2-oxoglutarate oxygenases C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).

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The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is a transcriptional complex that is involved in oxygen homeostasis [5]. At normal oxygen levels, the alpha subunit of HIF (HIF-1α) is targeted for degradation by prolyl hydroxylation by the PHD proteins 1-3 (HIF-PHs) whch are 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) oxygenases responsible for the post-translational modification of a specific proline in each of the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domains of HIF-1α. Hydroxylated HIFs are then targeted for proteasomal degradation via the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitination complex [4]. Under hypoxic conditions, the hydroxylation reaction is blunted which results in decreased HIF degradation. The surviving HIFs are then available to translocate to the nucleus where they heterodimerize with HIF-1β, effecting increased expression of hypoxia-inducible genes.
HIF-PH enzymes are being investigated as pharmacological targets as their inhibition mimics the hypoxic state and switches on transcription of genes associated with processes such as erythropoiesis and vasculogenesis [3]. Small molecule HIF-PH inhibitors are in clinical trial as novel therapies for the amelioration of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease [1].


PHD1 (egl-9 family hypoxia inducible factor 2) C Show summary » More detailed page

PHD2 (egl-9 family hypoxia inducible factor 1) C Show summary » More detailed page

PHD3 (egl-9 family hypoxia inducible factor 3) C Show summary » More detailed page


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How to cite this family page

Database page citation: 2-oxoglutarate oxygenases. Accessed on 20/11/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/FamilyDisplayForward?familyId=900.

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Marrion N, Peters JA, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA and CGTP Collaborators (2015) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 172: 6024-6109.