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Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).

Overview

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Adenylyl cyclase, E.C. 4.6.1.1, converts ATP to cyclic AMP and pyrophosphate. Mammalian membrane-delimited adenylyl cyclases (nomenclature as approved by the NC-IUPHAR Subcommittee on Adenylyl cyclases [10]) are typically made up of two clusters of six TM domains separating two intracellular, overlapping catalytic domains that are the target for the nonselective activators Gαs (the stimulatory G protein α subunit) and forskolin (except AC9, [26]). Adenosine and its derivatives (e.g. 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine), acting through the P-site,are inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase activity [33]. Four families of membranous adenylyl cyclase are distinguishable: calmodulin (CALM2, CALM3, CALM1, P62158)-stimulated (AC1, AC3 and AC8), Ca2+- and Gβγ-inhibitable (AC5, AC6 and AC9), Gβγ-stimulated and Ca2+-insensitive (AC2, AC4 and AC7), and forskolin-insensitive (AC9) forms. A soluble adenylyl cyclase (AC10) lacks membrane spanning regions and is insensitive to G proteins.It functions as a cytoplasmic bicarbonate (pH-insensitive) sensor [6].

Enzymes

1278
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AC1 (adenylyl cyclase 1) C Show summary »


Target Id 1278
Nomenclature adenylyl cyclase 1
Common abbreviation AC1
Previous and unofficial names ADCY1 | adenylate cyclase 1 (brain)
Genes ADCY1 (Hs), Adcy1 (Mm), Adcy1 (Rn)
Ensembl ID ENSG00000164742 (Hs), ENSMUSG00000020431 (Mm), ENSRNOG00000008276 (Rn)
UniProtKB AC Q08828 (Hs), O88444 (Mm)
EC number
4.6.1.1
Endogenous activators calmodulin (CALM2, CALM3, CALM1, P62158), PKC-evoked phosphorylation  [19,30]
Endogenous inhibitors i, Gαo, Gβγ  [31-32]
Activators
compound 45 [PMID: 8709105] pIC50 7.7 [28] - Bovine
Selective inhibitors
ST034307 pIC50 5.6 [3]

AC2 (adenylyl cyclase 2) C Show summary »

AC3 (adenylyl cyclase 3) C Show summary »

AC4 (adenylyl cyclase 4) C Show summary »

AC5 (adenylyl cyclase 5) C Show summary »

AC6 (adenylyl cyclase 6) C Show summary »

AC7 (adenylyl cyclase 7) C Show summary »

AC8 (adenylyl cyclase 8) C Show summary »

AC9 (adenylyl cyclase 9) C Show summary »

AC10 (adenylyl cyclase 10) C Show summary »

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Further reading

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References

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NC-IUPHAR subcommittee and family contributors

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation (select format):

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Mathie A, Peters JA, Veale EL, Armstrong JF, Faccenda E, Harding SD, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA; CGTP Collaborators. (2019) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2019/20: Enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 176 Issue S1: S297-S396.