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SLC36 family of proton-coupled amino acid transporters C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).


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Members of the SLC36 family of proton-coupled amino acid transporters are involved in membrane transport of amino acids and derivatives [28-29]. The four transporters show variable tissue expression patterns and are expressed in various cell types at the plasma-membrane and in intracellular organelles. PAT1 is expressed at the luminal surface of the small intestine and absorbs amino acids and derivatives [4]. In lysosomes, PAT1 functions as an efflux mechanism for amino acids produced during intralysosomal proteolysis [2,25]. PAT2 is expressed at the apical membrane of the renal proximal tubule [7] and at the plasma-membrane in brown/beige adipocytes [30]. PAT1 and PAT4 are involved in regulation of the mTORC1 pathway [11,27]. More comprehensive lists of substrates can be found within the reviews under Further Reading and in the references [3].


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PAT1 (Proton-coupled Amino acid Transporter 1 / SLC36A1) C Show summary »

PAT2 (Proton-coupled Amino acid Transporter 2 / SLC36A2) C Show summary »

Target Id 1162
Nomenclature Proton-coupled Amino acid Transporter 2
Systematic nomenclature SLC36A2
Common abbreviation PAT2
Previous and unofficial names TRAMD1 | proton/amino acid transporter 2 | proton-coupled amino acid transporter 2 | solute carrier family 36 member 2 | tramdorin 1 | solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member 2 | solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter)
Genes SLC36A2 (Hs), Slc36a2 (Mm), Slc36a2 (Rn)
Ensembl ID ENSG00000186335 (Hs), ENSMUSG00000020264 (Mm), ENSRNOG00000011892 (Rn)
UniProtKB AC Q495M3 (Hs), Q8BHK3 (Mm), Q8K415 (Rn)
Bioparadigms SLC Tables SLC36A2 (Hs)
Endogenous substrates
L-azetidine-2-carboxylate [16]
MeAIB [8]
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan pIC50 2.8 [9]
α-methyl-D,L-tryptophan pIC50 2.5 [9]
Stoichiometry 1 H+ : 1 amino acid (symport)
Comment [3H] or [14C] labelled substrates as listed above are used as probes. Loss-of-function mutations in PAT2 lead to iminoglycinuria and hyperglycinuria in man [7]. PAT2 can also function as an electroneutral transport system for protons and fatty acids including acetic acid, propanoic acid and butyric acid [14]. Replacement of a Phe residue in transmembrane domain 3 with Cys (that has a smaller side-chain) broadens substrate specificity to include larger substrates (e.g. methionine, leucine) [10].

PAT3 (Proton-coupled Amino acid Transporter 3 / SLC36A3) C Show summary »

PAT4 (Proton-coupled Amino acid Transporter 4 / SLC36A4) C Show summary »


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Further reading

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NC-IUPHAR subcommittee and family contributors

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation (select format):

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Mathie AA, Peters JA, Veale EL, Armstrong JF, Faccenda E, Harding SD, Davies JA et al. (2023) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2023/24: Transporters. Br J Pharmacol. 180 Suppl 2:S374-469.