5-HT<sub>4</sub> receptor | 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

5-HT4 receptor

Target id: 9

Nomenclature: 5-HT4 receptor

Family: 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     5-HT4 receptor has curated GtoImmuPdb data

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 387 5q31-q33 HTR4 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 7,9,15,21,84,87
Mouse 7 387 18 D3 Htr4 5 hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 4 22
Rat 7 387 18q12.1 Htr4 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 36,84
Previous and Unofficial Names
5-HT4 | serotonin receptor 4 | 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 4, G protein-coupled
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB 5ht4r_human (Hs), 5ht4r_mouse (Mm), 5ht4r_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
5-hydroxytryptamine

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
[3H]RS 57639 Rn Partial agonist 9.3 pKd 14
pKd 9.3 [14]
5-hydroxytryptamine Hs Full agonist 8.4 – 8.8 pKd 7
pKd 8.4 – 8.8 [7]
5-hydroxytryptamine Rn Full agonist 7.7 pKd 1
pKd 7.7 [1]
PF-04995274 Hs Partial agonist 9.8 pKi 17
pKi 9.8 (Ki 1.5x10-10 M) [17]
Description: Measured at the 5-HT4d receptor.
TD-8954 Hs Agonist 9.4 pKi 56
pKi 9.4 [56]
capeserod Hs Partial agonist 9.2 pKi 64
pKi 9.2 [64]
RS 57639 Rn Partial agonist 8.6 – 8.9 pKi 14
pKi 8.6 – 8.9 [14]
ML 10302 Hs Partial agonist 7.9 – 9.0 pKi 8-9,60-62
pKi 7.9 – 9.0 (Ki 1.26x10-8 – 1x10-9 M) [8-9,60-62]
RS 67333 Hs Partial agonist 8.2 – 8.7 pKi 60-61
pKi 8.2 – 8.7 [60-61]
relenopride Hs Partial agonist 8.3 pKi 37
pKi 8.3 (Ki 4.96x10-9 M) [37]
SC 53116 Mm Full agonist 8.1 pKi 23
pKi 8.1 [23]
tegaserod Hs Partial agonist 7.6 – 8.4 pKi 6-7
pKi 7.6 – 8.4 [6-7]
prucalopride Hs Partial agonist 7.0 – 8.6 pKi 7,16
pKi 7.0 – 8.6 [7,16]
velusetrag Hs Agonist 7.7 pKi 51,80
pKi 7.7 [51,80]
BIMU 1 Mm Full agonist 7.5 pKi 23
pKi 7.5 [23]
cisapride Mm Full agonist 7.5 pKi 23
pKi 7.5 [23]
5-hydroxytryptamine Rn Full agonist 6.7 – 8.2 pKi 1,14,36
pKi 6.7 – 8.2 [1,14,36]
BIMU 8 Rn Full agonist 7.1 – 7.8 pKi 14
pKi 7.1 – 7.8 [14]
BIMU 8 Mm Full agonist 7.4 pKi 23
pKi 7.4 [23]
cisapride Rn Partial agonist 6.8 – 8.0 pKi 1,14
pKi 6.8 – 8.0 [1,14]
BIMU 1 Hs Full agonist 6.4 – 8.4 pKi 9,60-61
pKi 6.4 – 8.4 [9,60-61]
BIMU 8 Hs Full agonist 7.3 pKi 21
pKi 7.3 (Ki 5.01x10-8 M) [21]
5-hydroxytryptamine Mm Full agonist 7.2 pKi 23
pKi 7.2 [23]
renzapride Rn Full agonist 6.6 – 7.6 pKi 1,14
pKi 6.6 – 7.6 [1,14]
cisapride Hs Partial agonist 6.4 – 7.4 pKi 4,7,36,60-61,84
pKi 6.4 – 7.4 [4,7,36,60-61,84]
renzapride Mm Full agonist 6.9 pKi 23
pKi 6.9 [23]
5-MeOT Rn Full agonist 6.3 – 7.4 pKi 1,14,36
pKi 6.3 – 7.4 [1,14,36]
zacopride Mm Full agonist 6.7 pKi 23
pKi 6.7 [23]
5-MeOT Mm Full agonist 6.6 pKi 23
pKi 6.6 [23]
mosapride Hs Full agonist 6.2 – 6.9 pKi 7
pKi 6.2 – 6.9 [7]
5-hydroxytryptamine Hs Full agonist 5.9 – 7.0 pKi 4,6-7,9,21,60-62,75,84
pKi 5.9 – 7.0 [4,6-7,9,21,60-62,75,84]
zacopride Rn Full agonist 5.9 – 6.9 pKi 1,14
pKi 5.9 – 6.9 [1,14]
renzapride Hs Full agonist 5.9 – 6.8 pKi 4,9,21,36,60-61
pKi 5.9 – 6.8 [4,9,21,36,60-61]
5-MeOT Hs Full agonist 5.6 – 6.8 pKi 4,7,9,60-61,84
pKi 5.6 – 6.8 [4,7,9,60-61,84]
α-methyl-5-HT Rn Full agonist 5.6 – 6.6 pKi 1,14
pKi 5.6 – 6.6 [1,14]
metoclopramide Mm Full agonist 6.0 pKi 23
pKi 6.0 [23]
α-methyl-5-HT Hs Full agonist 5.8 pKi 6,36
pKi 5.8 [6,36]
zacopride Hs Full agonist 4.9 – 6.6 pKi 9,21,36
pKi 4.9 – 6.6 [9,21,36]
RS67506 Rn Agonist 8.8 pEC50 39
pEC50 8.8 (EC50 1.58x10-9 M) [39]
vilazodone Hs Agonist 6.6 pIC50 41
pIC50 6.6 (IC50 2.52x10-7 M) [41]
View species-specific agonist tables
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
[123I]SB 207710 Pig Antagonist 10.1 pKd 18
pKd 10.1 (Kd 8.6x10-11 M) [18]
[3H]GR 113808 Hs Antagonist 9.7 – 10.3 pKd 4,7,62,84
pKd 9.7 – 10.3 (Kd 2x10-10 – 5x10-11 M) [4,7,62,84]
[3H]RS 57639 Cp Antagonist 9.7 pKd 14
pKd 9.7 (Kd 2x10-10 M) [14]
[3H]GR 113808 Rn Antagonist 9.0 – 9.3 pKd 1,14
pKd 9.0 – 9.3 [1,14]
[11C]SB207145 Hs Antagonist 8.6 pKd 52
pKd 8.6 (Kd 2.8x10-9 M) [52]
GR 125487 Mm Antagonist 10.6 pKi 23
pKi 10.6 [23]
RS 100235 Hs Antagonist 8.7 – 12.2 pKi 21,75
pKi 8.7 – 12.2 (Ki 1.99x10-9 – 6.3x10-13 M) [21,75]
GR 125487 Hs Antagonist 9.8 – 10.7 pKi 21,84
pKi 9.8 – 10.7 [21,84]
SB 207710 Hs Antagonist 10.1 – 10.3 pKi 4
pKi 10.1 – 10.3 [4]
SB 204070 Hs Antagonist 9.8 – 10.4 pKi 7,60-61,84
pKi 9.8 – 10.4 (Ki 1.6x10-10 – 3.9x10-11 M) [7,60-61,84]
GR 113808 Hs Antagonist 9.3 – 10.3 pKi 4,7,9,21,61,75,84
pKi 9.3 – 10.3 (Ki 5.1x10-10 – 5x10-11 M) [4,7,9,21,61,75,84]
GR 113808 Mm Antagonist 9.7 pKi 23
pKi 9.7 [23]
piboserod Hs Antagonist 8.8 – 10.4 pKi 6,21,32
pKi 8.8 – 10.4 [6,21,32]
RS 116 0086 Mm Inverse agonist 9.5 pKi 42
pKi 9.5 [42]
ML 10375 Hs Antagonist 8.8 – 10.0 pKi 6,9,60-62
pKi 8.8 – 10.0 [6,9,60-62]
RO 116 1148 Mm Inverse agonist 9.3 pKi 42
pKi 9.3 [42]
SB 204070 Rn Antagonist 8.9 – 9.5 pKi 14
pKi 8.9 – 9.5 [14]
SB 203186 Hs Antagonist 8.7 – 8.9 pKi 4
pKi 8.7 – 8.9 [4]
GR 113808 Rn Antagonist 8.4 – 8.7 pKi 14
pKi 8.4 – 8.7 [14]
RS 39604 Hs Antagonist 8.2 – 8.7 pKi 60-61,75
pKi 8.2 – 8.7 [60-61,75]
SDZ 205557 Mm Antagonist 8.1 pKi 90
pKi 8.1 [90]
DAU 6285 Hs Antagonist 8.0 pKi 21
pKi 8.0 [21]
SDZ 205557 Rn Antagonist 7.6 – 7.7 pKi 14
pKi 7.6 – 7.7 [14]
DAU 6285 Mm Antagonist 7.3 pKi 23
pKi 7.3 [23]
tropisetron Mm Antagonist 7.1 pKi 23
pKi 7.1 [23]
tropisetron Rn Antagonist 6.8 pKi 1
pKi 6.8 [1]
tropisetron Hs Antagonist 6.3 – 7.1 pKi 4,84
pKi 6.3 – 7.1 [4,84]
View species-specific antagonist tables
Antagonist Comments
ML 10375 and SB 207266 have been reported to exert inverse agonist activity on specific 5-HT4 receptor variants but they are very weak inverse agonists when compared to the recently synthesized Roche ligands which exhibit high potent 5-HT4 inverse agonistic activity.
Immunopharmacology Comments
5-HT has been shown to alter cytokine production by dendritic cells via 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptors [2].
Cell Type Associations
Immuno Cell Type:  Dendritic cells
Cell Ontology Term:   dendritic cell (CL:0000451)
Comment:  Involved in cytokine production/release from DCs.
References:  2,79
Immuno Cell Type:  Macrophages & monocytes
Cell Ontology Term:   macrophage (CL:0000235)
monocyte (CL:0000576)
Comment:  Involved in cytokine production/release from DCs.
References:  2,79
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gs family Adenylate cyclase stimulation
Calcium channel
Other - See Comments
Comments:  Following cAMP production activation of Ca2+ channels and inhibition of K+ channels have been described in atrial myocytes [70] and neurons [81] respectively. In neurons, 5-HT4 receptors (likely via a cAMP/ Epac pathway) activates the rap1-rac pathway[53].
References:  12,31,33,45,53,70,81
Secondary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
G12/G13 family Other - See Comments
Comments:  These transductions have been found in heterologous transfected cells. 5-HT4 receptors activate G13 /Rho-A but not G12 pathway in Insect Sf.9 cells but also in NIH 3T3 and neuroblastoma xglioma cells [72]
References:  72
Tissue Distribution
Myenteric plexus and smooth muscle of the colon.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  77
Myenteric plexus of the stomach.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  76
Esophagus, atrium, sinoatrial node, adrenal gland, frontal cortex.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  87
Brain: basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, substantia nigra) > amygdala, hippocampal formation, cortex.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  13
Brain: caudate nucleus > lenticular nucleus, substantia nigra, hippocampus, frontal cortex.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  30
Heart: atria, ventricles.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  4
Brain: striato-nigral system > hippocampus, neocortex and colliculus.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  88
Brain: basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens), hippocampal formation (CA1, CA2, CA3 fields, subiculum, dentate gyrus, entorhinal cortex).
Species:  Human
Technique:  in situ hybridisation.
References:  13
Smooth muscle of the rectum.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  78
Brain: Frontal cortex, hippocampus > caudate, putamen > globus palidus, substantia nigra.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  87
Small intestine, proximal colon, distal colon.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  50
Enteric neurons and smooth muscle of the gut.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  in situ hybridisation.
References:  50
Brain: high density in the limbic system (shell nucleus accumbens), hippocampus, in basal ganglia (striatum, globus pallidus) and and substantia nigra (lateral area), in olfactory bulbs and turbercles, and respiratory centers. Moderate in the hypothalamus, amygdala and cerebral cortex. Absent in the raphe nuclei.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  89
Respiratory neurons in the Pre-Boetzinger complex (PBC) of the brainstem.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry.
References:  54
Brain: high density in the limbic system (shell nucleus accumbens), hippocampus, in basal ganglia (striatum, globus pallidus) and and substantia nigra (lateral area), in olfactory bulbs and turbercles, and respiratory centers. Moderate in the hypothalamus, amygdala and cerebral cortex. Absent in the raphe nuclei.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  25,86,89
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
Measurement of cAMP levels in primary cultures of colliculi neurons which endogenously express 5-HT4 receptors.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Embryo colliculi neurons in primary culture.
Response measured:  Stimulation of cAMP accumulation.
References:  31
Relaxation of the tunica muscularis mucosae of eosophagus.
The muscle is pre-stimulated (contraction) with acetylcholine.
The stimulation of 5-HT4 receptors induces a relaxation.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Oesophagus.
Response measured:  Relaxation of pre-contracted oesophagus.
References:  74
Physiological Functions
Stimulation of food intake.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  3
Reduced respiratory depression induced by opioids.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo (respiratory neurons).
References:  54
Potentiation of neurally-mediated contraction of the detrusor muscle.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Detrusor muscle
References:  28
Stimulation of aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  49
Stimulation of gastric emptying.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  40
Stimulation of gastric emptying.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  29
Stimulation of gastric emptying.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  27
Relaxation of ileum.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Ileum.
References:  82
Relaxation of oesophagus.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Oesophagus tunica muscularis mucosae preparation.
References:  5,65-67,73-74
Relaxation of colon.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Colonic circular muscle.
References:  57-58
Stimulation of peristaltic reflex (ascending contraction and descending relaxation).
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Jejunum.
References:  34
Stimulation of peristaltic reflex (ascending contraction and descending relaxation).
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Colon.
References:  38
Stimulation of lower intestinal propulsion.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  66-67
Contraction of colon.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Colon.
References:  63,69
Stimulation of peristaltic reflex.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Colon.
References:  43
Stimulation of chloride (Cl-) secretion.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Colon.
References:  19
Stimulation of Cl- and HCO3- anion secretion and Na+ absorption.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Colon.
References:  68
Stimulation of bicarbonate secretion.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Duodenal mucosa and epithelial cells.
References:  83
Atrial arrhythmic contractions.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Atrial tissue.
References:  44
Role in learning and memory.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  47,55
Role in learning and memory.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  35
Role in synaptic plasticity.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  46-47
Role in stress-induced anorexia, novelty-induced exploratory activity and seizure susceptibility.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  26
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
5-HT4 receptor knockout mice displayed normal feeding and motor behaviors in baseline conditions but abnormal feeding and locomotor behaviour response to stress and novelty. Specifically, stress-induced hypophagia and novelty-induced exploratory activity are attenuated in the knock-out mice. In addition, mutant mice exhibit hypersensitivity to seizures.This is the first example of a genetic deficit that disrupts the ability of stress to reduce feeding and body weight.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  24,26
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Htr4tm1Comp Htr4tm1Comp/Htr4tm1Comp
involves: 129S1/Sv
MGI:109246  MP:0001259 abnormal body weight PMID: 14724239 
Htr4tm1Comp Htr4tm1Comp/Htr4tm1Comp
involves: 129S1/Sv
MGI:109246  MP:0005449 abnormal food intake PMID: 14724239 
Htr4tm1Comp Htr4tm1Comp/Htr4tm1Comp
involves: 129S1/Sv
MGI:109246  MP:0001417 decreased exploration in new environment PMID: 14724239 
Htr4tm1Comp Htr4tm1Comp/Htr4tm1Comp
involves: 129S1/Sv
MGI:109246  MP:0001783 decreased white adipose tissue amount PMID: 14724239 
Htr4tm1Comp Htr4tm1Comp/Htr4tm1Comp
involves: 129S1/Sv
MGI:109246  MP:0001363 increased anxiety-related response PMID: 14724239 
Htr4tm1Dgen Htr4tm1Dgen/Htr4tm1Dgen
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:109246  MP:0005565 increased blood urea nitrogen level
Htr4tm1Comp Htr4tm1Comp/Htr4tm1Comp
involves: 129S1/Sv
MGI:109246  MP:0002906 increased susceptibility to pharmacologically induced seizures PMID: 14724239 
Htr4tm1Comp Htr4tm1Comp/Htr4tm1Comp
involves: 129S1/Sv
MGI:109246  MP:0002080 prenatal lethality PMID: 14724239 
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Splice variants
Species:  Mouse
Description:  Splice variants 5-HT4(e) and 5-HT4(f) have been cloned from the mouse. They differ in the length and composition of their carboxy termini. They are only expressed in brain tissue and have an increased constitutive activity when compared with the splice variants 5-HT4(a) and 5-HT4(b).
References:  22
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  The splice variant 5-HT4(i) has been identified in humans, differing in the length of carboxyl terminal from 5-HT4(g), although sharing the same pharmacological properties. It has been identified by RT-PCR in multiple tissues, such as the brain, heart and colon.
References:  15
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  The 5-HT4(a) receptor (previously called 5-HT4S, short form) has been identified in the human heart and brain.
References:  10,21,59,71
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  The 5-HT4(d) receptor splice variant has been identified in humans, differing from the 5-HT4(a) receptor in length of carboxyl terminal.
References:  9,59
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  The 5-HT4(g) receptor splice variant has been identified in humans, differing from the 5-HT4(a) receptor in length of carboxyl terminal.
References:  59
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  The 5-HT4(c) receptor splice variant has been identified in humans, differing from the 5-HT4(a) receptor in length of carboxyl terminal.
References:  9,59
Type:  Splice variants
Species:  Human
Description:  The 5-HT4(n) receptor splice variant has been identified in humans, differing from the 5-HT4(a) receptor in length of carboxyl terminal.
References:  87
Type:  Splice variants
Species:  Human
Description:  An internal splice variant of the 5-HT4(b) receptor has been cloned and named 5-HT4(hb). This receptor has a 14 amino acid insertion into the second extracellular loop of the receptor.
References:  7
Type:  Splice variants
Species:  Mouse
Description:  Two splice variants, 5-HT4(a) (previously called 5-HT4S, short form) and 5-HT4(b) (previously called 5-HT4L, long form) have been identified in mice and differ in the length of their carboxy termini.
References:  23
Type:  Splice variants
Species:  Rat
Description:  The splice variant 5-HT4(e) has been identified in rats and differs in the length and composition of the its carboxyl terminal.
References:  22
Type:  Splice variants
Species:  Rat
Description:  Two splice variants, 5-HT4(a) (previously called 5-HT4S, short form) and 5-HT4(b) (previously called 5-HT4L, long form) have been identified in rats. They differ in length and sequence of their carboxy termini and have slightly different patterns of expression in the brain and periphery.
References:  36,85
Type:  Splice variants
Species:  Human
Description:  The 5-HT4(b) receptor splice variant has been identified in humans, differing from the 5-HT4(a) receptor in length of carboxyl terminal.
References:  9,20,59,71,84
Biologically Significant Variant Comments
All these splice variants (except 5-HThb) differ at their carboxyl termini after a single position (L358)[11,48].
Please note that the first two 5-HT4 receptor variants to be cloned, 5-HT4S and 5-HT4L, by Gerald et al. 1995 [36], are now called 5-HT4(a) and 5-HT4(b) respectively.

References

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1. Adham N, Gerald C, Schechter L, Vaysse P, Weinshank R, Branchek T. (1996) [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine labels the agonist high affinity state of the cloned rat 5-HT4 receptor. Eur J Pharmacol, 304: 231-235. [PMID:8813606]

2. Ahern GP. (2011) 5-HT and the immune system. Curr Opin Pharmacol, 11 (1): 29-33. [PMID:21393060]

3. Asakawa A, Ueno N, Katagi M, Ijuin Y, Morita Y, Mizuno S, Inui T, Sakamaki R, Shinfuku N, Uemoto M. (2006) Mosapride improves food intake, while not worsening glycemic control and obesity, in ob/ob obese mice with decreased gastric emptying. J Diabetes Complications, 20: 56-58. [PMID:16389169]

4. Bach T, Syversveen T, Kvingedal AM, Krobert KA, Brattelid T, Kaumann AJ, Levy FO. (2001) 5HT4(a) and 5-HT4(b) receptors have nearly identical pharmacology and are both expressed in human atrium and ventricle. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 363: 146-160. [PMID:11218067]

5. Baxter GS, Craig DA, Clarke DE. (1991) 5-Hydroxytryptamine4 receptors mediate relaxation of the rat oesophageal tunica muscularis mucosae. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 343: 439-446. [PMID:1881455]

6. Beattie DT, Smith JA, Marquess D, Vickery RG, Armstrong SR, Pulido-Rios T, McCullough JL, Sandlund C, Richardson C, Mai N, Humphrey PP. (2004) The 5-HT4 receptor agonist, tegaserod, is a potent 5-HT2B receptor antagonist in vitro and in vivo. Br J Pharmacol, 143: 549-560. [PMID:15466450]

7. Bender E, Pindon A, van Oers I, Zhang YB, Gommeren W, Verhasselt P, Jurzak M, Leysen J, Luyten W. (2000) Structure of the human serotonin 5-HT4 receptor gene and cloning of a novel 5-HT4 splice variant. J Neurochem., 74: 478-489. [PMID:10646498]

8. Berque-Bestel I, Soulier JL, Giner M, Rivail L, Langlois M, Sicsic S. (2003) Synthesis and characterization of the first fluorescent antagonists for human 5-HT4 receptors. J Med Chem, 46: 2606-2620. [PMID:12801225]

9. Blondel O, Gastineau M, Dahmoune Y, Langlois M, Fischmeister R. (1998) Cloning, expression and pharmacology of four human 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor isoforms produced by alternative splicing in the carboxyl terminus. J. Neurochem., 70: 2252-2261. [PMID:9603189]

10. Blondel O, Vandecasteele G, Gastineau M, Leclerc S, Dahmoune Y, Langlois M, Fischmeister R. (1997) Molecular and functional characterization of a 5-HT4 receptor cloned from human atrium. FEBS Lett, 412: 465-474. [PMID:9276448]

11. Bockaert J, Claeysen S, Compan V, Dumuis A. (2004) 5-HT4 receptors. Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord., 3: 39-51. [PMID:14965243]

12. Bockaert J, Sebben M, Dumuis A. (1990) Pharmacological characterization of 5-hydroxytryptamine4(5-HT4) receptors positively coupled to adenylate cyclase in adult guinea pig hippocampal membranes: effect of substituted benzamide derivatives. Mol Pharmacol., 37: 408-411. [PMID:2314390]

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Rodrigo Andrade, Nicholas M. Barnes, Gordon Baxter, Joel Bockaert, Theresa Branchek, Marlene L. Cohen, Aline Dumuis, Richard M. Eglen, Manfred Göthert, Mark Hamblin, Michel Hamon, Paul R. Hartig, René Hen, Katharine Herrick-Davis, Rebecca Hills, Daniel Hoyer, Patrick P. A. Humphrey, Klaus Peter Latté, Luc Maroteaux, Graeme R. Martin, Derek N. Middlemiss, Ewan Mylecharane, Stephen J. Peroutka, Pramod R. Saxena, Andrew Sleight, Carlos M. Villalon, Frank Yocca.
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptors: 5-HT4 receptor. Last modified on 16/02/2018. Accessed on 13/11/2018. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=9.