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ATR subfamily

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).


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ATR is a member of the PI3K-like family of kinases, and it is a key component of the DNA damage response (DDR) network. It is activated when it is recruited to damaged DNA and this results in phosphorylation of downstream substrates (e.g. CHK1) which triggers a signalling cascade that culminates in DNA damage repair and cell survival [2]. Many commonly used chemotherapy drugs cause the type of DNA damage that induces activation of ATR. By preventing DNA repair in cancer cells (which are under replication stress and suffer from increased DNA damage and defective DNA damage repair), inhibition of ATR is expected to drive the cancer cells towards cell cycle arrest and cell death [3-4], particularly if used in combination with DNA damaging drugs. Several ATR inhibitors are in active clinical development pipelines.


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ATR (ATR serine/threonine kinase) Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

Further reading

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation:

ATR subfamily. Accessed on 20/07/2024. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Mathie AA, Peters JA, Veale EL, Armstrong JF, Faccenda E, Harding SD, Davies JA et al. (2023) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2023/24: Enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 180 Suppl 2:S289-373.