beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1 | Beta-adrenergic receptor kinases (βARKs) | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

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beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1

target has curated data in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 1466

Nomenclature: beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1

Abbreviated Name: GRK2

Family: Beta-adrenergic receptor kinases (βARKs)

Gene and Protein Information
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human - 689 11q13 GRK2 G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2
Mouse - 689 19 Grk2 G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2
Rat - 689 1q42 Grk2 G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2
Previous and Unofficial Names
ADRGK1 | BARK1 | GRK2 | G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 | beta-AR kinase-1 | betaARK1 | adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 1 | ADRBK1 | Adrbk1 | adrenergic
Database Links
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Enzyme
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
Selected 3D Structures
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 (GRK2)
PDB Id:  1YM7
Resolution:  4.5Å
Species:  Human
References:  8
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  Human G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 in Complex with Soluble Gbetagamma Subunits and Paroxetine
PDB Id:  3V5W
Ligand:  paroxetine
Resolution:  2.07Å
Species:  Human
References:  12
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  Human GRK2 in complex with Gβγ subunits and balanol (co-crystal).
Ligand:  balanol
Resolution:  3.1Å
Species:  Human
References:  11
Enzyme Reaction
EC Number:

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
CCG258747 Hs Inhibition 7.7 pIC50 2
pIC50 7.7 (IC50 1.8x10-8 M) [2]
balanol Hs Inhibition 7.4 pIC50 11
pIC50 7.4 (IC50 4.2x10-8 M) [11]
Description: Inhibition of tubulin phosphorylation by balanol.
compound 101 [PMID: 21596927] Hs Inhibition 7.3 pIC50 13
pIC50 7.3 (IC50 5.4x10-8 M) [13]
compound 1o [PMID: 24210504] Hs Inhibition 6.3 pIC50 5
pIC50 6.3 (IC50 4.6x10-7 M) [5]
Inhibitor Comments
A component of agonist-induced desensitisation of the μ opioid receptor is reversed by compound 101 inhibition of GRK2/3 [10].
EMD Millipore KinaseProfilerTM screen/Reaction Biology Kinase HotspotSM screen
A screen profiling 158 kinase inhibitors (Calbiochem Protein Kinase Inhibitor Library I and II, catalogue numbers 539744 and 539745) for their inhibitory activity at 1µM and 10µM against 234 human recombinant kinases using the EMD Millipore KinaseProfilerTM service.

A screen profiling the inhibitory activity of 178 commercially available kinase inhibitors at 0.5µM against a panel of 300 recombinant protein kinases using the Reaction Biology Corporation Kinase HotspotSM platform.

Reference: ...1

Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Target used in screen: nd/GRK2
Ligand Sp. Type Action % Activity remaining at 0.5µM % Activity remaining at 1µM % Activity remaining at 10µM
staurosporine Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 56.8
aloisine A Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 76.5
aloisine Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 78.5
KU-55933 Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 79.0
ATM/ATR kinase inhibitor Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 79.5
dorsomorphin Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 81.8
aminopurvalanol A Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 83.0
AGL 2043 Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 83.7
AG 1024 Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 83.7
aurora kinase inhibitor III Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 84.7
Displaying the top 10 most potent ligands  View all ligands in screen »
Immunopharmacology Comments
GRK2 (βARK1) expression and activity are downregulated in lymphocytes from RA patients [9]. In healthy leukocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines reduce GRK2 expression
Immuno Process Associations
Immuno Process:  Barrier integrity
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes
GO:0046718 viral entry into host cell IMP
Immuno Process:  Antigen presentation
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes
GO:0031623 receptor internalization IDA
Immuno Process:  Chemotaxis & migration
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes
GO:1990869 cellular response to chemokine IDA
Immuno Process:  Cytokine production & signalling
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes
GO:1990869 cellular response to chemokine IDA
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
Germline ablation of the GRK2 gene produces embryonic lethality, with embryos displaying cardiac abnormalities.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Gene knock-out.
References:  7
Increased GRK2 protein and mRNA levels are associated with increased myocardial GRK activity in human heart failure.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Cardiac tissue.
Technique:  qPCR, Western blotting.
References:  3-4,14-15
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression Comments
The essential role of GRK2 in embryonic development may not be due to its GPCR kinase activity, as mice with cardiac-specific ablation of GRK2 develop normally [6].


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1. Anastassiadis T, Deacon SW, Devarajan K, Ma H, Peterson JR. (2011) Comprehensive assay of kinase catalytic activity reveals features of kinase inhibitor selectivity. Nat. Biotechnol., 29 (11): 1039-45. [PMID:22037377]

2. Bouley RA, Weinberg ZY, Waldschmidt HV, Yen YC, Larsen SD, Puthenveedu MA, Tesmer JJG. (2020) A New Paroxetine-Based GRK2 Inhibitor Reduces Internalization of the μ-Opioid Receptor. Mol. Pharmacol., 97 (6): 392-401. [PMID:32234810]

3. Bristow MR, Hershberger RE, Port JD, Gilbert EM, Sandoval A, Rasmussen R, Cates AE, Feldman AM. (1990) Beta-adrenergic pathways in nonfailing and failing human ventricular myocardium. Circulation, 82 (2 Suppl): I12-25. [PMID:2164894]

4. Bristow MR, Kantrowitz NE, Ginsburg R, Fowler MB. (1985) Beta-adrenergic function in heart muscle disease and heart failure. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol., 17 Suppl 2: 41-52. [PMID:2863387]

5. Cho SY, Lee BH, Jung H, Yun CS, Ha JD, Kim HR, Chae CH, Lee JH, Seo HW, Oh KS. (2013) Design and synthesis of novel 3-(benzo[d]oxazol-2-yl)-5-(1-(piperidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyridin-2-amine derivatives as selective G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 and -5 inhibitors. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 23 (24): 6711-6. [PMID:24210504]

6. Dorn 2nd GW. (2009) GRK mythology: G-protein receptor kinases in cardiovascular disease. J. Mol. Med., 87 (5): 455-63. [PMID:19229505]

7. Jaber M, Koch WJ, Rockman H, Smith B, Bond RA, Sulik KK, Ross Jr J, Lefkowitz RJ, Caron MG, Giros B. (1996) Essential role of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 in cardiac development and function. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 93 (23): 12974-9. [PMID:8917529]

8. Lodowski DT, Barnhill JF, Pyskadlo RM, Ghirlando R, Sterne-Marr R, Tesmer JJ. (2005) The role of G beta gamma and domain interfaces in the activation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. Biochemistry, 44 (18): 6958-70. [PMID:15865441]

9. Lombardi MS, Kavelaars A, Schedlowski M, Bijlsma JW, Okihara KL, Van de Pol M, Ochsmann S, Pawlak C, Schmidt RE, Heijnen CJ. (1999) Decreased expression and activity of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. FASEB J., 13 (6): 715-25. [PMID:10094932]

10. Lowe JD, Sanderson HS, Cooke AE, Ostovar M, Tsisanova E, Withey SL, Chavkin C, Husbands SM, Kelly E, Henderson G et al.. (2015) Role of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases 2 and 3 in μ-Opioid Receptor Desensitization and Internalization. Mol. Pharmacol., 88 (2): 347-56. [PMID:26013542]

11. Tesmer JJ, Tesmer VM, Lodowski DT, Steinhagen H, Huber J. (2010) Structure of human G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in complex with the kinase inhibitor balanol. J. Med. Chem., 53 (4): 1867-70. [PMID:20128603]

12. Thal DM, Homan KT, Chen J, Wu EK, Hinkle PM, Huang ZM, Chuprun JK, Song J, Gao E, Cheung JY et al.. (2012) Paroxetine is a direct inhibitor of g protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and increases myocardial contractility. ACS Chem. Biol., 7 (11): 1830-9. [PMID:22882301]

13. Thal DM, Yeow RY, Schoenau C, Huber J, Tesmer JJ. (2011) Molecular mechanism of selectivity among G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 inhibitors. Mol. Pharmacol., 80 (2): 294-303. [PMID:21596927]

14. Ungerer M, Böhm M, Elce JS, Erdmann E, Lohse MJ. (1993) Altered expression of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase and beta 1-adrenergic receptors in the failing human heart. Circulation, 87 (2): 454-63. [PMID:8381058]

15. Ungerer M, Parruti G, Böhm M, Puzicha M, DeBlasi A, Erdmann E, Lohse MJ. (1994) Expression of beta-arrestins and beta-adrenergic receptor kinases in the failing human heart. Circ. Res., 74 (2): 206-13. [PMID:8293560]

How to cite this page

Beta-adrenergic receptor kinases (βARKs): beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1. Last modified on 04/06/2020. Accessed on 01/10/2020. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,