TLX

Nomenclature: TLX

Systematic Nomenclature: NR2E1

Family: 2E. Tailless-like receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

Gene and Protein Information
Species AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 385 6q21 NR2E1 nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group E, member 1 1
Mouse 385 10B2 Nr2e1 nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group E, member 1 13
Rat - 20 Nr2e1 nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group E, member 1
Previous and Unofficial Names
XTLL
TLL
tailless homologue
LOC684085
nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group E, member 1
similar to nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group E, member 1
tailless-like
Nr2e1
Mtll
tailless
frc
Database Links
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
GeneCards
GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project
HomoloGene
Human Protein Reference Database
InterPro
KEGG Gene
NURSA Receptor
OMIM
PharmGKB Gene
PhosphoSitePlus
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
TreeFam
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
Comments: Orphan
DNA Binding
Structure:  Monomer, Homodimer
HRE core sequence:  AAGTCA n AAGTCA
Response element:  DR1, Half site
DNA Binding Comments
Response element for TLX is composed of the hexameric sequence AAGTCA which differs from the classical consensus sequence AGGTCA.
Main Target Genes
Name Species Effect Technique Comments References
Gfap Mouse Repressed Transient transfection, EMSA, Other TLX can silence glia-specific expression of the astrocyte marker GFAP in neural stem cells, suggesting that transcriptional repression may be crucial in maintaining the undifferentiated state of these cells. 9
PAX2 Human Repressed Transient transfection, EMSA, Other The identification of Pax 2 as a TLX regulated gene is significant, because Pax2 is known to be involved in retinal development in both the human and the mouse eye. This repression by TLX is also observed in rodents and all other mammals 13
RARB Human Activated Transient transfection, EMSA, Other TLX interacts with the SET element present in the RAR β2 promoter and allows RA-dependent activation of this promoter by relieving the silencing effect of the SET element. This is also seen in other species including rodents. 2
Tissue Distribution
Embryonic tissues (head ectoderm, CNS, proangiogenic and retinal astrocytes)
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Northern, in situ, immunohistology, other
References:  11,13-14
Tissue Distribution Comments
In mouse, the expression starts at day 7.5 in the head ectoderm, it is specifically localised in the developing telencephalon and in dorsal midbrain; It harbour also a dynamic expression pattern in two structures whose development requires inductive signals from the forebrain : the eye and the nose. This expression in the central nervous system persist until birth. Recently, NR2E1 was shown to be strongly expressed in the proangiogenic astrocytes, which secrete VEGF and fibronectin. NR2E1 expression by retinal astrocytes is controlled by oxygen concentration and rapidly downregulated upon contact with blood vessels.
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
Fierce mice. The fierce mutation is genetically and phenotypically similar to NR2E1 targeted mutations previously studied on segregating genetic backgrounds.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Spontaneous mutation
References:  12
TLX knock out mice: TLX knock-out mice are viable at birth indicating that TLX is not required for prenatal survival. Nevertheless, these animals exhibit a marked forebrain phenotype with a reduction in the size of rhinencephalic and limbic structures. In addition both males and females are more aggressive than usual and the females lack normal maternal instincts. All these data further stress the important role of TLX for correct brain development. It has also been shown that TLX is essential for vision since the knock-out mice exhibit a progressive retinal and optic nerve degeneration with associated blindness.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene knockout
References:  3-8,10
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0002061 abnormal aggression-related behavior PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0000818 abnormal amygdala morphology PMID: 12571103 
Nr2e1tm1Gsc Nr2e1tm1Gsc/Nr2e1tm1Gsc
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:1100526  MP:0000818 abnormal amygdala morphology PMID: 9394001 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0009450 abnormal axon fasiculation PMID: 12571103 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0002199 abnormal brain commissure morphology PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0000822 abnormal brain ventricle morphology PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0008540 abnormal cerebrum morphology PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm1Gsc Nr2e1tm1Gsc/Nr2e1tm1Gsc
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:1100526  MP:0008457 abnormal cortical intermediate zone morphology PMID: 9394001 
Nr2e1tm1Rev|Tg(Nes-cre)1Kln Nr2e1tm1Rev/Nr2e1tm1Rev,Tg(Nes-cre)1Kln/0
involves: C57BL/6 * SJL
MGI:1100526  MGI:2176172  MP:0000812 abnormal dentate gyrus morphology PMID: 18235445 
Nr2e1tm1Gsc Nr2e1tm1Gsc/Nr2e1tm1Gsc
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:1100526  MP:0000812 abnormal dentate gyrus morphology PMID: 9394001 
Nr2e1tm1Gsc Nr2e1tm1Gsc/Nr2e1tm1Gsc
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:1100526  MP:0006300 abnormal entorhinal cortex morphology PMID: 9394001 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0005551 abnormal eye electrophysiology PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0005551 abnormal eye electrophysiology PMID: 10706625 
Nr2e1tm1Gsc Nr2e1tm1Gsc/Nr2e1tm1Gsc
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:1100526  MP:0002761 abnormal hippocampal mossy fiber morphology PMID: 9394001 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0004277 abnormal lateral ganglionic eminence morphology PMID: 12571103 
Nr2e1tm1Gsc Nr2e1tm1Gsc/Nr2e1tm1Gsc
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:1100526  MP:0001449 abnormal learning/ memory PMID: 9394001 
Nr2e1tm1Gsc Nr2e1tm1Gsc/Nr2e1tm1Gsc
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:1100526  MP:0004166 abnormal limbic system morphology PMID: 9394001 
Nr2e1tm1Gsc Nr2e1tm1Gsc/Nr2e1tm1Gsc
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:1100526  MP:0001386 abnormal maternal nurturing PMID: 9394001 
Nr2e1tm1Rev|Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rev/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0009937 abnormal neuron differentiation PMID: 18235445 
Nr2e1tm1Rev|Tg(CAG-cre/Esr1*)5Amc Nr2e1tm1Rev/Nr2e1tm1Rev,Tg(CAG-cre/Esr1*)5Amc/?
involves: C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:1100526  MGI:2182765  MP:0009937 abnormal neuron differentiation PMID: 18235445 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0001382 abnormal nursing PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm1Gsc Nr2e1tm1Gsc/Nr2e1tm1Gsc
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:1100526  MP:0005267 abnormal olfactory cortex morphology PMID: 9394001 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0001330 abnormal optic nerve morphology PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0001330 abnormal optic nerve morphology PMID: 10706625 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0004268 abnormal optic stalk morphology PMID: 10706625 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0004171 abnormal pallium development PMID: 12571103 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0003729 abnormal photoreceptor outer segment morphology PMID: 10706625 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0003648 abnormal radial glial cell morphology PMID: 12571103 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0005241 abnormal retinal ganglion layer morphology PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0005241 abnormal retinal ganglion layer morphology PMID: 10706625 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0003733 abnormal retinal inner nuclear layer morphology PMID: 10706625 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0003734 abnormal retinal inner plexiform layer morphology PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0006303 abnormal retinal nerve fiber layer morphology PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0003731 abnormal retinal outer nuclear layer morphology PMID: 10706625 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0003732 abnormal retinal outer plexiform layer morphology PMID: 10706625 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0003728 abnormal retinal photoreceptor layer PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0002792 abnormal retinal vasculature morphology PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0001325 abnormal retina morphology PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0001325 abnormal retina morphology PMID: 10706625 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0002067 abnormal sensory capabilities/reflexes/nociception PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm1Rev|Tg(Nes-cre)1Kln Nr2e1tm1Rev/Nr2e1tm1Rev,Tg(Nes-cre)1Kln/0
involves: C57BL/6 * SJL
MGI:1100526  MGI:2176172  MP:0008431 abnormal short term spatial reference memory PMID: 18235445 
Nr2e1tm1Rev|Tg(Nes-cre)1Kln Nr2e1tm1Rev/Nr2e1tm1Rev,Tg(Nes-cre)1Kln/0
involves: C57BL/6 * SJL
MGI:1100526  MGI:2176172  MP:0001463 abnormal spatial learning PMID: 18235445 
Nr2e1tm1Gsc Nr2e1tm1Gsc/Nr2e1tm1Gsc
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:1100526  MP:0008287 abnormal subiculum morphology PMID: 9394001 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0000934 abnormal telencephalon development PMID: 12571103 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0002001 blindness PMID: 10706625 
Nr2e1tm1Gsc Nr2e1tm1Gsc/Nr2e1tm1Gsc
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:1100526  MP:0008226 decreased anterior commissure size PMID: 9394001 
Nr2e1tm2Gsc|Tg(Camk2a-cre)2Gsc Nr2e1tm2Gsc/Nr2e1tm2Gsc,Tg(Camk2a-cre)2Gsc/?
involves: C57BL/6 * FVB/N * SJL
MGI:1100526  MGI:2181425  MP:0001364 decreased anxiety-related response PMID: 17953618 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0001258 decreased body length PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0001265 decreased body size PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0001262 decreased body weight PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0000774 decreased brain size PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm2Gsc|Tg(Camk2a-cre)2Gsc Nr2e1tm2Gsc/Nr2e1tm2Gsc,Tg(Camk2a-cre)2Gsc/?
involves: C57BL/6 * FVB/N * SJL
MGI:1100526  MGI:2181425  MP:0000774 decreased brain size PMID: 17953618 
Nr2e1tm1Gsc Nr2e1tm1Gsc/Nr2e1tm1Gsc
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:1100526  MP:0000774 decreased brain size PMID: 9394001 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0001417 decreased exploration in new environment PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0010025 decreased total body fat amount PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm2Gsc|Tg(Camk2a-cre)2Gsc Nr2e1tm2Gsc/Nr2e1tm2Gsc,Tg(Camk2a-cre)2Gsc/?
involves: C57BL/6 * FVB/N * SJL
MGI:1100526  MGI:2181425  MP:0000825 dilated lateral ventricles PMID: 17953618 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0008509 disorganized retinal ganglion layer PMID: 10706625 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0008512 disorganized retinal inner nuclear layer PMID: 10706625 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0008516 disorganized retinal outer nuclear layer PMID: 10706625 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0000784 forebrain hypoplasia PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0001891 hydroencephaly PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm1Gsc Nr2e1tm1Gsc/Nr2e1tm1Gsc
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:1100526  MP:0005655 increased aggression PMID: 9394001 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0001357 increased aggression toward humans PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0001353 increased aggression towards mice PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm2Gsc|Tg(Camk2a-cre)2Gsc Nr2e1tm2Gsc/Nr2e1tm2Gsc,Tg(Camk2a-cre)2Gsc/?
involves: C57BL/6 * FVB/N * SJL
MGI:1100526  MGI:2181425  MP:0001353 increased aggression towards mice PMID: 17953618 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0006219 optic nerve degeneration PMID: 10706625 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0001289 persistence of hyaloid vascular system PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm2Gsc|Tg(Camk2a-cre)2Gsc Nr2e1tm2Gsc/Nr2e1tm2Gsc,Tg(Camk2a-cre)2Gsc/?
involves: C57BL/6 * FVB/N * SJL
MGI:1100526  MGI:2181425  MP:0001732 postnatal growth retardation PMID: 17953618 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0008489 postnatal slow weight gain PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm1Gsc Nr2e1tm1Gsc/Nr2e1tm1Gsc
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:1100526  MP:0008489 postnatal slow weight gain PMID: 9394001 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0001923 reduced female fertility PMID: 11997145 
Nr2e1tm1Rtyu Nr2e1tm1Rtyu/Nr2e1tm1Rtyu
Not Specified
MGI:1100526  MP:0001326 retinal degeneration PMID: 10706625 
Nr2e1tm2Gsc|Tg(Camk2a-cre)2Gsc Nr2e1tm2Gsc/Nr2e1tm2Gsc,Tg(Camk2a-cre)2Gsc/?
involves: C57BL/6 * FVB/N * SJL
MGI:1100526  MGI:2181425  MP:0008283 small hippocampus PMID: 17953618 
Nr2e1tm1Gsc Nr2e1tm1Gsc/Nr2e1tm1Gsc
involves: 129 * C57BL/6
MGI:1100526  MP:0002741 small olfactory bulb PMID: 9394001 
Nr2e1frc Nr2e1frc/Nr2e1frc
either: B6.129-Nr2e1 or 129P3/JEms.Cg-Nr2e1 or B6129F1-Nr2e1
MGI:1100526  MP:0008511 thin retinal inner nuclear layer PMID: 11997145 

References

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1. Finley KD, Taylor BJ, Milstein M, McKeown M. (1997) dissatisfaction, a gene involved in sex-specific behavior and neural development of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.94 (3): 913-8. [PMID:9023356]

2. Kobayashi M, Yu RT, Yasuda K, Umesono K. (2000) Cell-type-specific regulation of the retinoic acid receptor mediated by the orphan nuclear receptor TLX. Mol. Cell. Biol.20 (23): 8731-9. [PMID:11073974]

3. Land PW, Monaghan AP. (2003) Expression of the transcription factor, tailless, is required for formation of superficial cortical layers. Cereb. Cortex13 (9): 921-31. [PMID:12902391]

4. Land PW, Monaghan AP. (2005) Abnormal development of zinc-containing cortical circuits in the absence of the transcription factor Tailless. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res.158 (1-2): 97-101. [PMID:15950290]

5. Miyawaki T, Uemura A, Dezawa M, Yu RT, Ide C, Nishikawa S, Honda Y, Tanabe Y, Tanabe T. (2004) Tlx, an orphan nuclear receptor, regulates cell numbers and astrocyte development in the developing retina. J. Neurosci.24 (37): 8124-34. [PMID:15371513]

6. Monaghan AP, Bock D, Gass P, Schwäger A, Wolfer DP, Lipp HP, Schütz G. (1997) Defective limbic system in mice lacking the tailless gene. Nature390 (6659): 515-7. [PMID:9394001]

7. Roy K, Kuznicki K, Wu Q, Sun Z, Bock D, Schutz G, Vranich N, Monaghan AP. (2004) The Tlx gene regulates the timing of neurogenesis in the cortex. J. Neurosci.24 (38): 8333-45. [PMID:15385616]

8. Roy K, Thiels E, Monaghan AP. (2002) Loss of the tailless gene affects forebrain development and emotional behavior. Physiol. Behav.77 (4-5): 595-600. [PMID:12527005]

9. Shi Y, Chichung Lie D, Taupin P, Nakashima K, Ray J, Yu RT, Gage FH, Evans RM. (2004) Expression and function of orphan nuclear receptor TLX in adult neural stem cells. Nature427 (6969): 78-83. [PMID:14702088]

10. Stenman J, Yu RT, Evans RM, Campbell K. (2003) Tlx and Pax6 co-operate genetically to establish the pallio-subpallial boundary in the embryonic mouse telencephalon. Development130 (6): 1113-22. [PMID:12571103]

11. Uemura A, Kusuhara S, Wiegand SJ, Yu RT, Nishikawa S. (2006) Tlx acts as a proangiogenic switch by regulating extracellular assembly of fibronectin matrices in retinal astrocytes. J. Clin. Invest.116 (2): 369-77. [PMID:16424942]

12. Young KA, Berry ML, Mahaffey CL, Saionz JR, Hawes NL, Chang B, Zheng QY, Smith RS, Bronson RT, Nelson RJ, Simpson EM. (2002) Fierce: a new mouse deletion of Nr2e1; violent behaviour and ocular abnormalities are background-dependent. Behav. Brain Res.132 (2): 145-58. [PMID:11997145]

13. Yu RT, Chiang MY, Tanabe T, Kobayashi M, Yasuda K, Evans RM, Umesono K. (2000) The orphan nuclear receptor Tlx regulates Pax2 and is essential for vision. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.97 (6): 2621-5. [PMID:10706625]

14. Yu RT, McKeown M, Evans RM, Umesono K. (1994) Relationship between Drosophila gap gene tailless and a vertebrate nuclear receptor Tlx. Nature370 (6488): 375-9. [PMID:8047143]

How to cite this page

2E. Tailless-like receptors: TLX. Last modified on 06/01/2014. Accessed on 29/07/2014. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=615.