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Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).
Structural analysis has identified a common motif of a mid-peptide located nucleotide-binding and oligomerization (NACHT) domain, which allows division of NOD-like receptors into three subfamilies, NLRC (or NODs), NLRP (or NALP) and IPAF . NLRC members are named on the basis of a sequence motif expressed at their N-termini, the caspase recruitment domain (CARD), while NLRP members have a pyrin domain. NLRs express C-terminal leucine-rich regions which have regulatory function and appear to recognize the microbial products to which the NLRs respond. NLRC family members recruit a serine/threonine kinase RIPK2 (receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 2, O43353, also known as CARD3, CARDIAK, RICK, RIP2) leading to signalling through NFκB and MAP kinase. NLRP family members, upon activation, recruit adaptor proteins (e.g. ASC, also known as PYCARD, CARD5, TMS-1, Q9ULZ3). Activated NLRs associate in multiprotein complexes, known as inflammasomes , allowing the recruitment of caspases.
1. Coll RC, Robertson AA, Chae JJ, Higgins SC, Muñoz-Planillo R, Inserra MC, Vetter I, Dungan LS, Monks BG, Stutz A et al.. (2015) A small-molecule inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Nat. Med., [Epub ahead of print]. [PMID:25686105]
2. Martinon F, Pétrilli V, Mayor A, Tardivel A, Tschopp J. (2006) Gout-associated uric acid crystals activate the NALP3 inflammasome. Nature, 440 (7081): 237-41. [PMID:16407889]
3. Schroder K, Tschopp J. (2010) The inflammasomes. Cell, 140 (6): 821-32. [PMID:20303873]
Database page citation:
NOD-like receptor family. Accessed on 07/07/2015. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/FamilyDisplayForward?familyId=317.
Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:
Alexander SPH, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Spedding M, Peters JA and Harmar AJ, CGTP Collaborators. (2013) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14: Catalytic Receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 170: 1676–1705.