Steroid hormone receptors

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).

Overview

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Steroid hormone receptors (nomenclature as agreed by NC-IUPHAR Committee on Nuclear Receptors, [10,29]) are nuclear hormone receptors of the NR3 class, with endogenous agonists that may be divided into 3-hydroxysteroids (estrone and 17β-estradiol) and 3-ketosteroids (dihydrotestosterone [DHT], aldosterone, cortisol, corticosterone, progesterone and testosterone). These receptors exist as dimers coupled with chaperone molecules (such as hsp90 (HSP90AB1, P08238) and immunophilin FKBP52:FKBP4, Q02790), which are shed on binding the steroid hormone. Although rapid signalling phenomena are observed [26,38], the principal signalling cascade appears to involve binding of the activated receptors to nuclear hormone response elements of the genome, with a 15-nucleotide consensus sequence AGAACAnnnTGTTCT (i.e. an inverted palindrome) as homo- or heterodimers. They also affect transcription by protein–protein interactions with other transcription factors, such as activator protein 1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Splice variants of each of these receptors can form functional or non-functional monomers that can dimerize to form functional or non-functional receptors. For example, alternative splicing of PR mRNA produces A and B monomers that combine to produce functional AA, AB and BB receptors with distinct characteristics [50].

A 7TM receptor responsive to estrogen (GPER1, Q99527, also known as GPR30, see [37]) has been described. Human orthologues of 7TM ‘membrane progestin receptors’ (PAQR7, PAQR8 and PAQR5), initially discovered in fish [55-56], appear to localize to intracellular membranes and respond to ‘non-genomic’ progesterone analogues independently of G proteins [43].

3A. Estrogen receptors

Receptors

Estrogen receptor-α / NR3A1 Show summary » More detailed page

Estrogen receptor-β / NR3A2 Show summary » More detailed page

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3C. 3-Ketosteroid receptors

Receptors

Androgen receptor / NR3C4 Show summary » More detailed page

Glucocorticoid receptor / NR3C1 Show summary » More detailed page

Mineralocorticoid receptor / NR3C2 Show summary » More detailed page

Progesterone receptor / NR3C3 Show summary » More detailed page

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