Immune checkpoint modulators: Introduction

Immune checkpoint blockade is a clinically validated and effective treatment for many cancers, and certain inflammatory conditions. Synergistic effects of combinations of immunotherapy agents, or immunotherapy agents plus conventional cancer drugs offers great potential for enhanced efficacy [3-4]. In addition to those validated targets, evidence for new druggable checkpoints is evolving [1-2].


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1. Anderson AC, Joller N, Kuchroo VK. (2016) Lag-3, Tim-3, and TIGIT: Co-inhibitory Receptors with Specialized Functions in Immune Regulation. Immunity, 44 (5): 989-1004. [PMID:27192565]

2. Collin M. (2016) Immune checkpoint inhibitors: a patent review (2010-2015). Expert Opin Ther Pat, 26 (5): 555-64. [PMID:27054314]

3. Melero I, Berman DM, Aznar MA, Korman AJ, Pérez Gracia JL, Haanen J. (2015) Evolving synergistic combinations of targeted immunotherapies to combat cancer. Nat Rev Cancer, 15 (8): 457-72. [PMID:26205340]

4. Vilgelm AE, Johnson DB, Richmond A. (2016) Combinatorial approach to cancer immunotherapy: strength in numbers. J Leukoc Biol, 100 (2): 275-90. [PMID:27256570]

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Immune checkpoint modulators, introduction. Last modified on 25/08/2017. Accessed on 24/06/2024. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,