Catecholamine turnover C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).

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Catecholamines are defined by the presence of two adjacent hydroxyls on a benzene ring with a sidechain containing an amine. The predominant catacholamines in mammalian biology are the neurotransmitter/hormones dopamine, (-)-noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and (-)-adrenaline (epinephrine). These hormone/transmitters are synthesized by sequential metabolism from L-phenylalanine via L-tyrosine. Hydroxylation of L-tyrosine generates levodopa, which is decarboxylated to form dopamine. Hydroxylation of the ethylamine sidechain generates (-)-noradrenaline (norepinephrine), which can be methylated to form (-)-adrenaline (epinephrine). In particular neuronal and adrenal chromaffin cells, the catecholamines dopamine, (-)-noradrenaline and (-)-adrenaline are accumulated into vesicles under the influence of the vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT1/SLC18A1 and VMAT2/SLC18A2). After release into the synapse or the bloodstream, catecholamines are accumulated through the action cell-surface transporters, primarily the dopamine (DAT/SLC6A3) and norepinephrine transporter (NET/SLC6A2). The primary routes of metabolism of these catecholamines are oxidation via monoamine oxidase activities of methylation via catechol O-methyltransferase.


L-Phenylalanine hydroxylase C Show summary » More detailed page

TAT (Tyrosine aminotransferase) C Show summary »

L-Tyrosine hydroxylase C Show summary » More detailed page

AADC (L-Aromatic amino-acid decarboxylase ) C Show summary » More detailed page

DBH (Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine beta-monooxygenase)) C Show summary »

PNMT (Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase) C Show summary »

MAO-A (Monoamine oxidase A) C Show summary » More detailed page

MAO-B (Monoamine oxidase B) C Show summary » More detailed page

COMT (Catechol-O-methyltransferase) C Show summary » More detailed page

Further reading

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation:

Catecholamine turnover. Accessed on 20/11/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Marrion N, Peters JA, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA and CGTP Collaborators (2015) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 172: 6024-6109.