SST<sub>3</sub> receptor | Somatostatin receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

SST3 receptor

Target id: 357

Nomenclature: SST3 receptor

Family: Somatostatin receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     Currently no data for SST3 receptor in GtoImmuPdb

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 418 22q13.1 SSTR3 somatostatin receptor 3 6,51-52
Mouse 7 428 15 E1 Sstr3 somatostatin receptor 3 54
Rat 7 428 7q34 Sstr3 somatostatin receptor 3 29
Previous and Unofficial Names
SRIF1C | somatostatin receptor 28 | SSR-28
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB ssr3_human (Hs), ssr3_mouse (Mm), ssr3_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
cortistatin-14 {Sp: Mouse, Rat}
CST-17 {Sp: Human}
SRIF-14 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat}
SRIF-28 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat}
Comments: SRIF-14 and SRIF-28 are the active fragments of precursor somatostatin

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
[125I]Tyr10-CST14 Hs Full agonist 10.1 pKd 45-46
pKd 10.1 [45-46]
[125I]LTT-SRIF-28 Hs Full agonist 9.4 – 10.3 pKd 6,38,45-46
pKd 9.7 – 10.3 [6,45-46]
pKd 9.4 [38]
[125I]CGP 23996 Hs Full agonist 9.8 pKd 46
pKd 9.8 [46]
[125I]Tyr7-Sst3-ODN-8 Hs Full agonist 9.6 pKd 37
pKd 9.6 [37]
[125I]CGP 23996 Mm Full agonist 9.4 pKd 34
pKd 9.4 [34]
NC 8-12 Hs Full agonist 10.0 pKi 31
pKi 10.0 [31]
cortistatin-14 {Sp: Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 9.1 – 9.9 pKi 45-46
pKi 9.1 – 9.9 [45-46]
SRIF-14 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 8.7 – 10.0 pKi 4,6,8,31,33,38,45-46,53
pKi 8.7 – 10.0 [4,6,8,31,33,38,45-46,53]
CST-17 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 8.7 – 9.9 pKi 8,45-46
pKi 8.7 – 9.9 [8,45-46]
BN-81,644 Hs Full agonist 9.2 pKi 33
pKi 9.2 [33]
SRIF-28 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Rn Full agonist 9.1 pKi 28
pKi 9.1 [28]
CGP 23996 Hs Full agonist 8.8 – 9.3 pKi 45-46
pKi 8.8 – 9.3 [45-46]
BIM 23052 Hs Full agonist 8.4 – 9.7 pKi 4,45-46
pKi 8.4 – 9.7 [4,45-46]
SRIF-28 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 8.1 – 9.9 pKi 4,6,8,28,31,45-46
pKi 8.1 – 9.9 [4,6,8,28,31,45-46]
BN-81,674 Hs Full agonist 9.0 pKi 33
pKi 9.0 [33]
SRIF-14 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Rn Full agonist 8.9 pKi 28
pKi 8.9 [28]
BIM 23068 Hs Full agonist 8.8 pKi 31
pKi 8.8 [31]
BIM 23058 Hs Full agonist 8.8 pKi 31
pKi 8.8 [31]
BIM 23052 Rn Full agonist 8.5 pKi 28
pKi 8.5 [28]
BIM 23068 Rn Full agonist 8.4 pKi 28
pKi 8.4 [28]
BIM 23295 Rn Full agonist 8.2 pKi 28
pKi 8.2 [28]
BIM 23023 Hs Full agonist 8.1 pKi 31
pKi 8.1 [31]
BIM 23034 Hs Full agonist 8.1 pKi 31
pKi 8.1 [31]
NC 4-28B Hs Full agonist 8.0 pKi 31
pKi 8.0 [31]
octreotide Hs Full agonist 7.4 – 8.6 pKi 4,6,31,45-46,53
pKi 7.4 – 8.6 [4,6,31,45-46,53]
L-362,855 Hs Full agonist 7.6 – 8.3 pKi 45-46
pKi 7.6 – 8.3 [45-46]
BIM 23050 Hs Full agonist 7.8 pKi 31
pKi 7.8 [31]
octreotide Rn Full agonist 7.8 pKi 28
pKi 7.8 [28]
vapreotide Hs Full agonist 7.4 – 7.9 pKi 4,31,45
pKi 7.4 – 7.9 [4,31,45]
lanreotide Hs Full agonist 7.2 – 8.0 pKi 4,31,45-46
pKi 7.2 – 8.0 [4,31,45-46]
L-796,778 Hs Full agonist 7.6 pKi 38
pKi 7.6 [38]
BIM 23030 Hs Full agonist 7.2 – 7.8 pKi 45-46
pKi 7.2 – 7.8 [45-46]
seglitide Rn Full agonist 7.4 pKi 28
pKi 7.4 [28]
seglitide Hs Full agonist 6.6 – 7.9 pKi 4,31,45-46,53
pKi 6.6 – 7.9 [4,31,45-46,53]
vapreotide Rn Full agonist 7.1 pKi 28
pKi 7.1 [28]
BIM 23056 Hs Full agonist 6.9 – 7.2 pKi 45-46
pKi 6.9 – 7.2 [45-46]
BIM 23023 Rn Full agonist 7.0 pKi 28
pKi 7.0 [28]
lanreotide Rn Full agonist 6.9 pKi 28
pKi 6.9 [28]
L-363,301 Hs Full agonist 6.3 – 7.0 pKi 45-46
pKi 6.3 – 7.0 [45-46]
BIM 23056 Mm Full agonist 10.7 pIC50 34
pIC50 10.7 [34]
BIM 23058 Mm Full agonist 10.4 pIC50 34
pIC50 10.4 [34]
SRIF-28 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Mm Full agonist 10.2 pIC50 34
pIC50 10.2 [34]
SRIF-14 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Mm Full agonist 10.1 pIC50 34
pIC50 10.1 [34]
L-362,823 Mm Full agonist 10.1 pIC50 34
pIC50 10.1 [34]
BIM 23052 Mm Full agonist 9.4 pIC50 34
pIC50 9.4 [34]
BIM 23068 Mm Full agonist 9.1 pIC50 34
pIC50 9.1 [34]
BIM 23066 Mm Full agonist 9.0 pIC50 34
pIC50 9.0 [34]
KE 108 Hs Full agonist 8.8 pIC50 36
pIC50 8.8 [36]
pasireotide Hs Full agonist 8.8 pIC50 41
pIC50 8.8 [41]
octreotide Mm Full agonist 8.5 pIC50 34
pIC50 8.5 [34]
Des-AA5-[D-Trp8]SRIF Hs Full agonist 8.4 – 8.5 pIC50 10
pIC50 8.4 – 8.5 [10]
BIM 23050 Mm Full agonist 8.3 pIC50 34
pIC50 8.3 [34]
[111In]DOTA-BOC-ATE Hs Full agonist 8.3 pIC50 13
pIC50 8.3 [13]
lanreotide Mm Full agonist 8.2 pIC50 34
pIC50 8.2 [34]
BIM 23059 Mm Full agonist 8.2 pIC50 34
pIC50 8.2 [34]
[111In]DOTA-NOC Hs Full agonist 8.1 pIC50 50
pIC50 8.1 [50]
BIM 23023 Mm Full agonist 7.9 pIC50 34
pIC50 7.9 [34]
seglitide Mm Full agonist 7.9 pIC50 34
pIC50 7.9 [34]
[111In]DOTA-NOC-ATE Hs Full agonist 7.9 pIC50 13
pIC50 7.9 [13]
BIM 23197 Hs Full agonist 7.6 pIC50 42
pIC50 7.6 [42]
[111In,90Y]DOTA-NOC Hs Full agonist 7.6 pIC50 50
pIC50 7.6 [50]
[111In,90Y]DOTA-OC Hs Full agonist 7.6 pIC50 50
pIC50 7.6 [50]
BOC-ATE Hs Full agonist 7.5 pIC50 13
pIC50 7.5 [13]
BIM 23034 Mm Full agonist 7.2 pIC50 34
pIC50 7.2 [34]
NC 4-28B Mm Full agonist 7.0 pIC50 34
pIC50 7.0 [34]
BIM 23056 Rn Full agonist 6.5 pIC50 49
pIC50 6.5 [49]
NOC-ATE Hs Full agonist 6.5 pIC50 13
pIC50 6.5 [13]
[111In,90Y]DOTA-LAN Hs Full agonist 6.5 pIC50 50
pIC50 6.5 [50]
[111In,90Y]DOTA-TOC Hs Full agonist 6.4 pIC50 50
pIC50 6.4 [50]
View species-specific agonist tables
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
NVP ACQ090 Hs Antagonist 7.9 pKi 16
pKi 7.9 [16]
PRL-2915 Hs Antagonist 7.0 pKi 15
pKi 7.0 [15]
PRL-2970 Hs Antagonist 7.0 pKi 15
pKi 7.0 [15]
[L-Tyr8]CYN 154806 Hs Antagonist 6.2 – 6.8 pKi 11
pKi 6.2 – 6.8 [11]
[D-Tyr8]CYN 154806 Hs Antagonist 6.2 – 6.7 pKi 11
pKi 6.2 – 6.7 [11]
sst3-ODN-8 Hs Antagonist 8.2 pIC50 37
pIC50 8.2 [37]
BIM 23627 Hs Antagonist 7.4 pIC50 48
pIC50 7.4 [48]
BIM 23454 Hs Antagonist 7.3 pIC50 48
pIC50 7.3 [48]
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gi/Go family Adenylate cyclase inhibition
References:  18,43,54
Secondary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gq/G11 family
G protein (identity unknown)
Phospholipase C stimulation
Comments:  Stimulation of PLC is via the Gq G-protein. There is also inhibition of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE1) and activation of protein tyrosine phosphatases via unknown G-proteins.
References:  1,26,35,44
Tissue Distribution
Cerebellum (Purkinje cells and Golgi cells), frontal cortex (pyramidal cells), hippocampus (CA1-4 subfields and some granule cells of the dentate gyrus).
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR and in situ hybridisation.
References:  40
Anterior pituitary, pancreatic islets, enteric ganglion cells of the intestine, non-functioning, ACTH- and GH-producing pituitary adenomas
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  27
Poorly expressed in pancreatic islets, mainly in β-cells.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry
References:  22
T cells (Jurkat).
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  5
Primary neuronal cilia.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Electron microscopy, Immunohistochemistry
References:  17
Aorta.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry.
References:  19
High levels in the cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, olfactory bulb and cortex. Medium levels in the hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain and preoptic area.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Nuclease protection analysis.
References:  3
Cortex, hippocampus (indeseum griseum, granular layer of the dentate gyrus, piriform cortex, amygdaloid nuclei), amygdala, habenula, hypothalamus, cerebellum (granular cell layer and interpositus cerebellar nuclei).
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry
References:  14
Pituitary.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Nuclease protection analysis.
References:  3
Pituitary.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  7,9
Spleen, kidney, liver.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Nuclease protection analysis.
References:  3
Fundic gastric mucosa of the stomach.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCT.
References:  23
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
SOM230 and octreotide induce internalization, signaling and rapid down-regulation of human sst3 receptors
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells
Response measured:  Time-dependent ERK1/2 activation measured by ELISA, Western blot analysis.
References:  24
Somatostatin inhibits tumor angiogenesis through inhibition of both eNOS and MAPK activities
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Human EAhy926 cell line; KS cell cultures
Response measured:  In vivo angiogenesis, cell survival studies, cell proliferation studies, determination of nitric oxide production and Western blot analysis
References:  12
Human sst3 interacts with the multiple PDZ protein MUPP1
Species:  Human
Tissue:  MCF7 cells
Response measured:  Immuncytochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation
References:  25
Sst3 traffics through Rab4-, Rab21-, and Rab11-containing endosomes, but largely bypasses Rab5 and Rab7 endosomes
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  IMCD3
Response measured:  Immunofluorescence microscopy and live cell imaging
References:  47
Agonist-dependent internalization of the rat sst3 requires four hydroxyl amino acids (Ser341, Ser346, Ser351, Thr357) in the receptor C terminus
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells
Response measured:  Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis
References:  39
Measurement of cAMP accumulation (AC activity) in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with human sst3 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO-K1 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of cAMP accumulation.
References:  33
Measurement of NHE1 (Na-H exchanger) activity (pH recovery) in Ltk- cells stably expressing rat sst3 receptors.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Mouse fibroblast Ltk- cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of NHE1 activity.
References:  26
Measurement of PLC activity in CCL39 cells stably transfected with human sst3 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CCL39 cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of PLC activity.
References:  44
Measurement of protein tyrosine phosphatase and Raf-1 activity in NIH 3T3 cells stably transfected with human sst3 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  NIH 3T3 cells.
Response measured:  Activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase, inactivation of Raf-1 serine kinase.
References:  35
Measurement of cAMP accumulation (AC activity) in HEK 293 cells stably transfected with human sst3 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of cAMP accumulation.
References:  18
Measurement of AC activity (cAMP levels) in CCL39 cells stably transfected with human sst3 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CCL39 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of AC activity.
References:  43
Measurement of GIRK currents (inward potassium currents) in Xenopus oocyte cells stably transfected with rat sst3 receptors and GIRK1 channels.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Xenopus oocytes.
Response measured:  Activation of GIRK current.
References:  20
Measurement of AC activity (cAMP accumulation) in COS-1 cells stably expressing mouse sst3 receptors.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  COS-1 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of AC activity.
References:  54
Measurement of NOS activity (NO production) in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with rat sst3 receptors.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  CHO-K1 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of NO production.
References:  2
Human somatostatin receptor (sst) subtypes sst2A and sst3 exist as homodimers at the plasma membrane.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells
Response measured:  Immuncytochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation
References:  32
α-adaptin, clathrin and Rab11 colocalize with the receptor. Agonist-induced endocytosis of sst3 depends on its interaction with β-arrestin.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Neuroendocrine rat insulinoma 1046-38
Response measured:  Immuncytochemistry and electron microscopy
References:  21
Physiological Functions
Inhibition of IL-2 secretion and cell proliferation.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  T cells (Jurkat)
References:  5
Inhibition of GH release (with sst2).
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Hepatocytes (liver cells).
References:  30

References

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1. Akbar M, Okajima F, Tomura H, Majid MA, Yamada Y, Seino S, Kondo Y. (1994) Phospholipase C activation and Ca2+ mobilization by cloned human somatostatin receptor subtypes 1-5, in transfected COS-7 cells. FEBS Lett, 348: 192-196. [PMID:8034040]

2. Arena S, Pattarozzi A, Corsaro A, Schettini G, Florio T. (2005) Somatostatin receptor subtype-dependent regulation of nitric oxide release: involvement of different intracellular pathways. Mol Endocrinol, 19: 255-267. [PMID:15388796]

3. Bruno JF, Xu Y, Song J, Berelowitz M. (1993) Tissue distribution of somatostatin receptor subtype messenger ribonucleic acid in the rat. Endocrinology, 133: 2561-2567. [PMID:8243278]

4. Bruns C, Raulf F, Hoyer D, Schloos J, Lubbert H, Weckbecker G. (1996) Binding properties of somatostatin receptor subtypes. Metabolism, 45: 17-20. [PMID:8769372]

5. Cardoso A, el Ghamrawy C, Gautron JP, Horvat B, Gautier N, Enjalbert A, Krantic S. (1998) Somatostatin increases mitogen-induced IL-2 secretion and proliferation of human Jurkat T cells via sst3 receptor isotype. J Cell Biochem, 68: 62-73. [PMID:9407314]

6. Corness JD, Demchyshyn LL, Seeman P, Van Tol HH, Srikant CB, Kent G, Patel YC, Niznik HB. (1993) A human somatostatin receptor (SSTR3), located on chromosome 22, displays preferential affinity for somatostatin-14 like peptides. FEBS Lett, 321: 279-284. [PMID:8097479]

7. Day R, Dong W, Panetta R, Kraicer J, Greenwood MT, Patel YC. (1995) Expression of mRNA for somatostatin receptor (sstr) types 2 and 5 in individual rat pituitary cells. A double labeling in situ hybridization analysis. Endocrinology, 136: 5232-5235. [PMID:7588263]

8. Engstrom M, Tomperi J, El-Darwish K, Ahman M, Savola JM, Wurster S. (2005) Superagonism at the human somatostatin receptor subtype 4. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 312: 332-338. [PMID:15333679]

9. Epelbaum J, Briard N, Djordjijevic D, Dutour A, Meyerhoff W, Oliver C, Slama A, Viollet C, Zhang J. (1998) Characterization of somatostatin receptor subtypes in mammalian pituitary. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 839: 249-253. [PMID:9629161]

10. Erchegyi J, Hoeger CA, Low W, Hoyer D, Waser B, Eltschinger V, Schaer JC, Cescato R, Reubi JC, Rivier JE. (2005) Somatostatin receptor 1 selective analogues: 2. N(alpha)-Methylated scan. J Med Chem, 48: 507-514. [PMID:15658864]

11. Feuerbach D, Fehlmann D, Nunn C, Siehler S, Langenegger D, Bouhelal R, Seuwen K, Hoyer D. (2000) Cloning, expression and pharmacological characterisation of the mouse somatostatin sst(5) receptor. Neuropharmacology, 39: 1451-1462. [PMID:10818261]

12. Florio T, Morini M, Villa V, Arena S, Corsaro A, Thellung S, Culler MD, Pfeffer U, Noonan DM, Schettini G, Albini A. (2003) Somatostatin inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth via somatostatin receptor-3-mediated regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activities. Endocrinology, 144: 1574-1584. [PMID:12639942]

13. Ginj M, Chen J, Walter MA, Eltschinger V, Reubi JC, Maecke HR. (2005) Preclinical evaluation of new and highly potent analogues of octreotide for predictive imaging and targeted radiotherapy. Clin Cancer Res, 11: 1136-1145. [PMID:15709181]

14. Hervieu G, Emson PC. (1999) Visualisation of somatostatin receptor sst(3) in the rat central nervous system. Brain Res Mol Brain Res, 71: 290-303. [PMID:10521583]

15. Hocart SJ, Jain R, Murphy WA, Taylor JE, Morgan B, Coy DH. (1998) Potent antagonists of somatostatin: synthesis and biology. J Med Chem, 41: 1146-1154. [PMID:9544214]

16. Hoyer D, Vassout A, Gentsch C, Enz A, Vigouret JM, Jaton A, Schoeffter P, Kelly P, Wrynn A, Hurth K, Troxler T. (2004) Functional characterization of NVP ACQ090, a somatostatin sst3 receptor antagonist. Soc Neuroscience Abs,: -.

17. Händel M, Schulz S, Stanarius A, Schreff M, Erdtmann-Vourliotis M, Schmidt H, Wolf G, Höllt V. (1999) Selective targeting of somatostatin receptor 3 to neuronal cilia. Neuroscience, 89 (3): 909-26. [PMID:10199624]

18. Kaupmann K, Bruns C, Hoyer D, Seuwen K, Lubbert H. (1993) Distribution and second messenger coupling of four somatostatin receptor subtypes expressed in brain. FEBS Lett, 331: 53-59. [PMID:8405411]

19. Khare S, Kumar U, Sasi R, Puebla L, Calderon L, Lemstrom K, Hayry P, Patel AY. (1999) Differential regulation of somatostatin receptor types 1-5 in rat aorta after angioplasty. Faseb J, 13: 387-394. [PMID:9973327]

20. Kreienkamp HJ, Honck HH, Richter D. (1997) Coupling of rat somatostatin receptor subtypes to a G-protein gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1). FEBS Lett, 419: 92-94. [PMID:9426226]

21. Kreuzer OJ, Krisch B, Déry O, Bunnett NW, Meyerhof W. (2001) Agonist-mediated endocytosis of rat somatostatin receptor subtype 3 involves beta-arrestin and clathrin coated vesicles. J. Neuroendocrinol., 13 (3): 279-87. [PMID:11207943]

22. Kumar U, Sasi R, Suresh S, Patel A, Thangaraju M, Metrakos P, Patel SC, Patel YC. (1999) Subtype-selective expression of the five somatostatin receptors (hSSTR1-5) in human pancreatic islet cells: a quantitative double-label immunohistochemical analysis. Diabetes, 48: 77-85. [PMID:9892225]

23. Le Romancer M, Cherifi Y, Levasseur S, Laigneau JP, Peranzi G, Jais P, Lewin MJ, Reyl-Desmars F. (1996) Messenger RNA expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in human and rat gastric mucosae. Life Sci, 58: 1091-1098. [PMID:8622562]

24. Lesche S, Lehmann D, Nagel F, Schmid HA, Schulz S. (2009) Differential effects of octreotide and pasireotide on somatostatin receptor internalization and trafficking in vitro. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 94 (2): 654-61. [PMID:19001514]

25. Liew CW, Vockel M, Glassmeier G, Brandner JM, Fernandez-Ballester GJ, Schwarz JR, Schulz S, Buck F, Serrano L, Richter D et al.. (2009) Interaction of the human somatostatin receptor 3 with the multiple PDZ domain protein MUPP1 enables somatostatin to control permeability of epithelial tight junctions. FEBS Lett., 583 (1): 49-54. [PMID:19071123]

26. Lin CY, Varma MG, Joubel A, Madabushi S, Lichtarge O, Barber DL. (2003) Conserved motifs in somatostatin, D2-dopamine, and alpha 2B-adrenergic receptors for inhibiting the Na-H exchanger, NHE1. J Biol Chem, 278: 15128-15135. [PMID:12566440]

27. Lupp A, Nagel F, Doll C, Röcken C, Evert M, Mawrin C, Saeger W, Schulz S. (2012) Reassessment of sst3 somatostatin receptor expression in human normal and neoplastic tissues using the novel rabbit monoclonal antibody UMB-5. Neuroendocrinology, 96 (4): 301-10. [PMID:22414742]

28. Meyerhof W. (1998) The elucidation of somatostatin receptor functions: a current view. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol, 133: 55-108. [PMID:9600011]

29. Meyerhof W, Wulfsen I, Schonrock C, Fehr S, Richter D. (1992) Molecular cloning of a somatostatin-28 receptor and comparison of its expression pattern with that of a somatostatin-14 receptor in rat brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 89: 10267-10271. [PMID:1279674]

30. Murray RD, Kim K, Ren SG, Chelly M, Umehara Y, Melmed S. (2004) Central and peripheral actions of somatostatin on the growth hormone-IGF-I axis. J Clin Invest, 114: 349-356. [PMID:15286801]

31. Patel YC, Srikant CB. (1994) Subtype selectivity of peptide analogs for all five cloned human somatostatin receptors (hsstr 1-5). Endocrinology, 135: 2814-2817. [PMID:7988476]

32. Pfeiffer M, Koch T, Schröder H, Klutzny M, Kirscht S, Kreienkamp HJ, Höllt V, Schulz S. (2001) Homo- and heterodimerization of somatostatin receptor subtypes. Inactivation of sst(3) receptor function by heterodimerization with sst(2A). J. Biol. Chem., 276 (17): 14027-36. [PMID:11134004]

33. Poitout L, Roubert P, Contour-Galcera MO, Moinet C, Lannoy J, Pommier J, Plas P, Bigg D, Thurieau C. (2001) Identification of potent non-peptide somatostatin antagonists with sst(3) selectivity. J Med Chem, 44: 2990-3000. [PMID:11520208]

34. Raynor K, Murphy WA, Coy DH, Taylor JE, Moreau JP, Yasuda K, Bell GI, Reisine T. (1993) Cloned somatostatin receptors: identification of subtype-selective peptides and demonstration of high affinity binding of linear peptides. Mol Pharmacol, 43: 838-844. [PMID:8100350]

35. Reardon DB, Wood SL, Brautigan DL, Bell GI, Dent P, Sturgill TW. (1996) Activation of a protein tyrosine phosphatase and inactivation of Raf-1 by somatostatin. Biochem J, 314: 401-404. [PMID:8670047]

36. Reubi JC, Eisenwiener KP, Rink H, Waser B, Macke HR. (2002) A new peptidic somatostatin agonist with high affinity to all five somatostatin receptors. Eur J Pharmacol, 456: 45-49. [PMID:12450568]

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Jacques Epelbaum, Wasyl Feniuk, Anthony Harmar, Rebecca Hills, Daniel Hoyer, Patrick P. A. Humphrey, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Anne-Marie O'Carroll, Yogesh C. Patel, Terry Reisine, Jean-Claude Reubi, Marcus Schindler, Agnes Schonbrunn, John E. Taylor, Annamaria Vezzani.
Somatostatin receptors: SST3 receptor. Last modified on 20/02/2018. Accessed on 19/11/2018. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=357.