostatin receptor 1 28
Previous and Unofficial Names
SRIF-2 | SS1R
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB ssr1_human (Hs), ssr1_mouse (Mm), ssr1_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
cortistatin-14 {Sp: Mouse, Rat}
CST-17 {Sp: Human}
SRIF-14 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat}
SRIF-28 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat}
Comments: SRIF-14 and SRIF-28 are the active fragments of precursor somatostatin

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Parameter Reference
[125I]Tyr10-CST14 Hs Full agonist 10.0 pKd 47-48
pKd 10.0 [47-48]
[125I]LTT-SRIF-28 Hs Full agonist 8.8 – 10.0 pKd 42,47-48
pKd 10.0 [47-48]
pKd 8.8 [42]
[125I]Tyr11-SRIF-14 Mm Full agonist 9.2 pKd 29
pKd 9.2 [29]
CST-17 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 9.1 – 9.6 pKi 14,47-48
pKi 9.1 – 9.6 [14,47-48]
SRIF-14 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 8.6 – 9.5 pKi 7,14,33,35-36,42,47-48,57
pKi 8.6 – 9.5 [7,14,33,35-36,42,47-48,57]
SRIF-28 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 8.6 – 9.4 pKi 7,14,33,35,47-48
pKi 8.6 – 9.4 [7,14,33,35,47-48]
L-797,591 Hs Full agonist 8.8 pKi 42
pKi 8.8 [42]
L-817,818 Hs Full agonist 8.5 pKi 42
pKi 8.5 [42]
BIM 23052 Hs Full agonist 8.2 – 8.6 pKi 7,47-48
pKi 8.2 – 8.6 [7,47-48]
cortistatin-14 {Sp: Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 7.7 – 9.1 pKi 47-48
pKi 7.7 – 9.1 [47-48]
CH 275 Hs Full agonist 8.3 – 8.7 pIC50 33
pIC50 8.3 – 8.7 [33]
SRIF-14 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Rn Full agonist 8.4 pIC50 54
pIC50 8.4 [54]
pasireotide Hs Full agonist 8.0 pIC50 44
pIC50 8.0 [44]
Des-Ala1,2,5-[D-Trp8,IAmp9]SRIF Hs Full agonist 7.5 pIC50 15
pIC50 7.5 [15]
View species-specific agonist tables
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Parameter Reference
SRA880 Hs Antagonist 8.0 – 8.1 pKd 21
pKd 8.0 – 8.1 [21]
BIM 23454 Hs Antagonist 6.0 pIC50 51
pIC50 6.0 [51]
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gi/Go family Adenylate cyclase inhibition
References:  20,23,46
Secondary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
G protein (identity unknown) Other - See Comments
Comments:  PTX-insensitive G-proteins activate protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE1).
References:  8,20,30
Tissue Distribution
Other structures: bronchial glands, skeletal muscle, endothelial cells
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  50,52
Pancreatic islets: co-localised with insulin in beta-cells.
Species:  Human
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  25
Endocrine system: anterior pituitary, endocrine pancreas, parathyroid gland, testis, neuroendocrine / enterochromaffin-like cells of the GI mucosa
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  26,31,37,50,52
Gastrointestinal system: stomach, intestine, rectum
Species:  Human
Technique:  immunohistochemistry
References:  31,50,52
Immune system: lymphocytes, macrophages in spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, lung and gut mucosa
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  31
Cerebellum (Purkinje cells), frontal cortex (pyramidal cells), hippocampus (CA1-4 subfields and some granule cells of the dentate gyrus).
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR and in situ hybridisation.
References:  43
CNS: hippocampus, basal forebrain, basal ganglia, hypothalamus (paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus, median eminence), brainstem, spinal cord, retina
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  13,18-19,32,45,49
PNS: dorsal root ganglia, enteric ganglion cells and fibers
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  9,22,31,53
Cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, substantia innominata, hypothalamus, pretectum, substantia nigra, parabrachial nucleus, nucleus of of the solitary tract.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  in situ hybridisation.
References:  6
Retina.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry.
References:  32
Hypothalamus: medial preoptic area, suprachiasmic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, para- and periventricular nuclei, ventral premammillary nucleus.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  in situ hybridisation.
References:  4
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
Measurement of cAMP accumulation (AC activity) in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with the human sst1 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO-K1 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of cAMP accumulation.
References:  40
Measurement of GH release from GC cells (growth cells) form a rat somatotroph tumour treated with the sst1 selective agonist L-797,591.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  GC cells (growth cells) from a rat somatotroph tumour endogenously expressing all 5 SRIF subtypes.
Response measured:  Reduction in GH secretion.
References:  11
Measurement of tyrosine phosphastase activity in COS-7 cells stably transfected with the human sst1 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  COS-7 cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of tyrosine phosphatase activity.
References:  8
Measurement of NHE1 (Na/H exchanger) activity (pH recovery) in Ltk- cells stably expressing the human sst1 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Mouse fibroblast Ltk- cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of NHE1 activity.
References:  20
Measurement of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with the rat sst1 receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  CHO-K1 cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity.
References:  16
Measurement of MAPK cascade activity in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with rat sst1 receptors.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  CHO-K1 cells.
Response measured:  Activation of MAPK cascade.
References:  17
Measurement of cAMP accumulation (AC activity) in HEK 293 cells stably transfected with human sst1 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of cAMP accumulation.
References:  23
Measurement of AC activity (cAMP levels) in CCL39 cells stably transfected with human sst1 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CCL39 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of AC activity.
References:  46
Measurement of ECAR (extracellular acidification rate) in F4C1 cells stably transfected with mouse sst1 receptors.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  F4C1 cells (rat pituitary).
Response measured:  Decrease in ECAR.
References:  12
Measurement of AMPA/Kainate receptor activation in mouse hypothalamic neurons expressing sst1.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Hypothalamic neurones grown in primary cell culture.
Response measured:  Increase in AMPA/Kainate receptor mediated response to glutamate.
References:  27
Measurement of PLC activity and cytosolic Ca2+ in COS-7 cells stably transfected with human sst1 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  COS-7 cells.
Response measured:  Activation of PLC and Ca2+ mobilisation.
References:  2
Measurement of NOS activity (NO production) in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with rat sst1.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  CHO-K1 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of NO production.
References:  3
Measurement of AC activity (cAMP accumulation) in NIH 3T3 cell membranes from clones expressing human sst1 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  NIH 3T3 cells (mouse).
Response measured:  Inhibition of AC activity.
References:  8
Physiological Functions
Control of basal GH levels.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Primary pituitary cell cultures.
References:  24
Antiproliferation.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Umbilical vein endothelial cells.
References:  1
Autoreceptor: modulates somatostatin levels.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Retina.
References:  32
Increases AMPA/Kainate receptor-mediated responses to glutamate.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Hypothalamic neurones grown in primary cell culture.
References:  27
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
Mice lacking the sst1 receptor in the retina show up-regulation of the sst2 receptor and an increased total level of retinal SRIF.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  5
Mice lacking the sst1 receptor in the retina show enlargement of rod bipolar cell (RBC) axonal terminals, up-regulation of the sst2 receptor at/near the eye opening, and an increase in SRIF levels.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  10
Mice lacking the sst1 receptor show an inability to regulate basal GH levels, suggesting an involvement of the sst1 receptor in growth control. Studied using sst1 KO mouse primary pituitary cell cultures.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  24
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Sstr1tm1Dric Sstr1tm1Dric/Sstr1tm1Dric
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:98327  MP:0004994 abnormal brain wave pattern PMID: 15548214 
Sstr1tm1Dric Sstr1tm1Dric/Sstr1tm1Dric
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:98327  MP:0005551 abnormal eye electrophysiology PMID: 15464758 
Sstr1tm1Dric Sstr1tm1Dric/Sstr1tm1Dric
involves: 129S4/SvJae
MGI:98327  MP:0006072 abnormal retinal apoptosis PMID: 17425570 
Sstr1tm1Dric Sstr1tm1Dric/Sstr1tm1Dric
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:98327  MP:0006074 abnormal retinal rod bipolar cell morphology PMID: 14750962 
Sstr1tm1Dric Sstr1tm1Dric/Sstr1tm1Dric
involves: 129S4/SvJae
MGI:98327  MP:0004495 decreased synaptic glutamate release PMID: 17425570 
Sstr1tm1Dgen Sstr1tm1Dgen/Sstr1tm1Dgen
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:98327  MP:0001402 hypoactivity
Sstr1tm1Dgen Sstr1tm1Dgen/Sstr1tm1Dgen
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:98327  MP:0005178 increased circulating cholesterol level
Sstr1tm1Dgen Sstr1tm1Dgen/Sstr1tm1Dgen
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:98327  MP:0001556 increased circulating HDL cholesterol level

References

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1. Adams RL, Adams IP, Lindow SW, Atkin SL. (2004) Inhibition of endothelial proliferation by the somatostatin analogue SOM230. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 61: 431-436. [PMID:15473874]

2. Akbar M, Okajima F, Tomura H, Majid MA, Yamada Y, Seino S, Kondo Y. (1994) Phospholipase C activation and Ca2+ mobilization by cloned human somatostatin receptor subtypes 1-5, in transfected COS-7 cells. FEBS Lett, 348: 192-196. [PMID:8034040]

3. Arena S, Pattarozzi A, Corsaro A, Schettini G, Florio T. (2005) Somatostatin receptor subtype-dependent regulation of nitric oxide release: involvement of different intracellular pathways. Mol Endocrinol, 19: 255-267. [PMID:15388796]

4. Beaudet A, Greenspun D, Raelson J, Tannenbaum GS. (1995) Patterns of expression of SSTR1 and SSTR2 somatostatin receptor subtypes in the hypothalamus of the adult rat: relationship to neuroendocrine function. Neuroscience, 65: 551-561. [PMID:7777168]

5. Bigiani A, Petrucci C, Ghiaroni V, Dal Monte M, Cozzi A, Kreienkamp HJ, Richter D, Bagnoli P. (2004) Functional correlates of somatostatin receptor 2 overexpression in the retina of mice with genetic deletion of somatostatin receptor 1. Brain Res, 1025: 177-185. [PMID:15464758]

6. Breder CD, Yamada Y, Yasuda K, Seino S, Saper CB, Bell GI. (1992) Differential expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in brain. J Neurosci, 12: 3920-3934. [PMID:1403090]

7. Bruns C, Raulf F, Hoyer D, Schloos J, Lubbert H, Weckbecker G. (1996) Binding properties of somatostatin receptor subtypes. Metabolism, 45: 17-20. [PMID:8769372]

8. Buscail L, Delesque N, Estève JP, Saint-Laurent N, Prats H, Clerc P, Robberecht P, Bell GI, Liebow C, Schally AV et al.. (1994) Stimulation of tyrosine phosphatase and inhibition of cell proliferation by somatostatin analogues: mediation by human somatostatin receptor subtypes SSTR1 and SSTR2. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 91 (6): 2315-9. [PMID:7907795]

9. Bär KJ, Schurigt U, Scholze A, Segond Von Banchet G, Stopfel N, Bräuer R, Halbhuber KJ, Schaible HG. (2004) The expression and localization of somatostatin receptors in dorsal root ganglion neurons of normal and monoarthritic rats. Neuroscience, 127 (1): 197-206. [PMID:15219682]

10. Casini G, Dal Monte M, Petrucci C, Gambellini G, Grouselle D, Allen JP, Kreienkamp HJ, Richter D, Epelbaum J, Bagnoli P. (2004) Altered morphology of rod bipolar cell axonal terminals in the retinas of mice carrying genetic deletion of somatostatin subtype receptor 1 or 2. Eur J Neurosci, 19: 43-54. [PMID:14750962]

11. Cervia D, Zizzari P, Pavan B, Schuepbach E, Langenegger D, Hoyer D, Biondi C, Epelbaum J, Bagnoli P. (2003) Biological activity of somatostatin receptors in GC rat tumour somatotrophs: evidence with sst1-sst5 receptor-selective nonpeptidyl agonists. Neuropharmacology, 44: 672-685. [PMID:12668053]

12. Chen L, Tashjian AH. (1999) Identification of distinct signalling pathways for somatostatin receptors SSTR1 and SSTR2 as revealed by microphysiometry. Cell Signal, 11: 499-505. [PMID:10405760]

13. Dal Monte M, Petrucci C, Vasilaki A, Cervia D, Grouselle D, Epelbaum J, Kreienkamp HJ, Richter D, Hoyer D, Bagnoli P. (2003) Genetic deletion of somatostatin receptor 1 alters somatostatinergic transmission in the mouse retina. Neuropharmacology, 45 (8): 1080-92. [PMID:14614951]

14. Engstrom M, Tomperi J, El-Darwish K, Ahman M, Savola JM, Wurster S. (2005) Superagonism at the human somatostatin receptor subtype 4. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 312: 332-338. [PMID:15333679]

15. Erchegyi J, Hoeger CA, Low W, Hoyer D, Waser B, Eltschinger V, Schaer JC, Cescato R, Reubi JC, Rivier JE. (2005) Somatostatin receptor 1 selective analogues: 2. N(alpha)-Methylated scan. J Med Chem, 48: 507-514. [PMID:15658864]

16. Florio T, Rim C, Hershberger RE, Loda M, Stork PJ. (1994) The somatostatin receptor SSTR1 is coupled to phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity in CHO-K1 cells. Mol Endocrinol, 8: 1289-1297. [PMID:7854346]

17. Florio T, Yao H, Carey KD, Dillon TJ, Stork PJ. (1999) Somatostatin activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase via somatostatin receptor 1 (SSTR1). Mol Endocrinol, 13: 24-37. [PMID:9892010]

18. Helboe L, Stidsen CE, Moller M. (1998) Immunohistochemical and cytochemical localization of the somatostatin receptor subtype sst1 in the somatostatinergic parvocellular neuronal system of the rat hypothalamus. J. Neurosci., 18 (13): 4938-45. [PMID:9634559]

19. Hervieu G, Emson PC. (1998) The localization of somatostatin receptor 1 (sst1) immunoreactivity in the rat brain using an N-terminal specific antibody. Neuroscience, 85 (4): 1263-84. [PMID:9681962]

20. Hou C, Gilbert RL, Barber DL. (1994) Subtype-specific signaling mechanisms of somatostatin receptors SSTR1 and SSTR2. J Biol Chem, 269: 10357-10362. [PMID:8144617]

21. Hoyer D, Nunn C, Hannon J, Schoeffter P, Feuerbach D, Schuepbach E, Langenegger D, Bouhelal R, Hurth K, Neumann P, Troxler T, Pfaeffli P. (2004) SRA880, in vitro characterization of the first non-peptide somatostatin sst(1) receptor antagonist. Neurosci Lett, 361: 132-135. [PMID:15135911]

22. Imhof AK, Glück L, Gajda M, Lupp A, Bräuer R, Schaible HG, Schulz S. (2011) Differential antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the somatostatin analogs octreotide and pasireotide in a mouse model of immune-mediated arthritis. Arthritis Rheum., 63 (8): 2352-62. [PMID:21506098]

23. Kaupmann K, Bruns C, Hoyer D, Seuwen K, Lubbert H. (1993) Distribution and second messenger coupling of four somatostatin receptor subtypes expressed in brain. FEBS Lett, 331: 53-59. [PMID:8405411]

24. Kreienkamp HJ, Akgun E, Baumeister H, Meyerhof W, Richter D. (1999) Somatostatin receptor subtype 1 modulates basal inhibition of growth hormone release in somatotrophs. FEBS Lett, 462: 464-466. [PMID:10622746]

25. Kumar U, Sasi R, Suresh S, Patel A, Thangaraju M, Metrakos P, Patel SC, Patel YC. (1999) Subtype-selective expression of the five somatostatin receptors (hSSTR1-5) in human pancreatic islet cells: a quantitative double-label immunohistochemical analysis. Diabetes, 48: 77-85. [PMID:9892225]

26. Lambertini C, Barzaghi-Rinaudo P, D'Amato L, Schulz S, Nuciforo P, Schmid HA. (2013) Evaluation of somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human neuroendocrine tumors using two sets of new monoclonal antibodies. Regul. Pept., 187: 35-41. [PMID:24188818]

27. Lanneau C, Viollet C, Faivre-Bauman A, Loudes C, Kordon C, Epelbaum J, Gardette R. (1998) Somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1 and sst2 elicit opposite effects on the response to glutamate of mouse hypothalamic neurones: an electrophysiological and single cell RT-PCR study. Eur J Neurosci, 10: 204-212. [PMID:9753128]

28. Li XJ, Forte M, North RA, Ross CA, Snyder SH. (1992) Cloning and expression of a rat somatostatin receptor enriched in brain. J Biol Chem, 267: 21307-21312. [PMID:1400442]

29. Liapakis G, Tallent M, Reisine T. (1996) Molecular and functional properties of somatostain receptor subtypes. Metabolism, 45: 12-13. [PMID:8769370]

30. Lin CY, Varma MG, Joubel A, Madabushi S, Lichtarge O, Barber DL. (2003) Conserved motifs in somatostatin, D2-dopamine, and alpha 2B-adrenergic receptors for inhibiting the Na-H exchanger, NHE1. J Biol Chem, 278: 15128-15135. [PMID:12566440]

31. Lupp A, Nagel F, Schulz S. (2013) Reevaluation of sst₁ somatostatin receptor expression in human normal and neoplastic tissues using the novel rabbit monoclonal antibody UMB-7. Regul. Pept., 183: 1-6. [PMID:23466804]

32. Mastrodimou N, Thermos K. (2004) The somatostatin receptor (sst1) modulates the release of somatostatin in rat retina. Neurosci Lett, 356: 13-16. [PMID:14746890]

33. Meyerhof W. (1998) The elucidation of somatostatin receptor functions: a current view. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol, 133: 55-108. [PMID:9600011]

34. Nunn C, Schoeffter P, Langenegger D, Hoyer D. (2003) Functional characterisation of the putative somatostatin sst2 receptor antagonist CYN 154806. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 367: 1-9. [PMID:12616335]

35. Patel YC, Srikant CB. (1994) Subtype selectivity of peptide analogs for all five cloned human somatostatin receptors (hsstr 1-5). Endocrinology, 135: 2814-2817. [PMID:7988476]

36. Poitout L, Roubert P, Contour-Galcera MO, Moinet C, Lannoy J, Pommier J, Plas P, Bigg D, Thurieau C. (2001) Identification of potent non-peptide somatostatin antagonists with sst(3) selectivity. J Med Chem, 44: 2990-3000. [PMID:11520208]

37. Portela-Gomes GM, Stridsberg M, Grimelius L, Oberg K, Janson ET. (2000) Expression of the five different somatostatin receptor subtypes in endocrine cells of the pancreas. Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol., 8 (2): 126-32. [PMID:10937060]

38. Raynor K, Murphy WA, Coy DH, Taylor JE, Moreau JP, Yasuda K, Bell GI, Reisine T. (1993) Cloned somatostatin receptors: identification of subtype-selective peptides and demonstration of high affinity binding of linear peptides. Mol Pharmacol, 43: 838-844. [PMID:8100350]

39. Reubi JC, Eisenwiener KP, Rink H, Waser B, Macke HR. (2002) A new peptidic somatostatin agonist with high affinity to all five somatostatin receptors. Eur J Pharmacol, 456: 45-49. [PMID:12450568]

40. Rivier JE, Hoeger C, Erchegyi J, Gulyas J, DeBoard R, Craig AG, Koerber SC, Wenger S, Waser B, Schaer JC, Reubi JC. (2001) Potent somatostatin undecapeptide agonists selective for somatostatin receptor 1 (sst1). J Med Chem, 44: 2238-2246. [PMID:11405660]

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42. Rohrer SP, Birzin ET, Mosley RT, Berk SC, Hutchins SM, Shen DM, Xiong Y, Hayes EC, Parmar RM, Foor F, Mitra SW, Degrado SJ, Shu M, Klopp JM, Cai SJ, Blake A, Chan WW, Pasternak A, Yang L, Patchett AA, Smith RG, Chapman KT, Schaeffer JM. (1998) Rapid identification of subtype-selective agonists of the somatostatin receptor through combinatorial chemistry. Science, 282: 737-740. [PMID:9784130]

43. Schindler M, Harrington KA, Humphrey PP, Emson PC. (1995) Cellular localisation and co-expression of somatostatin receptor messenger RNAs in the human brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res, 34: 321-326. [PMID:8750836]

44. Schmid HA, Schoeffter P. (2004) Functional activity of the multiligand analog SOM230 at human recombinant somatostatin receptor subtypes supports its usefulness in neuroendocrine tumors. Neuroendocrinology, 80: 47-50. [PMID:15477717]

45. Schulz S, Händel M, Schreff M, Schmidt H, Höllt V. (2000) Localization of five somatostatin receptors in the rat central nervous system using subtype-specific antibodies. J. Physiol. Paris, 94 (3-4): 259-64. [PMID:11088003]

46. Siehler S, Hoyer D. (1999) Characterisation of human recombinant somatostatin receptors. 3. Modulation of adenylate cyclase activity. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 360: 510-521. [PMID:10598790]

47. Siehler S, Seuwen K, Hoyer D. (1998) [125I]Tyr10-cortistatin14 labels all five somatostatin receptors. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 357: 483-489. [PMID:9650799]

48. Siehler S, Seuwen K, Hoyer D. (1999) Characterisation of human recombinant somatostatin receptors. 1. Radioligand binding studies. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 360: 488-499. [PMID:10598788]

49. Stroh T, Sarret P, Tannenbaum GS, Beaudet A. (2006) Immunohistochemical distribution and subcellular localization of the somatostatin receptor subtype 1 (sst1) in the rat hypothalamus. Neurochem. Res., 31 (2): 247-57. [PMID:16518576]

50. Taniyama Y, Suzuki T, Mikami Y, Moriya T, Satomi S, Sasano H. (2005) Systemic distribution of somatostatin receptor subtypes in human: an immunohistochemical study. Endocr. J., 52 (5): 605-11. [PMID:16284440]

51. Tulipano G, Soldi D, Bagnasco M, Culler MD, Taylor JE, Cocchi D, Giustina A. (2002) Characterization of new selective somatostatin receptor subtype-2 (sst2) antagonists, BIM-23627 and BIM-23454. Effects of BIM-23627 on GH release in anesthetized male rats after short-term high-dose dexamethasone treatment. Endocrinology, 143: 1218-1224. [PMID:11897676]

52. Unger N, Ueberberg B, Schulz S, Saeger W, Mann K, Petersenn S. (2012) Differential expression of somatostatin receptor subtype 1-5 proteins in numerous human normal tissues. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes, 120 (8): 482-9. [PMID:22976314]

53. Van Op den Bosch J, van Nassauw L, Lantermann K, van Marck E, Timmermans JP. (2007) Effect of intestinal inflammation on the cell-specific expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in the murine ileum. Neurogastroenterol. Motil., 19 (7): 596-606. [PMID:17593141]

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Corinne Bosquet, Justo P. Castaño, Zsolt Csaba, Pascal Dournaud, Hans-Jürgen Kreienkamp, Amelie Lupp, Shlomo Melmed, Stefan Schulz, Giovanni Tulipano, Hans-Jürgen Wester.
Somatostatin receptors: SST1 receptor. Last modified on 27/03/2019. Accessed on 24/05/2019. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=355.