Voltage-gated calcium channels

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).

Overview

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Calcium (Ca2+) channels are voltage-gated ion channels present in the membrane of most excitable cells. The nomenclature for Ca2+channels was proposed by [6] and approved by the NC-IUPHAR Subcommittee on Ca2+ channels [4]. Ca2+ channels form hetero-oligomeric complexes. The α1 subunit is pore-forming and provides the binding site(s) for practically all agonists and antagonists. The 10 cloned α1-subunits can be grouped into three families: (1) the high-voltage activated dihydropyridine-sensitive (L-type, CaV1.x) channels; (2) the high-voltage activated dihydropyridine-insensitive (CaV2.x) channels and (3) the low-voltage-activated (T-type, CaV3.x) channels. Each α1 subunit has four homologous repeats (I–IV), each repeat having six transmembrane domains and a pore-forming region between transmembrane domains S5 and S6. Gating is thought to be associated with the membrane-spanning S4 segment, which contains highly conserved positive charges. Many of the α1-subunit genes give rise to alternatively spliced products. At least for high-voltage activated channels, it is likely that native channels comprise co-assemblies of α1, β and α2–δ subunits. The γ subunits have not been proven to associate with channels other than the α1s skeletal muscle Cav1.1 channel. The α2–δ1 and α2–δ2 subunits bind gabapentin and pregabalin.

Channels and Subunits

Cav1.1 Show summary » More detailed page

Cav1.2 Show summary » More detailed page

Cav1.3 Show summary » More detailed page

Cav1.4 Show summary » More detailed page

Cav2.1 Show summary » More detailed page

Cav2.2 Show summary » More detailed page

Cav2.3 Show summary » More detailed page

Cav3.1 Show summary » More detailed page

Cav3.2 Show summary » More detailed page

Cav3.3 Show summary » More detailed page

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References

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NC-IUPHAR subcommittee and family contributors

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation:

William A. Catterall, Edward Perez-Reyes, Terrance P. Snutch, Joerg Striessnig. Voltage-gated calcium channels. Accessed on 01/09/2015. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/FamilyDisplayForward?familyId=80.

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Catterall WA, Spedding M, Peters JA and Harmar AJ, CGTP Collaborators. (2013) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14: Ion Channels. Br J Pharmacol. 170: 1607–1651.