NK<sub>2</sub> receptor | Tachykinin receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

NK2 receptor

Target id: 361

Nomenclature: NK2 receptor

Family: Tachykinin receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     Currently no data for NK2 receptor in GtoImmuPdb

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 398 10q11-q21 TACR2 tachykinin receptor 2 25
Mouse 7 384 10 B4 Tacr2 tachykinin receptor 2 63
Rat 7 390 20 Tacr2 tachykinin receptor 2 58
Previous and Unofficial Names
Neurokinin B receptor | NKNAR | SKR | TAC2R | NK-2 receptor | neurokinin A receptor | SP-E receptor | Substance K receptor
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB nk2r_human (Hs), nk2r_mouse (Mm), nk2r_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
neurokinin A {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat}
neurokinin B {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat, Pig}
substance P {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat}
Comments: Neurokinin A is the principal endogenous agonist
Potency order of endogenous ligands (Human)
neurokinin A (TAC1, P20366) > neurokinin B (TAC3, Q9UHF0) >> substance P (TAC1, P20366)

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
[125I]NKA (human, mouse, rat) Hs Full agonist 9.3 pKd 67
pKd 9.3 (Kd 4.7x10-10 M) [67]
[βAla8]neurokinin A-(4-10) Hs Full agonist 6.0 pKd 23
pKd 6.0 [23]
neurokinin A {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 8.0 – 9.1 pKi 6,23,57,69
pKi 8.0 – 9.1 [6,23,57,69]
[Phe(Me)7]neurokinin B Hs Full agonist 6.9 pKi 57
pKi 6.9 [57]
substance P {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 5.9 – 6.9 pKi 6,23,57
pKi 5.9 – 6.9 [6,23,57]
neurokinin B {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat, Pig} Hs Full agonist 5.0 – 7.7 pKi 23,57
pKi 5.0 – 7.7 [23,57]
hemokinin 1 {Sp: Mouse} Hs Full agonist 6.3 pKi 6
pKi 6.3 [6]
neuropeptide γ {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Cp Agonist 9.5 pEC50 65
pEC50 9.5 (EC50 3.16x10-10 M) [65]
neurokinin A {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Cp Agonist 8.9 pEC50 18
pEC50 8.9 (EC50 1.3x10-9 M) [18]
neuropeptide K {Sp: Human, Rat} Cp Agonist 8.8 pEC50 65
pEC50 8.8 (EC50 1.58x10-9 M) [65]
GR64349 Rn Full agonist 8.4 pEC50 19
pEC50 8.4 (EC50 3.7x10-9 M) [19]
[Lys5,Me-Leu9,Nle10]NKA-(4-10) Rn Full agonist 8.8 – 9.4 pIC50 48
pIC50 8.8 – 9.4 [48]
View species-specific agonist tables
Agonist Comments
Affinity data for guinea pig tachykinin receptors has been included as this species more closely mimics human tachykinin receptor expression pattern, gene sequence, and receptor function than do the rat or mouse.
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
[3H]saredutant Rn Antagonist 9.7 pKd 32
pKd 9.7 (Kd 2x10-10 M) [32]
[3H]GR100679 Hs Antagonist 9.2 pKd 34
pKd 9.2 (Kd 6x10-10 M) [34]
GR 159897 Hs Antagonist 7.8 – 9.5 pKd 8,23,61
pKd 7.8 – 9.5 [8,23,61]
ibodutant Hs Antagonist 9.8 – 10.3 pKi 15
pKi 9.8 – 10.3 [15]
YM44781 Hs Antagonist 9.9 pKi 14
pKi 9.9 [14]
GR94800 Hs Antagonist 9.8 pKi 10
pKi 9.8 [10]
saredutant Hs Antagonist 9.4 – 9.7 pKi 4,23,57
pKi 9.4 – 9.7 [4,23,57]
SCH 206272 Hs Antagonist 9.4 pKi 4
pKi 9.4 [4]
saredutant Rn Antagonist 9.2 – 9.4 pKi 24
pKi 9.2 – 9.4 (Ki 6x10-10 – 4.2x10-10 M) [24]
MEN10627 Hs Antagonist 9.2 pKi 26
pKi 9.2 [26]
SB 414240 Hs Antagonist 9.0 pKi 9
pKi 9.0 (Ki 1x10-9 M) [9]
ZM-274773 Hs Antagonist 8.6 pKi 3
pKi 8.6 (Ki 2.4x10-9 M) [3]
YM44778 Hs Antagonist 8.6 pKi 14
pKi 8.6 [14]
nepadutant Hs Antagonist 8.5 – 8.7 pKi 11,15
pKi 8.5 – 8.7 [11,15]
MEN 10376 Hs Antagonist 8.1 pKi 23
pKi 8.1 [23]
osanetant Hs Antagonist 7.3 – 7.8 pKi 4,57
pKi 7.3 – 7.8 [4,57]
talnetant Hs Antagonist 6.8 – 6.9 pKi 57
pKi 6.8 – 6.9 [57]
YM49598 Hs Antagonist 6.8 pKi 14
pKi 6.8 [14]
R396 Hs Antagonist 6.5 pKi 23
pKi 6.5 [23]
FK-888 Hs Antagonist 6.1 pKi 14
pKi 6.1 [14]
ZM 253270 Cp Antagonist 5.1 pKi 2
pKi 5.1 (Ki 9x10-6 M) [2]
ZM 253270 Hs Antagonist 3.8 pKi 2
pKi 3.8 (Ki 1.5x10-4 M) [2]
saredutant Cp Antagonist 10.3 pIC50 47
pIC50 10.3 (IC50 5.6x10-11 M) [47]
GR100679 Hs Antagonist - - 34
[34]
View species-specific antagonist tables
Antagonist Comments
Affinity data for guinea pig tachykinin receptors has been included as this species more closely mimics human tachykinin receptor expression pattern, gene sequence, and receptor function than do the rat or mouse.
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gs family
Gq/G11 family
Adenylate cyclase stimulation
Phospholipase C stimulation
References:  12,53,62
Tissue Distribution
Hippocampus.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  7
Substantia nigra
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  7
Caudate nucleus.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  7
Cerebral cortex.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  7
Mouse ileum; inner portion of the circular muscle layer.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry.
References:  66
Dorsal and ventral hippocampus, septum, thalamus and prefrontal cortex.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Autoradiography.
References:  56
Uterus.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  5
Substantia nigra.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  20
Gastrointestinal tract; circular and longitudinal muscle cells, nerve endings in the plexuses.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry.
References:  31
Kidney.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Autoradiography.
References:  13
Brainstem auditory nuclei; cochlear nucleus, lateral superior olive, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, and inferior colliculus.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry.
References:  33
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
Fecal excretion.
Species:  Rat
Tissue: 
Response measured: 
References:  22
Smooth muscle contraction induced by electric field stimulation.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Colon.
Response measured:  Contraction.
References:  39
Measurement of cAMP accumulation in COS cells transfected with the human NK2 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  COS cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of cAMP accumulation and IP3 turnover.
References:  12
Measurement of intracellular IP3 levels in CHO cells transfected with the human NK2 recetor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Increase in intracellular IP3.
References:  12
Measurement of PGE2 levels in CHO cells transfected with the human NK2 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Increase in PGE2 levels.
References:  12
Bronchoconstriction.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Lungs.
Response measured:  Inhibition of NKA by sardutant.
References:  24
Bronchospasm.
Species:  Guinea pig
Tissue:  Trachea.
Response measured:  Administration of NKA(4-10) or NKA produced a dose-dependent increase in tracheal insufflation pressure.
References:  46
Airway microvascular leakage.
Species:  Guinea pig
Tissue:  Lungs.
Response measured:  Treatment with sardutant reduced airway microvascular leakage.
References:  54
Urinary bladder contractions.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Bladder.
Response measured: 
References:  28
Induction of tracheal smooth muscle contraction.
Species:  Rabbit
Tissue:  Trachea.
Response measured:  Contraction of trachea.
References:  60
Induction of tracheal smooth muscle contraction.
Species:  Guinea pig
Tissue:  Trachea.
Response measured:  Contraction of trachea.
References:  60
Smooth muscle contraction induced by electric field stimulation.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Small intestine.
Response measured:  Contraction.
References:  39
Dopamine induced contralateral rotational activity (turning behavior).
Species:  Rat
Tissue: 
Response measured:  Activation of the nigro-striatal DA pathway by NK2 selective agonists (Ava (D-Pro9) SP (7-11) [GR51667] or [Lys3,Gly8,R-Lac-Leu9]NKA (3-10) [GR64349]) elicit contralateral rotational activity.
References:  20
Physiological Functions
Involvement in oedema formation and plasma extravasation in mouse ear.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo
References:  37
Stimulation of contraction of the circular muslce of human esophageal body.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  In vivo
References:  35
Stimulation of contractions in rat urinary bladder.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo
References:  1,14,40,44
Mediation of contraction of circular muscle of human colon.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Colon
References:  27
Mediation of contractions in oestrogen-primed rat uterus.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo
References:  45
Mediation of irregular spiking activity in the small intestine of the rat.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo
References:  42
Mediation of duodenum contractions in rat.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo
References:  29
Stimulation of contractile response of isolated mouse stomach and bladder.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Stomach and bladder
References:  52
Mediation of contractions of isolated colonic circular smooth muscle.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Isolated colonic circular smooth muscle.
References:  49-50,68
Involvement in supraspinal cardiovascular regulation
Species:  Human
Tissue:  In vivo
References:  16
Mediation of noncholinergic excitatory neural responses in the circular muscle of rat proximal colon.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo
References:  59
Modulation of intestinal motility.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo
References:  55
Modulation of mouse gastric mechanical activity.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo
References:  51
Mediation of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic excitatory neuromuscular transmission in the human ileum.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  In vivo
References:  70
Mediation of contraction of the lower esophageal sphincter.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  In vivo
References:  36
Excitation of colonic motility.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo
References:  41
Inhaled NK2 protects against bradykinin-induced bronchoconstriction and cough in asthmatics.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  38
Control of presynaptic dopamine release.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  30,64
Modulation of resting tone in rat small intestine.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Small intestine
References:  43
Modulation of motor responses of human colonic muscle strips.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  In vivo
References:  17
NK2 receptor anatgonist SR 144190 blocks [Nle10] neurokinin A-(4-10)-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs.
Species:  Guinea pig
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  21

References

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1. Abdel-Gawad M, Dion SB, Elhilali MM. (2001) Evidence of a peripheral role of neurokinins in detrusor hyperreflexia: a further study of selective tachykinin antagonists in chronic spinal injured rats. J Urol, 165: 1739-1744. [PMID:11342967]

2. Aharony D, Buckner CK, Ellis JL, Ghanekar SV, Graham A, Kays JS, Little J, Meeker S, Miller SC, Undem BJ. (1995) Pharmacological characterization of a new class of nonpeptide neurokinin A antagonists that demonstrate species selectivity. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 274 (3): 1216-21. [PMID:7562491]

3. Altamura M. (2012) Tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonists. A patent review (2006 - 2010). Expert Opin Ther Pat, 22 (1): 57-77. [PMID:22149761]

4. Anthes JC, Chapman RW, Richard C, Eckel S, Corboz M, Hey JA, Fernandez X, Greenfeder S, McLeod R, Sehring S, Rizzo C, Crawley Y, Shih NY, Piwinski J, Reichard G, Ting P, Carruthers N, Cuss FM, Billah M, Kreutner W, Egan RW. (2002) SCH 206272: a potent, orally active tachykinin NK(1), NK(2), and NK(3) receptor antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol, 450: 191-202. [PMID:12206858]

5. Barr AJ, Watson SP, Bernal AL, Nimmo AJ. (1991) The presence of NK3 tachykinin receptors on rat uterus. Eur J Pharmacol, 203: 287-290. [PMID:1724757]

6. Bellucci F, Carini F, Catalani C, Cucchi P, Lecci A, Meini S, Patacchini R, Quartara L, Ricci R, Tramontana M, Giuliani S, Maggi CA. (2002) Pharmacological profile of the novel mammalian tachykinin, hemokinin 1. Br J Pharmacol, 135: 266-274. [PMID:11786503]

7. Bensaid M, Faucheux BA, Hirsch E, Agid Y, Soubrié P, Oury-Donat F. (2001) Expression of tachykinin NK2 receptor mRNA in human brain. Neurosci. Lett., 303 (1): 25-8. [PMID:11297815]

8. Beresford IJ, Sheldrick RL, Ball DI, Turpin MP, Walsh DM, Hawcock AB, Coleman RA, Hagan RM, Tyers MB. (1995) GR159897, a potent non-peptide antagonist at tachykinin NK2 receptors. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 272 (2-3): 241-8. [PMID:7713168]

9. Blaney FE, Raveglia LF, Artico M, Cavagnera S, Dartois C, Farina C, Grugni M, Gagliardi S, Luttmann MA, Martinelli M et al.. (2001) Stepwise modulation of neurokinin-3 and neurokinin-2 receptor affinity and selectivity in quinoline tachykinin receptor antagonists. J. Med. Chem., 44 (11): 1675-89. [PMID:11356103]

10. Bradshaw CG, Ceszkowski K, Turcatti G, Beresford IJ, Chollet A. (1994) Synthesis and characterization of selective fluorescent ligands for the neurokinin NK2 receptor. J. Med. Chem., 37 (13): 1991-5. [PMID:8027981]

11. Catalioto RM, Criscuoli M, Cucchi P, Giachetti A, Gianotti D, Giuliani S, Lecci A, Lippi A, Patacchini R, Quartara L et al.. (1998) MEN 11420 (Nepadutant), a novel glycosylated bicyclic peptide tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist. Br. J. Pharmacol., 123 (1): 81-91. [PMID:9484857]

12. Catalioto RM, Cucchi P, Renzetti AR, Criscuoli M, Maggi CA. (1998) Independent coupling of the human tachykinin NK2 receptor to phospholipases C and A2 in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 358: 395-403. [PMID:9826060]

13. Chen Y, Hoover DB. (1995) Autoradiographic localization of NK1 and NK3 tachykinin receptors in rat kidney. Peptides, 16: 673-681. [PMID:7479302]

14. Choppin A, Groke G, Bringas A, Stepan G, Dillon MP. (2002) Effect of YM-44781, YM-44778 and YM-49598, novel tachykinin antagonists, in a drug-induced bladder contraction model. Pharmacology, 65: 96-102. [PMID:11937780]

15. Cialdai C, Tramontana M, Patacchini R, Lecci A, Catalani C, Catalioto RM, Meini S, Valenti C, Altamura M, Giuliani S, Maggi CA. (2006) MEN15596, a novel nonpeptide tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol, 549: 140-148. [PMID:16979621]

16. Couture R, Picard P, Poulat P, Prat A. (1995) Characterization of the tachykinin receptors involved in spinal and supraspinal cardiovascular regulation. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 73: 892-902. [PMID:8846427]

17. Croci T, Aureggi G, Manara L, Emonds-Alt X, Le Fur G, Maffrand JP, Mukenge S, Ferla G. (1998) In vitro characterization of tachykinin NK2-receptors modulating motor responses of human colonic muscle strips. Br J Pharmacol, 124: 1321-1327. [PMID:9720807]

18. D'Orléans-Juste P, Dion S, Drapeau G, Regoli D. (1986) Different receptors are involved in the endothelium-mediated relaxation and the smooth muscle contraction of the rabbit pulmonary artery in response to substance P and related neurokinins. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 125 (1): 37-44. [PMID:2426129]

19. Deal MJ, Hagan RM, Ireland SJ, Jordan CC, McElroy AB, Porter B, Ross BC, Stephens-Smith M, Ward P. (1992) Conformationally constrained tachykinin analogues: potent and highly selective neurokinin NK-2 receptor agonists. J. Med. Chem., 35 (22): 4195-204. [PMID:1331460]

20. Elliott PJ, Mason GS, Stephens-Smith M, Hagan RM. (1991) Behavioural and biochemical responses following activation of midbrain dopamine pathways by receptor selective neurokinin agonists. Neuropeptides, 19 (2): 119-26. [PMID:1719444]

21. Emonds-Alt X, Advenier C, Cognon C, Croci T, Daoui S, Ducoux JP, Landi M, Naline E, Neliat G, Poncelet M et al.. (1997) Biochemical and pharmacological activities of SR 144190, a new potent non-peptide tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist. Neuropeptides, 31 (5): 449-58. [PMID:9413022]

22. Emonds-Alt X, Advenier C, Croci T, Manara L, Neliat G, Poncelet M, Proietto V, Santucci V, Soubrié P, Van Broeck D. (1993) SR 48968, a neurokinin A (NK2) receptor antagonist. Regul. Pept., 46 (1-2): 31-6. [PMID:8210494]

23. Emonds-Alt X, Golliot F, Pointeau P, Le Fur G, Breliere JC. (1993) Characterization of the binding sites of [3H]SR 48968, a potent nonpeptide radioligand antagonist of the neurokinin-2 receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 191: 1172-1177. [PMID:7682062]

24. Emonds-Alt X, Vilain P, Goulaouic P, Proietto V, Van Broeck D, Advenier C, Naline E, Neliat G, Le Fur G, Brelière JC. (1992) A potent and selective non-peptide antagonist of the neurokinin A (NK2) receptor. Life Sci., 50 (15): PL101-6. [PMID:1313515]

25. Gerard NP, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Gerard C. (1990) The human neurokinin A (substance K) receptor. Molecular cloning of the gene, chromosome localization, and isolation of cDNA from tracheal and gastric tissues. J Biol Chem, 265: 20455-20462. [PMID:2173708]

26. Giannotti D, Perrotta E, Di Bugno C, Nannicini R, Harmat NJ, Giolitti A, Patacchini R, Renzetti AR, Rotondaro L, Giuliani S et al.. (2000) Discovery of potent cyclic pseudopeptide human tachykinin NK-2 receptor antagonists. J. Med. Chem., 43 (22): 4041-4. [PMID:11063600]

27. Giuliani S, Barbanti G, Turini D, Quartara L, Rovero P, Giachetti A, Maggi CA. (1991) NK2 tachykinin receptors and contraction of circular muscle of the human colon: characterization of the NK2 receptor subtype. Eur J Pharmacol, 203: 365-370. [PMID:1723045]

28. Giuliani S, Patacchini R, Giachetti A, Maggi CA. (1993) In vivo and in vitro activity of SR 48,968, a non-peptide tachykinin NK-2 receptor antagonist. Regul. Pept., 46 (1-2): 314-6. [PMID:7692525]

29. Giuliani S, Tramontana M, Lecci A, Maggi CA. (1996) Tachykinin receptors mediate atropine-resistant rat duodenal reflex contractions in vivo. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 354: 327-335. [PMID:8878063]

30. Glowinski J, Kemel ML, Desban M, Gauchy C, Lavielle S, Chassaing G, Beaujouan JC, Tremblay L. (1993) Distinct presynaptic control of dopamine release in striosomal- and matrix-enriched areas of the rat striatum by selective agonists of NK1, NK2 and NK3 tachykinin receptors. Regul Pept, 46: 124-128. [PMID:7692480]

31. Grady EF, Baluk P, Böhm S, Gamp PD, Wong H, Payan DG, Ansel J, Portbury AL, Furness JB, McDonald DM, Bunnett NW. (1996) Characterization of antisera specific to NK1, NK2, and NK3 neurokinin receptors and their utilization to localize receptors in the rat gastrointestinal tract. J Neurosci, 16: 6975-6986. [PMID:8824334]

32. Grisshammer R, Little J, Aharony D. (1994) Expression of rat NK-2 (neurokinin A) receptor in E. coli. Recept. Channels, 2 (4): 295-302. [PMID:7719707]

33. Hafidi A, Beurg M, Bouleau Y, Dulon D. (2002) Comparative distribution of NK1, NK2, and NK3 receptors in the rat brainstem auditory nuclei. Brain Res, 947: 299-306. [PMID:12176174]

34. Hagan RM, Beresford IJ, Stables J, Dupere J, Stubbs CM, Elliott PJ, Sheldrick RL, Chollet A, Kawashima E, McElroy AB et al.. (1993) Characterisation, CNS distribution and function of NK2 receptors studied using potent NK2 receptor antagonists. Regul. Pept., 46 (1-2): 9-19. [PMID:8210508]

35. Huber O, Bertrand C, Bunnett NW, Pellegrini CA, Nadel JA, Debas HT, Geppetti P. (1993) Tachykinins contract the circular muscle of the human esophageal body in vitro via NK2 receptors. Gastroenterology, 105: 981-987. [PMID:7691676]

36. Huber O, Bertrand C, Bunnett NW, Pellegrini CA, Nadel JA, Nakazato P, Debas HT, Geppetti P. (1993) Tachykinins mediate contraction of the human lower esophageal sphincter in vitro via activation of NK2 receptors. Eur J Pharmacol, 239: 103-109. [PMID:8223885]

37. Inoue H, Nagata N, Koshihara Y. (1996) Involvement of tachykinin receptors in oedema formation and plasma extravasation induced by substance P, neurokinin A, and neurokinin B in mouse ear. Inflamm Res, 45: 316-323. [PMID:8841832]

38. Joos GF, Van Schoor J, Kips JC, Pauwels RA. (1996) The effect of inhaled FK224, a tachykinin NK-1 and NK-2 receptor antagonist, on neurokinin A-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatics. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 153: 1781-1784. [PMID:8665034]

39. Lecci A, Capriati A, Altamura M, Maggi CA. (2006) Tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in the gut, with special reference to NK2 receptors in human. Auton Neurosci, 126-127: 232-49. [PMID:16616700]

40. Lecci A, Giuliani S, Tramontana M, Meini S, Santicioli P, Maggi CA. (2000) Tachykinin-mediated effect of nociceptin in the rat urinary bladder in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol, 389: 99-102. [PMID:10686301]

41. Lecci A, Tramontana M, Giuliani S, Maggi CA. (1997) Role of tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptors on colonic motility in anesthetized rats: effect of agonists. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 75: 582-586. [PMID:9276132]

42. Lördal M, Bränström R, Hellström PM. (1998) Mediation of irregular spiking activity by multiple neurokinin-receptors in the small intestine of the rat. Br J Pharmacol, 123: 63-70. [PMID:9484855]

43. Maggi CA, Giuliani S. (1996) Evidence that tachykinin NK2 receptors modulate resting tone in the rat isolated small intestine. Br J Pharmacol, 118: 1262-1268. [PMID:8818352]

44. Maggi CA, Giuliani S, Santicioli P, Abelli L, Giachetti A. (1991) Facilitation of reflex micturition by intravesical administration of [beta Ala8]-neurokinin A (4-10), a selective NK-2 tachykinin receptor agonist. J Urol, 145: 184-187. [PMID:1845772]

45. Magraner J, Pinto FM, Anselmi E, Hernandez M, Perez-Afonso R, Martin JD, Advenier C, Candenas ML. (1998) Characterization of tachykinin receptors in the uterus of the oestrogen-primed rat. Br J Pharmacol, 123: 259-268. [PMID:9489614]

46. Manzini S, Conti S, Maggi CA, Rovero P, Ballati L. (1988) Neurokinin A-(4-10): a potent bronchospastic agent virtually devoid of sialologic properties in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 148 (3): 475-8. [PMID:2454832]

47. Martin CA, Naline E, Emonds-Alt X, Advenier C. (1992) Influence of (+/-)-CP-96,345 and SR 48968 on electrical field stimulation of the isolated guinea-pig main bronchus. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 224 (2-3): 137-43. [PMID:1334836]

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Steven D. Douglas, Susan E. Leeman, Jeffrey Barrett, Erin Dombrowsky, Christa Y. Heyward, Pranela Remeshwar.
Tachykinin receptors: NK2 receptor. Last modified on 20/02/2018. Accessed on 18/11/2018. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=361.