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insulin is an approved drug (FDA (1982), EMA (1997))
Compound class: Endogenous peptide in human, mouse or rat
Comment: The biologically active peptide is a heterodimer of an A chain and a B chain linked by two disulphide bonds. The structure of approved drug insulin regular (which the link to DrugBank outlines) is identical to native human insulin.
While recombinant human insulin was approved by the FDA in 1982, insulin from pigs was used for several decades prior to this date.
Many recombinant forms of human insulin have been approved for clinical use. They can be identical in sequence to human insulin or can be modified in ways which affect their speed of action. Insulin products can be categorised as rapid-, short-, intermediate- or long-acting. Long-acting insulin products, such as insulin glargine, insulin degludec and insulin detemir are primarily used to maintain a background level of insulin to control blood sugars between meals. These are administered once or twice a day. Short-acting products like insulin lispro are generally administered just before meals to help control blood sugar levels after eating.
View more information in the IUPHAR Pharmacology Education Project: insulin
|Compound class||Endogenous peptide in human, mouse or rat|
|Approved drug?||Yes (FDA (1982), EMA (1997))|
|WHO Essential Medicine||WHO Essential Medicines List (EML) (22nd List, 2021). Access PDF version.
Click to view more information about the WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines.
|International Nonproprietary Names|
|Ensembl Gene||ENSG00000254647 (Hs)|
|GtoPdb PubChem SID||178101709|
|Human Protein Atlas||ENSG00000254647 (Hs)|
|Search PubMed clinical trials||insulin human|
|Search PubMed titles||insulin human|
|Search PubMed titles/abstracts||insulin human|