Top ▲

Connexins and Pannexins C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).


Click here for help

« Hide

Gap junctions are essential for many physiological processes including cardiac and smooth muscle contraction, regulation of neuronal excitability and epithelial electrolyte transport [3-5]. Gap junction channels allow the passive diffusion of molecules of up to 1,000 Daltons which can include nutrients, metabolites and second messengers (such as IP3) as well as cations and anions. 21 connexin genes and 3 pannexin genes which are structurally related to the invertebrate innexin genes, code for gap junction proteins in humans. Each connexin gap junction comprises 2 hemichannels or 'connexons' which are themselves formed from 6 connexin molecules. The various connexins have been observed to combine into both homomeric and heteromeric combinations, each of which may exhibit different functional properties. It is also suggested that individual hemichannels formed by a number of different connexins might be functional in at least some cells [6]. Connexins have a common topology, with four α-helical transmembrane domains, two extracellular loops, a cytoplasmic loop, and N- and C-termini located on the cytoplasmic membrane face. In mice, the most abundant connexins in electrical synapses in the brain seem to be Cx36, Cx45 and Cx57 [10]. Mutations in connexin genes are associated with the occurrence of a number of pathologies, such as peripheral neuropathies, cardiovascular diseases and hereditary deafness. The pannexin genes Px1 and Px2 are widely expressed in the mammalian brain [11]. Like the connexins, at least some of the pannexins can form hemichannels [3,8].

Channels and Subunits

Click here for help

Cx23 C Show summary »

Cx25 C Show summary »

Cx26 C Show summary »

Cx30 C Show summary »

Cx30.2 C Show summary »

Cx30.3 C Show summary »

Cx31 C Show summary »

Cx31.1 C Show summary »

Cx31.9 C Show summary »

Cx32 C Show summary »

Cx36 C Show summary »

Cx37 C Show summary »

Cx40 C Show summary »

Cx40.1 C Show summary »

Cx43 C Show summary »

Cx45 C Show summary »

Cx46 C Show summary »

Cx47 C Show summary »

Cx50 C Show summary »

Cx59 C Show summary »

Cx62 C Show summary »

Target Id 734
Nomenclature Cx62
Previous and unofficial names connexin 62 | connexin 57 | Cx57 | gap junction membrane channel protein alpha 10 | Cx59 | gap junction protein | gap junction protein, alpha 10, 62kDa
Genes GJA10 (Hs), Gja10 (Mm), Gja10 (Rn)
Ensembl ID ENSG00000135355 (Hs), ENSMUSG00000051056 (Mm), ENSRNOG00000006478 (Rn)
UniProtKB AC Q969M2 (Hs), Q9WUS4 (Mm), Q80XY0 (Rn)
Endogenous inhibitors
extracellular Ca2+ (blocked by raising external Ca2+)
flufenamic acid

Px1 C Show summary »

Px2 C Show summary »

Px3 C Show summary »


Click here for help

Show »

Further reading

Click here for help

Show »


Click here for help

Show »

How to cite this family page

Database page citation:

Connexins and Pannexins. Accessed on 14/07/2024. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Mathie AA, Peters JA, Veale EL, Striessnig J, Kelly E, Armstrong JF, Faccenda E, Harding SD, Davies JA et al. (2023) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2023/24: Ion channels. Br J Pharmacol. 180 Suppl 2:S145-S222.