Ca<sub>v</sub>2.2 | Voltage-gated calcium channels | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

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Cav2.2

Target id: 533

Nomenclature: Cav2.2

Family: Voltage-gated calcium channels

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     Currently no data for Cav2.2 in GtoImmuPdb

Gene and Protein Information
Species TM P Loops AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 24 0 2339 9q34 CACNA1B calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 B
Mouse 24 0 2327 2 A2 Cacna1b calcium channel, voltage-dependent, N type, alpha 1B subunit
Rat 24 0 2333 3p13 Cacna1b calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 B
Previous and Unofficial Names
CACNL1A5 | CACNN | brain calcium channel III | Cchn1a | α1B | calcium channel
Database Links
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Associated Proteins
Heteromeric Pore-forming Subunits
Name References
Not determined
Auxiliary Subunits
Name References
&beta1-4 28,38,48,66
α 66
Other Associated Proteins
Name References
Not determined
Functional Characteristics
N-type calcium current: High voltage-activated, moderate voltage-dependent inactivation
Ion Selectivity and Conductance
Species:  Human
Rank order:  Ba2+ [19.0 pS] > Sr2+ > Ca2+
References:  5,8,36
Species:  Rat
Rank order:  Ba2+ [18.0 - 20.0 pS] > Ca2+
References:  10,14,44
Voltage Dependence
  V0.5 (mV)  τ (msec)  Reference  Cell type  Species 
Activation  -2.6 0.93 26 Neurons (hippocampus) Rat
Inactivation  - -
  V0.5 (mV)  τ (msec)  Reference  Cell type  Species 
Activation  -18.6 – -5.3 - 27,41 Xenopus laevis oocyte Rat
Inactivation  -72.7 – -37.0 100.0 – 800.0 27,41
Comments  Inactivation: τfast = 100-150ms, τslow = 700-800ms
  V0.5 (mV)  τ (msec)  Reference  Cell type  Species 
Activation  9.0 – 18.1 - 11,65 HEK 293 cells. Human
Inactivation  -59.4 – -53.0 46.0 – 453.0 5,11,65
Comments  Inactivation: τfast = 46-105ms, τslow = 291-453ms.
Voltage Dependence Comments
Activation kinetics and current-voltage relations are affected by Cav2.2 alternative splicing [27,41,54]. Activation and inactivation time courses depend upon the nature of the coexpressed β subunit (slower with β2) [41]. Notable Cav2.2 splice variants that affect channel biophysical properties, modulation and interaction with synaptic proteins are found in refs [16,21,27,41,54].

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Gating inhibitors
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Concentration range (M) Holding voltage (mV) Reference
ω-grammotoxin SIA Rn Antagonist - - 5x10-7 -80.0 33
Conc range: 5x10-7 M [33]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
kurtoxin Rn Antagonist 6.3 pEC50 - -80.0 49
pEC50 6.3 [49]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
NP118809 Rn - 7.0 pIC50 - -80.0 68
pIC50 7.0 (IC50 1.1x10-7 M) [68]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
TROX-1 Hs - 5.4 – 6.4 pIC50 - -110.0 – -70.0 1,56
pIC50 5.4 – 6.4 [1,56]
Holding voltage: -110.0 – -70.0 mV
View species-specific gating inhibitor tables
Gating Inhibitor Comments
ω-grammotoxin SIA causes at +100mV shift in the voltage dependence of Cav2.2 containing channels [33].
Channel Blockers
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Concentration range (M) Holding voltage (mV) Reference
ω-conotoxin GVIA Rn Antagonist 10.4 pIC50 - -80.0 25
pIC50 10.4 (IC50 3.8x10-11 M) [25]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
ω-conotoxin CVID Rn Antagonist 10.2 pIC50 - - 25
pIC50 10.2 [25]
ω-conotoxin CVIA Rn Antagonist 9.3 pIC50 - - 25
pIC50 9.3 [25]
ω-conotoxin MVIIA Rn Antagonist 7.7 – 10.3 pIC50 - Physiological 3,25
pIC50 7.7 – 10.3 [3,25]
Holding voltage: Physiological
DW13.3 Rn Antagonist 7.7 – 8.6 pIC50 - -100.0 55
pIC50 7.7 – 8.6 [55]
Holding voltage: -100.0 mV
ω-conotoxin CVIB Rn Antagonist 8.1 pIC50 - - 25
pIC50 8.1 [25]
ω-conotoxin CVIC Rn Antagonist 8.1 pIC50 - - 25
pIC50 8.1 [25]
ω-conotoxin MVIIC Rn Antagonist 6.1 – 8.5 pIC50 - -80.0 18,25,34
pIC50 6.1 – 8.5 (IC50 7.94x10-7 – 3.16x10-9 M) [18,25,34]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
cilnidipine Rn Pore blocker 6.7 pIC50 - -60.0 15
pIC50 6.7 [15]
Holding voltage: -60.0 mV
Pb2+ Hs Antagonist 5.9 pIC50 - -90.0 42
pIC50 5.9 [42]
Holding voltage: -90.0 mV
ω-conotoxin MVIIA Hs Antagonist 1.0 pIC50 - -90.0 21
pIC50 1.0 [21]
Holding voltage: -90.0 mV
View species-specific channel blocker tables
Channel Blocker Comments
The efficacy of ω-conotoxin MVIIC is highly dependent on [Ba2+]. ω-conotoxin GVIA is routinely used at concentrations of 500nM to 1μM to completely and irreversibly block native and cloned N-type currents. Cilnidipine is a dihydropyridine derivative that blocks both N-type and L-type calcium channels and has been used clinically to treat patients with renal and cardiovascular disease [57,67].
Tissue Distribution
Brain (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus)
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry
References:  12
Brain (widespread)
Species:  Human
Technique:  Microarray analysis
References:  17
Brain (widespread)
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  In situ hybridisation
References:  24
Brain (cerebral cortex: neurons, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, newly formed oligodendrocytes, myelinating oligodendrocytes)
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RNA transcriptome
References:  69
Auditory system (spiral ganglion)
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  qPCR, immunocytochemistry
References:  9
Brain (widespread)
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Northern Blot
References:  13,52
Sperm
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry, whole cell patch clamp
References:  62
Brain (widespread in the neuronal cell bodies, dendrites and nerve terminals)
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  63
Spinal cord (neuronal cell bodies, dendrites and nerve terminals)
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry
References:  64
Cortical astrocytes
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  10
Pituitary (somatotrophs, lactotrophs)
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, whole cell patch clamp
References:  60
Functional Assays
Patch clamp (whole cells currents and single channels recordings)
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  PC12 cells
Response measured:  N-type currents
References:  44
Patch clamp (whole cell currents and single channel recordings)
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Dissociated primary neurons (SCG)
Response measured:  N-type currents
References:  44
Patch clamp (whole cell currents and single channel recordings)
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Cortical astrocytes
Response measured:  N-type currents
References:  10
Patch clamp (whole cell currents)
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK293 cells expressing Cav2.2
Response measured:  N-type currents
References:  5
Two-microelectrode voltage clamp
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing Cav2.2
Response measured:  N-type currents
References:  27,41
Patch clamp (whole cell currents and single channel recordings)
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Brain slice cultures (hippocampus and cerebellum)
Response measured:  N-type currents
References:  26,45
Measurement of evoked neurotransmitter release.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Central synaptosomes (hippocampus and striatum)
Response measured:  KCl-evoked relase of radiloabelled neurostansmitters (noradrenaline and glutamate respectively)
References:  29,59
Measurement of evoked neurotransmitter release
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Sympathetic neurons
Response measured:  KCl-evoked release of noradrenaline.
References: 
Monitoring of intracellular calcium levels with fluorescent indicators
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Brain slice cultures
Response measured:  Changes in intracellular calcium levels due to N-type channels
References:  37
Physiological Functions
Neuronal migration during development
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain (cerebellum)
References:  23
Sympathetic control of the cardiac system
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Sympathetic neurons
References:  39
Sympathetic functions (blood pressure control, baroreflex response, temperature regulation
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Peripheral neurons
References:  19
Inflammatory and neuropathic pain
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain and spinal cord
References:  22,47
Long term potentiation and long-term memory
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain (hippocampus)
References:  20
Synaptic transmission
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Brain (hippocampus, cerebellum, spinal cord
References:  58
Ethanol reinforcing and rewarding behaviours
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain
References:  40
Itching/scratching reflex
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Spinal chord
References:  30
Inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Note: Cell-specific splicing of mutually exclusive exons (e37a and e37b) of the rat Cacna1b gene affects pain signalling in nociceptive neurons.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Brain and spinal cord
References:  2,6,31,50-51,61
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
Absence of Cav2.2 expression leads to abnormal sympathetic control of the cardiovascular system, impaired LTP and long-term memory and responses to ethanol intoxication and nociception; changes to sleep, wakefulness and vigilance
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Central and peripheral nervous system
Technique:  Knockout
References:  4,19-20,22,38,40,47
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0004184 abnormal baroreceptor physiology PMID: 11296258 
Cacna1btm1Ttan Cacna1btm1Ttan/Cacna1btm1Ttan
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:88296  MP:0009745 abnormal behavioral response to xenobiotic PMID: 12962913 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0003484 abnormal channel response PMID: 11496122 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0003484 abnormal channel response PMID: 11520183 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0002805 abnormal conditioned taste aversion behavior PMID: 15525770 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0002802 abnormal discrimination learning PMID: 16939638 
Cacna1btm1Ttan Cacna1btm1Ttan/Cacna1btm1Ttan
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:88296  MP:0002912 abnormal excitatory postsynaptic potential PMID: 12962913 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0002912 abnormal excitatory postsynaptic potential PMID: 16939638 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0003194 abnormal frequency of paradoxical sleep PMID: 12890773 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0001752 abnormal hypothalamus secretion PMID: 19004821 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0002945 abnormal inhibitory postsynaptic currents PMID: 19004821 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0002063 abnormal learning/memory/conditioning PMID: 16939638 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0001547 abnormal lipid level PMID: 15870896 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0008432 abnormal long term spatial reference memory PMID: 16939638 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0004753 abnormal miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents PMID: 16939638 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0009435 abnormal miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents PMID: 19004821 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0002272 abnormal nervous system electrophysiology PMID: 19004821 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0002067 abnormal sensory capabilities/reflexes/nociception PMID: 11520183 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0003463 abnormal single cell response PMID: 19004821 
Cacna1btm1.1Dili Cacna1btm1.1Dili/Cacna1btm1.1Dili
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6 * FVB/N
MGI:88296  MP:0003463 abnormal single cell response PMID: 20852623 
Cacna1btm2.1Dili Cacna1btm2.1Dili/Cacna1btm2.1Dili
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6 * FVB/N
MGI:88296  MP:0003463 abnormal single cell response PMID: 20852623 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0001501 abnormal sleep pattern PMID: 12890773 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0001463 abnormal spatial learning PMID: 16939638 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0003470 abnormal summary potential PMID: 19004821 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0004183 abnormal sympathetic nervous system physiology PMID: 11296258 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0003635 abnormal synaptic transmission PMID: 19004821 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0002570 alcohol aversion PMID: 15525770 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0003546 decreased alcohol consumption PMID: 15525770 
Cacna1btm1Ttan Cacna1btm1Ttan/Cacna1btm1Ttan
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:88296  MP:0001364 decreased anxiety-related response PMID: 11350923 
Cacna1btm2.1Dili Cacna1btm2.1Dili/Cacna1btm2.1Dili
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6 * FVB/N
MGI:88296  MP:0001982 decreased chemically-elicited antinociception PMID: 20852623 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0002696 decreased circulating glucagon level PMID: 15870896 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0002727 decreased circulating insulin level PMID: 15870896 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0005668 decreased circulating leptin level PMID: 15870896 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0002644 decreased circulating triglyceride level PMID: 15870896 
Cacna1btm1Ttan Cacna1btm1Ttan/Cacna1btm1Ttan
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:88296  MP:0001489 decreased startle reflex PMID: 11350923 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0009751 enhanced behavioral response to alcohol PMID: 15525770 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0009436 fragmentation of sleep/wake states PMID: 12890773 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0001399 hyperactivity PMID: 12890773 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0000231 hypertension PMID: 11296258 
Cacna1btm1Ttan Cacna1btm1Ttan/Cacna1btm1Ttan
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:88296  MP:0005498 hyporesponsive to tactile stimuli PMID: 11350923 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0005498 hyporesponsive to tactile stimuli PMID: 11520183 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0009755 impaired behavioral response to alcohol PMID: 15525770 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0009712 impaired conditioned place preference behavior PMID: 15525770 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0002969 impaired social transmission of food preference PMID: 16939638 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0005292 improved glucose tolerance PMID: 15870896 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0001353 increased aggression towards mice PMID: 19004821 
Cacna1btm1Ttan Cacna1btm1Ttan/Cacna1btm1Ttan
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:88296  MP:0008531 increased chemical nociceptive threshold PMID: 11350923 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0008531 increased chemical nociceptive threshold PMID: 11496122 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0008531 increased chemical nociceptive threshold PMID: 11520183 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0002626 increased heart rate PMID: 11296258 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0005659 increased resistance to diet-induced obesity PMID: 15870896 
Cacna1btm1Ksw Cacna1btm1Ksw/Cacna1btm1Ksw
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:88296  MP:0001973 increased thermal nociceptive threshold PMID: 11496122 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0001973 increased thermal nociceptive threshold PMID: 11520183 
Cacna1btm1Ttan Cacna1btm1Ttan/Cacna1btm1Ttan
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6
MGI:88296  MP:0002082 postnatal lethality PMID: 11350923 
Cacna1btm1.1Dili Cacna1btm1.1Dili/Cacna1btm1.1Dili
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6 * FVB/N
MGI:88296  MP:0002082 postnatal lethality PMID: 20852623 
Cacna1btm1Hssh Cacna1btm1Hssh/Cacna1btm1Hssh
involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6J
MGI:88296  MP:0001473 reduced long term potentiation PMID: 16939638 
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology
Disease:  Chronic neuropathic pain
Drugs: 
Side effects:  Cognitive impairment, hallucinations, changes in mood and consciousness
Therapeutic use:  Opioid-unresponsive chronic pain
References:  7,32,35,43,53
Disease:  Kleefstra syndrome
OMIM: 610253
Disease:  Spinal cord injury
Drugs: 
Therapeutic use:  Treatment of severe spasticity after spinal cord injury
References:  46

References

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1. Abbadie C, McManus OB, Sun SY, Bugianesi RM, Dai G, Haedo RJ, Herrington JB, Kaczorowski GJ, Smith MM, Swensen AM et al.. (2010) Analgesic effects of a substituted N-triazole oxindole (TROX-1), a state-dependent, voltage-gated calcium channel 2 blocker. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 334 (2): 545-55. [PMID:20439438]

2. Bell TJ, Thaler C, Castiglioni AJ, Helton TD, Lipscombe D. (2004) Cell-specific alternative splicing increases calcium channel current density in the pain pathway. Neuron, 41 (1): 127-38. [PMID:14715140]

3. Benjamin ER, Pruthi F, Olanrewaju S, Shan S, Hanway D, Liu X, Cerne R, Lavery D, Valenzano KJ, Woodward RM, Ilyin VI. (2006) Pharmacological characterization of recombinant N-type calcium channel (Cav2.2) mediated calcium mobilization using FLIPR. Biochem. Pharmacol., 72 (6): 770-82. [PMID:16844100]

4. Beuckmann CT, Sinton CM, Miyamoto N, Ino M, Yanagisawa M. (2003) N-type calcium channel alpha1B subunit (Cav2.2) knock-out mice display hyperactivity and vigilance state differences. J. Neurosci., 23 (17): 6793-7. [PMID:12890773]

5. Bleakman D, Bowman D, Bath CP, Brust PF, Johnson EC, Deal CR, Miller RJ, Ellis SB, Harpold MM, Hans M. (1995) Characteristics of a human N-type calcium channel expressed in HEK293 cells. Neuropharmacology, 34 (7): 753-65. [PMID:8532142]

6. Bowersox SS, Gadbois T, Singh T, Pettus M, Wang YX, Luther RR. (1996) Selective N-type neuronal voltage-sensitive calcium channel blocker, SNX-111, produces spinal antinociception in rat models of acute, persistent and neuropathic pain. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 279 (3): 1243-9. [PMID:8968347]

7. Brose WG, Gutlove DP, Luther RR, Bowersox SS, McGuire D. (1997) Use of intrathecal SNX-111, a novel, N-type, voltage-sensitive, calcium channel blocker, in the management of intractable brachial plexus avulsion pain. Clin. J. Pain, 13 (3): 256-9. [PMID:9303259]

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William A. Catterall, Edward Perez-Reyes, Terrance P. Snutch, Joerg Striessnig.
Voltage-gated calcium channels: Cav2.2. Last modified on 27/06/2016. Accessed on 21/11/2018. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=533.