GLP-1 receptor

Target id: 249

Nomenclature: GLP-1 receptor

Family: Glucagon receptor family

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     Currently no data for GLP-1 receptor in GtoImmuPdb

Gene and Protein Information
class B G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 463 6p21 GLP1R glucagon like peptide 1 receptor 5,30
Mouse 7 489 17 A3.3 Glp1r glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor
Rat 7 463 20p12 Glp1r glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor 17,31
Previous and Unofficial Names
GLP-1R | glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB glp1r_human (Hs), glp1r_mouse (Mm), glp1r_rat (Rn)
Other databases
CATH/Gene3D
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Selected 3D Structures
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  Ligand-bound GLP-1 receptor extracellular domain
PDB Id:  3C5T
Ligand:  glucagon-like peptide 1-(7-36) amide   This ligand is endogenous
Resolution:  2.1Å
Species:  Human
References:  26
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  Human GLP-1 receptor transmembrane domain structure in complex with allosteric modulator, NNC0640
PDB Id:  5VEX
Ligand:  NNC0640
Resolution:  3.0Å
Species:  None
References:  29
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  Human GLP-1 receptor transmembrane domain structure in complex with allosteric modulator, PF-06372222
PDB Id:  5VEW
Ligand:  PF-06372222
Resolution:  2.7Å
Species:  None
References:  29
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  Cryo-EM structure of the activated Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor in complex with the stimulatory G protein Gs
PDB Id:  5VAI
Ligand:  glucagon-like peptide 1-(7-36) amide   This ligand is endogenous
Resolution:  4.1Å
Species:  Rabbit
References: 
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  Crystal structure of the GLP-1 receptor bound to a peptide agonist
PDB Id:  5NX2
Ligand:  Peptide 5 [PMID: 28562585]
Resolution:  3.7Å
Species:  Human
References:  14
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
glucagon {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat}
glucagon-like peptide 1-(7-37) {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat}
glucagon-like peptide 1-(7-36) amide {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat}

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
WB4-24 Hs Agonist 4.9 pA2 9
pA2 4.9 [9]
[125I]GLP-1-(7-36)-amide Hs Full agonist 9.3 pKd 15
pKd 9.3 (Kd 5x10-10 M) [15]
glucagon-like peptide 1-(7-36) amide {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 9.2 pKi 15
pKi 9.2 [15]
lixisenatide Hs Agonist 8.9 pKi 36
pKi 8.9 (Ki 1.33x10-9 M) [36]
Description: CHO-K1 cells overexpressing the human GLP-1 receptor.
exendin-4 Hs Full agonist 8.7 – 9.0 pKi 15
pKi 8.7 – 9.0 (Ki 1.99x10-9 – 1x10-9 M) [15]
Peptide 5 [PMID: 28562585] Hs Agonist 8.5 pKi 14
pKi 8.5 [14]
glucagon {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 6.9 – 7.0 pKi 15
pKi 6.9 – 7.0 [15]
Peptide 5 [PMID: 28562585] Hs Agonist 10.8 pEC50 14
pEC50 10.8 [14]
liraglutide Hs Full agonist 10.2 pEC50 16
pEC50 10.2 [16]
albiglutide Rn Agonist 7.7 pEC50 1
pEC50 7.7 (EC50 2x10-8 M) [1]
exendin-4 Hs Agonist 9.2 pIC50 21
pIC50 9.2 (IC50 6.6x10-10 M) [21]
Description: Displacement of GLP-1 from hGLP-1 receptor expressed in CHOK1 cells by exendin-4
glucagon-like peptide 1-(7-37) {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist - - 6
[6]
exendin-3 Hs Full agonist - - 25
[25]
[125I]GLP-1-(7-37) (human) Hs Full agonist - -
View species-specific agonist tables
Agonist Comments
The affinities for exendin-4 and its synthetic analogue exenatide are assumed to be interchangeable.
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
[125I]exendin-(9-39) Hs Antagonist 8.3 pKd 15
pKd 8.3 (Kd 5x10-9 M) [15]
exendin-(9-39) Hs Antagonist 8.1 pKi 15
pKi 8.1 (Ki 7.94x10-9 M) [15]
GLP-1-(9-36) Rn Antagonist 6.9 pIC50 22
pIC50 6.9 (IC50 1.224x10-7 M) [22]
T-0632 Hs Antagonist 4.7 pIC50 32
pIC50 4.7 (IC50 2.1x10-5 M) [32]
View species-specific antagonist tables
Allosteric Modulators
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
BETP Hs Positive 9.9 pEC50 23
pEC50 9.9 [23]
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gs family Adenylate cyclase stimulation
References:  28
Tissue Distribution
Pancreas, lung, brain, stomach, heart and kidney.
None found in liver, skeletal muscle or adipose.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RNase protection assay.
References:  35
Endocrine cells of the pancreas.
Large nucleated cells in the alveoli of the lung, thought to be surfactant-secreting type II pneumocytes.
Gastric pits of the stomach, thought to be parietal cells.
Crypts of the duodenum.
None in the liver, skeletal muscle or adipocytes.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  in situ hybridisation.
References:  4
Stomach: Gastric mucosal glands.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  34
Low levels in the hypothalamus and hindbrain.
Higher expression in the area postrema and arcuate nucleus.
None detected in the cortex.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  19
Lung, pancreatic islets, antrum and pylorus of the stomach, and kidney.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RNase protection assay.
References:  4
Hypothalamus, lung, pancreatic islets, stomach, heart, and kidney.
None found in adipocytes, liver or skeletal muscle.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR and Southern blotting.
References:  4
Hypothalamus: Densest expression on the paraventricular, arcuate and supraoptic nuclei. Scatterered expression in the periventricular and dorsomedial nuclei and the lateral hypothalamus.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  in situ hybridisation.
References:  27
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
Measurement of insulin secretion in isolated rat pancreatic islets.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Pancreatic islets.
Response measured:  Potentiation of glucose-induced insulin release.
References:  11
Measurement of cAMP levels in HEK 293 cells transfected with the human GLP-1 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of cAMP accumulation.
References:  12
Measurement of cAMP accumulation in rat insuloma-derived cells (RINm5F).
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  RINm5F cells.
Response measured:  Increase in cAMP production.
References:  11
Measurement of intracellular [Ca2+] in HEK 293 cells transfected with the human GLP-1 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells.
Response measured:  Mobilisation of Ca2+ from ryanodine-sensitive intracellular stores.
References:  12
Measurement of cAMP levels in the rat gastric gland.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Gastric mucosal gland.
Response measured:  Stimulation of cAMP production.
References:  34
Measurement of cAMP levels in cultured rat insulinoma cells.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Cultured insulinoma cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of cAMP accumulation.
References:  7
Measurement of insulin mRNA levels and insulin release in cultured rat insulinoma cells.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Cultured insulinoma cells.
Response measured:  Increase in insulin mRNA levels and insulin release.
References:  7
Measurement of the activity of the rat insulin 1 gene promotor (RIP1) cAMP response element (CRE).
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  INS-1 insulinoma cells expressing a RIP1 luciferase construct (-410RIP1-LUC).
Response measured:  Activation of the RIP1 CRE.
References:  28
Measurements of proinsulin gene promotor activity, cellular levels of proinsulin mRNA and insulin content in βTC-1 cells transfected with a rat insulin I gene promotor fused to the transcriptional reporter gene encoding the bacterial enzyme chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase (CAT).
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  βTC-1 cells (mouse insulinoma cell line) transfected with a rat insulin I gene promotor encoding the bacterial enzyme CAT.
Response measured:  Stimulation of proinsulin gene promotor activity, increases in proinsulin mRNA levels and insulin content.
References:  10
Physiological Functions
Relaxation of rat conduit arteries, independent of nitric oxide and the endothelium.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Femoral artery rings.
References:  24
Stimulation of pancreatic insulin release.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Pancreas.
References:  33
GLP-1 stimulates basal TSH release from thyrotropes and α-TSH cells.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Thyrotropes.
References:  2
Stimulation of the central CRH-containing neurons of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and oxytocinergic neurons of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo
References:  18
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
Rats overexpressing the GLP-1 receptor exhibit improved learning and memory.
Species:  Rat
Tissue: 
Technique: 
References:  8
GLP-1 receptor knockout mice exhibit a reduced heart rate and elevated left ventricular end diastolic pressure compared to wild-type mice.
They had increased left ventricular thickness and impaired contractility.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  13
GLP-1 receptor knockout mice appear to have normal circulating levels of corticosterone, thyroid hormone, testosterone, estradiol and progesterone. However, they have an impaired stress response, with increased amounts of corticosterone produced in response to stress.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  20
GLP-1 receptor knockout mice show exhibit a learning deficit as well as enhanced seizure severity and neuronal injury following kainate administration.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique: 
References:  8
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Glp1rtm1Ddr Glp1rtm1Ddr/Glp1rtm1Ddr
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6
MGI:99571  MP:0002694 abnormal pancreas secretion PMID: 14966573 
Giprtm1Thor|Glp1rtm1Ddr Giprtm1Thor/Giprtm1Thor,Glp1rtm1Ddr/Glp1rtm1Ddr
involves: 129/Sv * 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352753  MGI:99571  MP:0002694 abnormal pancreas secretion PMID: 14966573 
Glp1rtm1Ddr Glp1rtm1Ddr/Glp1rtm1Ddr
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ
MGI:99571  MP:0002727 decreased circulating insulin level PMID: 8898756 
Glp1rtm1Ddr Glp1rtm1Ddr/Glp1rtm1Ddr
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6
MGI:99571  MP:0002727 decreased circulating insulin level PMID: 14966573 
Giprtm1Thor|Glp1rtm1Ddr Giprtm1Thor/Giprtm1Thor,Glp1rtm1Ddr/Glp1rtm1Ddr
involves: 129/Sv * 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352753  MGI:99571  MP:0002727 decreased circulating insulin level PMID: 14966573 
Glp1rtm1Ddr Glp1rtm1Ddr/Glp1rtm1Ddr
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ
MGI:99571  MP:0005293 impaired glucose tolerance PMID: 8898756 
Glp1rtm1Ddr Glp1rtm1Ddr/Glp1rtm1Ddr
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6
MGI:99571  MP:0005293 impaired glucose tolerance PMID: 14966573 
Giprtm1Thor|Glp1rtm1Ddr Giprtm1Thor/Giprtm1Thor,Glp1rtm1Ddr/Glp1rtm1Ddr
involves: 129/Sv * 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352753  MGI:99571  MP:0005293 impaired glucose tolerance PMID: 14966573 
Glp1rtm1Ddr Glp1rtm1Ddr/Glp1rtm1Ddr
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ
MGI:99571  MP:0005559 increased circulating glucose level PMID: 8898756 
Glp1rtm1Ddr Glp1rtm1Ddr/Glp1rtm1Ddr
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6
MGI:99571  MP:0005559 increased circulating glucose level PMID: 14966573 
Giprtm1Thor|Glp1rtm1Ddr Giprtm1Thor/Giprtm1Thor,Glp1rtm1Ddr/Glp1rtm1Ddr
involves: 129/Sv * 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352753  MGI:99571  MP:0005559 increased circulating glucose level PMID: 14966573 
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  A Thr149->Met substitution within transmembrane 1 of the GLP-1 receptor has been found within a type 2 diabetes patient.
Transfection of the recombinant receptor variant within COS-7 and HEK 293 cells has shown reduced agonist binding and reduced potency in triggering cAMP-mediated signalling.
Amino acid change:  T149M
References:  3
General Comments
Several GLP-1 receptor agonists have now been approved for clinical use to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, including exenatide, liraglutide, albiglutide and lixisenatide.

References

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1. Baggio LL, Huang Q, Brown TJ, Drucker DJ. (2004) A recombinant human glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1-albumin protein (albugon) mimics peptidergic activation of GLP-1 receptor-dependent pathways coupled with satiety, gastrointestinal motility, and glucose homeostasis. Diabetes53 (9): 2492-500. [PMID:15331566]

2. Beak SA, Smith DM. (1996) Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) releases thyrotropin (TSH): characterization of binding sites for GLP-1 onα-TSH cells. Endocrinology137: 4130-4138. [PMID:8828468]

3. Beinborn M, Worrall CI, McBride EW, Kopin AS. (2005) A human glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor polymorphism results in reduced agonist responsiveness. Regul Pept130: 1-6. [PMID:15975668]

4. Bullock BP, Habener JF. (1996) Tissue distribution of messenger ribonucleic acid encoding the rat glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor. Endocrinology137: 2968-2978. [PMID:8770921]

5. Dillon JS, Boyd AE. (1993) Cloning and functional expression of the human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor. Endocrinology133: 1907-1910. [PMID:8391428]

6. Dillon JS, Tanizawa Y, Wheeler MB, Leng XH, Ligon BB, Rabin DU, Yoo-Warren H, Permutt MA, Boyd AE. (1993) Cloning and functional expression of the human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor. Endocrinology133 (4): 1907-10. [PMID:8404634]

7. Drucker DJ, Habener JF. (1987) Glucagon-like peptide I stimulates insulin gene expression and increases cyclic AMP levels in a rat islet cell line. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.84: 3434-3438. [PMID:3033647]

8. During MJ, Cao L, Zuzga DS, Francis JS, Fitzsimons HL, Jiao X, Bland RJ, Klugmann M, Banks WA, Drucker DJ, Haile CN. (2003) Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is involved in learning and neuroprotection. Nat Med9: 1173-1179. [PMID:12925848]

9. Fan H, Gong N, Li TF, Ma AN, Wu XY, Wang MW, Wang YX. (2015) The non-peptide GLP-1 receptor agonist WB4-24 blocks inflammatory nociception by stimulating β-endorphin release from spinal microglia. Br. J. Pharmacol.172 (1): 64-79. [PMID:25176008]

10. Fehmann HC, Habener JF. (1992) Insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide-I(7-37) stimulation of proinsulin gene expression and proinsulin biosynthesis in insulinoma beta TC-1 cells. Endocrinology130: 159-166. [PMID:1309325]

11. Göke R, Göke B. (1993) Exendin-4 is a high potency agonist and truncated exendin-(9-39)-amide an antagonist at the glucagon-like peptide 1-(7-36)-amide receptor of insulin-secreting β-cells. J. Biol. Chem.268: 19650-19655. [PMID:8396143]

12. Gromada J, Rorsman P, Dissing S, Wulff BS. (1995) Stimulation of cloned human glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor expressed in HEK 293 cells induces cAMP-dependent activation of calcium-induced calcium release. FEBS Lett373: 182-186. [PMID:7589461]

13. Gros R, You X, Baggio LL, Kabir MG, Sadi AM, Mungrue IN, Parker TG, Huang Q, Drucker DJ, Husain M. (2003) Cardiac function in mice lacking the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. Endocrinology144: 2242-2252. [PMID:12746281]

14. Jazayeri A, Rappas M, Brown AJH, Kean J, Errey JC, Robertson NJ, Fiez-Vandal C, Andrews SP, Congreve M, Bortolato A et al.. (2017) Crystal structure of the GLP-1 receptor bound to a peptide agonist. Nature,  [Epub ahead of print]. [PMID:28562585]

15. Jorgensen R, Martini L, Schwartz TW, Elling CE. (2005) Characterization of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor beta-arrestin 2 interaction: a high-affinity receptor phenotype. Mol Endocrinol19: 812-823. [PMID:15528268]

16. Knudsen LB, Nielsen PF, Huusfeldt PO, Johansen NL, Madsen K, Pedersen FZ, Thogersen H, Wilken M, Agerso H. (2000) Potent derivatives of glucagon-like peptide-1 with pharmacokinetic properties suitable for once daily administration. J Med Chem43: 1664-1669. [PMID:10794683]

17. Lankat-Buttgereit B, Göke B. (1994) Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding for the GLP-1 receptor expressed in rat lung. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol.102: 341-347. [PMID:7813606]

18. Larsen PJ, Tang-Christensen M, Jessop DS. (1997) Central administration of glucagon-like peptide-1 activates hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons in the rat. Endocrinology138: 4445-4455. [PMID:9322962]

19. Li B, Xi X, Roane DS, Ryan DH, Martin RJ. (2003) Distribution of glucokinase, glucose transporter GLUT2, sulfonylurea receptor-1, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor and neuropeptide Y messenger RNAs in rat brain by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Brain Res Mol Brain Res113: 139-142. [PMID:12750016]

20. MacLusky NJ, Cook S, Scrocchi L, Shin J, Kim J, Vaccarino F, Asa SL, Drucker DJ. (2000) Neuroendocrine function and response to stress in mice with complete disruption of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor signaling. Endocrinology141: 752-762. [PMID:10650957]

21. Miranda LP, Winters KA, Gegg CV, Patel A, Aral J, Long J, Zhang J, Diamond S, Guido M, Stanislaus S et al.. (2008) Design and synthesis of conformationally constrained glucagon-like peptide-1 derivatives with increased plasma stability and prolonged in vivo activity. J. Med. Chem.51 (9): 2758-65. [PMID:18412318]

22. Montrose-Rafizadeh C, Yang H, Rodgers BD, Beday A, Pritchette LA, Eng J. (1997) High potency antagonists of the pancreatic glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. J. Biol. Chem.272 (34): 21201-6. [PMID:9261127]

23. Nolte WM, Fortin JP, Stevens BD, Aspnes GE, Griffith DA, Hoth LR, Ruggeri RB, Mathiowetz AM, Limberakis C, Hepworth D et al.. (2014) A potentiator of orthosteric ligand activity at GLP-1R acts via covalent modification. Nat. Chem. Biol.,  [Epub ahead of print]. [PMID:24997604]

24. Nystrom T, Gonon AT, Sjoholm A, Pernow J. (2005) Glucagon-like peptide-1 relaxes rat conduit arteries via an endothelium-independent mechanism. Regul Pept125: 173-177. [PMID:15582729]

25. Raufman JP, Singh L, Eng J. (1991) Exendin-3, a novel peptide from Heloderma horridum venom, interacts with vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors and a newly described receptor on dispersed acini from guinea pig pancreas. Description of exendin-3(9-39) amide, a specific exendin receptor antagonist. J. Biol. Chem.266 (5): 2897-902. [PMID:1704369]

26. Runge S, Thøgersen H, Madsen K, Lau J, Rudolph R. (2008) Crystal structure of the ligand-bound glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor extracellular domain. J. Biol. Chem.283 (17): 11340-7. [PMID:18287102]

27. Shughrue PJ, Lane MV, Merchenthaler I. (1996) Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R) mRNA in the rat hypothalamus. Endocrinology137: 5159-5162. [PMID:8895391]

28. Skoglund G, Hussain MA, Holz GG. (2000) Glucagon-like peptide 1 stimulates insulin gene promoter activity by protein kinase A-independent activation of the rat insulin I gene cAMP response element. Diabetes49: 1156-1164. [PMID:10909973]

29. Song G, Yang D, Wang Y, de Graaf C, Zhou Q, Jiang S, Liu K, Cai X, Dai A, Lin G et al.. (2017) Human GLP-1 receptor transmembrane domain structure in complex with allosteric modulators. Nature,  [Epub ahead of print]. [PMID:28514449]

30. Stoffel M, Bell GI. (1993) Human glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor gene: Localization to chromosome band 6p21 by fluorescencein situhybridization and linkage of a highly polymorphic simple tandem repeat DNA polymorphism to other markers on chromosome 6. Diabetes42: 1215-1218. [PMID:8392011]

31. Thorens B. (1992) Expression cloning of the pancreatic β-cell receptor for the gluco-incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.89: 8641-8645. [PMID:1326760]

32. Tibaduiza EC, Chen C, Beinborn M. (2001) A small molecule ligand of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor targets its amino-terminal hormone binding domain. J. Biol. Chem.276 (41): 37787-93. [PMID:11498540]

33. Tseng CC, Zhang XY, Wolfe MM. (1999) Effect of GIP and GLP-1 antagonists on insulin release in the rat. Am J Physiol276: 1049-1054. [PMID:10362617]

34. Uttenthal LO, Blazquez E. (1990) Characterization of high affinity receptors for glucagon-like peptide-1 in rat gastric glands. FEBS Lett.262: 139-141. [PMID:2156728]

35. Wei Y, Mojsov S. (1995) Tissue-specific expression of the human receptor for glucagon-like peptide 1: brain, heart and pancreatic forms have the same deduced amino acid sequences. FEBS Lett.358: 219-224. [PMID:7843404]

36. Werner U, Haschke G, Herling AW, Kramer W. (2010) Pharmacological profile of lixisenatide: A new GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Regul. Pept.164 (2-3): 58-64. [PMID:20570597]

Contributors

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How to cite this page

Dominique Bataille, Philippe Delagrange, Daniel J. Drucker, Burkhard Göke, Rebecca Hills, Kelly E. Mayo, Laurence J. Miller, Bernard Thorens.
Glucagon receptor family: GLP-1 receptor. Last modified on 02/06/2017. Accessed on 17/10/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=249.