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1A. Thyroid hormone receptors C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).


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Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs, nomenclature as agreed by the NC-IUPHAR Subcommittee on Nuclear Hormone Receptors [4]) are nuclear hormone receptors of the NR1A family, with diverse roles regulating macronutrient metabolism, cognition and cardiovascular homeostasis. TRs are activated by thyroxine (T4) and thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine). Once activated by a ligand, the receptor acts as a transcription factor either as a monomer, homodimer or heterodimer with members of the retinoid X receptor family. NH-3 has been described as an antagonist at TRs with modest selectivity for TRβ [5].


Thyroid hormone receptor-α / NR1A1 C Show summary » More detailed page

Thyroid hormone receptor-β / NR1A2 C Show summary » More detailed page


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Further reading

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NC-IUPHAR subcommittee and family contributors

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation (select format):

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Cidlowski JA, Kelly E, Mathie A, Peters JA, Veale EL, Armstrong JF, Faccenda E, Harding SD, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA; CGTP Collaborators. (2019) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2019/20: Nuclear hormone receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 176 Issue S1: S229-S246.