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Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).
Members of the SLC16 family may be divided into subfamilies on the basis of substrate selectivities, particularly lactate (e.g. L-lactic acid), pyruvic acid and ketone bodies, as well as aromatic amino acids. Topology modelling suggests 12 TM domains, with intracellular termini and an extended loop at TM 6/7.
The proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporters (monocarboxylate transporters 1, 4, 2 and 3) allow transport of the products of cellular metabolism, principally lactate (e.g. L-lactic acid) and pyruvic acid.
* Key recommended reading is highlighted with an asterisk
Anderson CM, Thwaites DT. (2010) Hijacking solute carriers for proton-coupled drug transport. Physiology (Bethesda), 25 (6): 364-77. [PMID:21186281]
Braun D, Wirth EK, Schweizer U. (2010) Thyroid hormone transporters in the brain. Rev Neurosci, 21 (3): 173-86. [PMID:20879691]
Friesema EC, Visser WE, Visser TJ. (2010) Genetics and phenomics of thyroid hormone transport by MCT8. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 322 (1-2): 107-13. [PMID:20083155]
Halestrap AP, Meredith D. (2004) The SLC16 gene family-from monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to aromatic amino acid transporters and beyond. Pflugers Arch., 447 (5): 619-28. [PMID:12739169]
Heuer H, Visser TJ. (2009) Minireview: Pathophysiological importance of thyroid hormone transporters. Endocrinology, 150 (3): 1078-83. [PMID:19179441]
Jansen J, Friesema EC, Milici C, Visser TJ. (2005) Thyroid hormone transporters in health and disease. Thyroid, 15 (8): 757-68. [PMID:16131319]
Meredith D, Christian HC. (2008) The SLC16 monocaboxylate transporter family. Xenobiotica, 38 (7-8): 1072-106. [PMID:18668440]
Morris ME, Felmlee MA. (2008) Overview of the proton-coupled MCT (SLC16A) family of transporters: characterization, function and role in the transport of the drug of abuse gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. AAPS J, 10 (2): 311-21. [PMID:18523892]
van der Deure WM, Peeters RP, Visser TJ. (2010) Molecular aspects of thyroid hormone transporters, including MCT8, MCT10, and OATPs, and the effects of genetic variation in these transporters. J. Mol. Endocrinol., 44 (1): 1-11. [PMID:19541799]
Visser TJ. (2007) Thyroid hormone transporters. Horm. Res., 68 Suppl 5: 28-30. [PMID:18174701]
Visser WE, Friesema EC, Jansen J, Visser TJ. (2008) Thyroid hormone transport in and out of cells. Trends Endocrinol. Metab., 19 (2): 50-6. [PMID:18291666]
1. Friesema EC, Kuiper GG, Jansen J, Visser TJ, Kester MH. (2006) Thyroid hormone transport by the human monocarboxylate transporter 8 and its rate-limiting role in intracellular metabolism. Mol. Endocrinol., 20 (11): 2761-72. [PMID:16887882]
2. Murakami Y, Kohyama N, Kobayashi Y, Ohbayashi M, Ohtani H, Sawada Y, Yamamoto T. (2005) Functional characterization of human monocarboxylate transporter 6 (SLC16A5). Drug Metab. Dispos., 33 (12): 1845-51. [PMID:16174808]
3. Wang Q, Darling IM, Morris ME. (2006) Transport of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in rat kidney membrane vesicles: Role of monocarboxylate transporters. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 318 (2): 751-61. [PMID:16707723]