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GAL3 receptor

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Target not currently curated in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 245

Nomenclature: GAL3 receptor

Family: Galanin receptors

Gene and Protein Information Click here for help
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 368 22q13.1 GALR3 galanin receptor 3 16,35
Mouse 7 370 15 37.7 cM Galr3 galanin receptor 3 40
Rat 7 370 7q34 Galr3 galanin receptor 3 16,35
Previous and Unofficial Names Click here for help
GALR3 | Galnr3
Database Links Click here for help
Specialist databases
GPCRDB galr3_human (Hs), galr3_mouse (Mm), galr3_rat (Rn)
Other databases
Alphafold
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
Pharos
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands Click here for help
galanin {Sp: Human} , galanin {Sp: Mouse, Rat}
galanin-like peptide {Sp: Human} , galanin-like peptide {Sp: Mouse} , galanin-like peptide {Sp: Rat}
spexin-1 {Sp: Human}
Comments: Galanin-like peptide is more potent than galanin
Potency order of endogenous ligands (Human)
galanin-like peptide (GALP, Q9UBC7) > galanin (GAL, P22466)  [20]

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file go icon to follow link

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
[125I][Tyr26]galanin (pig) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Rn Agonist 9.0 – 9.3 pKd 35,40
pKd 9.0 – 9.3 (Kd 9.7x10-10 – 5.5x10-10 M) [35,40]
[125I][Tyr26]galanin (pig) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Hs Agonist 8.6 pKd 8,35
pKd 8.6 (Kd 2.24x10-9 M) [8,35]
M1160 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist <5.0 pKd 31
pKd <5.0 (Kd >1x10-5 M) [31]
galanin {Sp: Mouse, Rat} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is endogenous in the given species Rn Partial agonist 8.1 – 8.8 pKi 25,35,39-40
pKi 8.1 – 8.8 (Ki 7.4x10-9 – 1.47x10-9 M) [25,35,39-40]
galanin(1-19) (rat/mouse) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Agonist 8.2 pKi 40
pKi 8.2 (Ki 6.25x10-9 M) [40]
galanin {Sp: Pig} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Full agonist 8.1 pKi 35
pKi 8.1 (Ki 7.24x10-9 M) [35]
galanin {Sp: Mouse, Rat} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 7.9 – 8.4 pKi 8,29,32,35-36
pKi 7.9 – 8.4 (Ki 1.23x10-8 – 4.49x10-9 M) [8,29,32,35-36]
galanin {Sp: Pig} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 8.0 pKi 8,35
pKi 8.0 (Ki 9.77x10-9 M) [8,35]
galanin(2-29) (rat/mouse) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Agonist 7.9 pKi 39-40
pKi 7.9 (Ki 1.26x10-8 M) [39-40]
J20 (galanin analogue) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 7.9 pKi 30
pKi 7.9 (Ki 1.3x10-8 M) [30]
galanin(7-29) (pig) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Agonist 7.5 pKi 35
pKi 7.5 (Ki 3.02x10-8 M) [35]
galanin(7-29) (pig) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 7.4 pKi 8,35
pKi 7.4 (Ki 3.548x10-8 M) [8,35]
M617 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 7.3 pKi 36
pKi 7.3 (Ki 4.9x10-8 M) [36]
galanin {Sp: Human} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Full agonist 7.3 pKi 35
pKi 7.3 (Ki 5.248x10-8 M) [35]
galanin(2-29) (pig) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 7.2 pKi 8
pKi 7.2 (Ki 6.026x10-8 M) [8]
galanin(1-16) (rat/mouse/pig) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Agonist 7.1 – 7.3 pKi 35,39-40
pKi 7.1 – 7.3 (Ki 8.913x10-8 – 4.96x10-8 M) [35,39-40]
galanin {Sp: Human} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is endogenous in the given species Hs Full agonist 7.2 pKi 8,35
pKi 7.2 (Ki 6.918x10-8 M) [8,35]
J18 (galanin analogue) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 6.9 pKi 30
pKi 6.9 (Ki 1.12x10-7 M) [30]
galanin(2-11) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 6.7 pKi 29
pKi 6.7 (Ki 1.99x10-7 M) [29]
M1153 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 6.6 pKi 32
pKi 6.6 (Ki 2.3x10-7 M) [32]
galanin(2-11) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Agonist 6.6 pKi 24
pKi 6.6 (Ki 2.71x10-7 M) [24]
galanin(1-16) (rat/mouse/pig) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 6.5 pKi 8,35
pKi 6.5 (Ki 3.162x10-7 M) [8,35]
M1145 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 6.3 pKi 29
pKi 6.3 (Ki 4.97x10-7 M) [29]
M1152 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 6.2 pKi 32
pKi 6.2 (Ki 6.56x10-7 M) [32]
M1151 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 6.1 pKi 32
pKi 6.1 (Ki 8.74x10-7 M) [32]
galanin(3-29) (pig) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist <6.0 pKi 8,35
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [8,35]
galanin(3-29) (pig) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Agonist <6.0 pKi 35
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [35]
galanin(3-29) (rat/mouse) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Agonist <6.0 pKi 39-40
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [39-40]
galanin(10-29) (pig) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Agonist <6.0 pKi 40
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [40]
galanin(D-Trp2) (pig) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist <6.0 pKi 35
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [35]
galanin(D-Trp2) (pig) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Agonist <6.0 pKi 8,35
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [8,35]
(D-Thr6, D-Trp8,9)galanin(1-15)ol Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Agonist <6.0 pKi 40
pKi <6.0 (Ki >1x10-6 M) [40]
M1160 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist <5.0 pKi 31
pKi <5.0 (Ki >1x10-5 M) [31]
spexin-1 {Sp: Human} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is endogenous in the given species Hs Agonist 6.2 pEC50 15
pEC50 6.2 (EC50 6.26x10-7 M) [15]
Description: Determined by measuring SRE-luc activity in HEK293-Gqi cells expressing hGALR3.
galanin-like peptide {Sp: Rat} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Agonist 8.8 pIC50 9
pIC50 8.8 (IC50 1.53x10-9 M) [9]
galanin-like peptide {Sp: Human} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 8.0 pIC50 20
pIC50 8.0 (IC50 1x10-8 M) [20]
galanin {Sp: Pig} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 7.9 pIC50 16
pIC50 7.9 (IC50 1.2x10-8 M) [16]
galanin {Sp: Human} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is endogenous in the given species Hs Full agonist 7.1 pIC50 16
pIC50 7.1 (IC50 7.5x10-8 M) [16]
galanin {Sp: Mouse, Rat} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is endogenous in the given species Rn Full agonist 7.0 pIC50 9
pIC50 7.0 (IC50 1.084x10-7 M) [9]
alarin {Sp: Rat} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Agonist <6.0 pIC50 9
pIC50 <6.0 (IC50 >1x10-6 M) [9]
[125I]spexin-1 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Hs Agonist - - 15
[15]
View species-specific agonist tables
Agonist Comments
GAL3 receptor requires amino acids 17-19 of galanin for binding, and binding affinity is lost following removal of amino acids 1 and 2 of the peptide [8].

Various peptide fragments derived from porcine galanin message-associated peptide (GMAP, residues 65-123) have been tested for binding against GAL3 receptor but have been reported to have very weak [GMAP(1-30), GMAP(1-41), GMAP(44-59) [40]] or no measuirable binding [GMAP(1-41), GMAP(16-41), GMAP(25-41), GMAP(44-59) [35]].

NOTE that compounds with -ve log10 affinities <6 have no appreciable agonist function.
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
M32 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 8.9 pKi 35
pKi 8.9 (Ki 1.23x10-9 M) [35]
C7 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 8.4 – 9.1 pKi 35,40
pKi 8.4 – 9.1 (Ki 4.47x10-9 – 7.5x10-10 M) [35,40]
M35 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 8.1 – 8.7 pKi 25,35,40
pKi 8.1 – 8.7 (Ki 7.5x10-9 – 2.09x10-9 M) [25,35,40]
SNAP 398299 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.3 pKi 17-18,37
pKi 8.3 (Ki 5.33x10-9 M) [17-18,37]
M32 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.2 pKi 8,35
pKi 8.2 (Ki 6.03x10-9 M) [8,35]
C7 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.1 pKi 8,35
pKi 8.1 (Ki 8.31x10-9 M) [8,35]
M35 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.8 – 7.8 pKi 8,35-36
pKi 7.8 – 7.8 (Ki 1.6x10-8 – 1.445x10-8 M) [8,35-36]
SNAP 37889 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.8 – 7.8 pKi 17-18,37
pKi 7.8 – 7.8 (Ki 1.744x10-8 – 1.7x10-8 M) [17-18,37]
GalR3ant Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 7.7 – 7.8 pKi 19,25
pKi 7.7 – 7.8 (Ki 2x10-8 – 1.5x10-8 M) [19,25]
[Ala6, D-Trp8]galanin-(1-15)-ol Peptide Rn Antagonist 7.8 pKi 40
pKi 7.8 (Ki 1.79x10-8 M) [40]
M15 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 7.1 – 8.0 pKi 25,35,40
pKi 7.1 – 8.0 (Ki 8.5x10-8 – 1.05x10-8 M) [25,35,40]
M15 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.4 pKi 8,35
pKi 7.4 (Ki 3.981x10-8 M) [8,35]
M40 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 7.1 – 7.3 pKi 25,35,40
pKi 7.1 – 7.3 (Ki 7.943x10-8 – 5.4x10-8 M) [25,35,40]
M40 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.5 – 7.3 pKi 8,35-36
pKi 6.5 – 7.3 (Ki 2.884x10-7 – 5.2x10-8 M) [8,35-36]
M871 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist <5.0 pKi 36
pKi <5.0 (Ki >1x10-5 M) [36]
View species-specific antagonist tables
Antagonist Comments
GalR3ant displays receptor selectivity for GAL3 receptor, with low affinity for GAL1 receptor and GAL2 receptor [25].
Primary Transduction Mechanisms Click here for help
Transducer Effector/Response
Gi/Go family Adenylyl cyclase inhibition
Potassium channel
Comments:  Signalling properties of GAL3 receptor are still ill-defined, but several studies suggest GAL3 receptor couples to Gi/G0 proteins to inhibit adenylate cyclase, and to stimulate a pertussis-sensitive activation of an inward K+ current when coexpressed with GIRK1 and GIRK4 in Xenopus oocytes [16,35] (reviewed in [21]).
References:  16,35
Tissue Distribution Click here for help
Testis > thyroid, adrenal gland, brain, skeletal muscle, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, placenta.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Northern blot.
References:  16
GAL3 receptor mRNA found in pituitary adenoma tissue from patients who relapsed shortly after surgical intervention.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  10
GAL3 receptor mRNA in human forebrain, locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe nucleus .
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  22
Cholinergic neurons in anterior nucleus basalis.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Single cell RNA amplification and custom cDNA array analysis.
References:  12
Skin; vagal (nodose) sensory ganglia.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  28,34
Pluripotent R1 embryonic stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  1,23
Pancreas – acinar & islet cells.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  In situ hybridisation, RT-PCR.
References:  6
Locus coeruleus, hippocampus > ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra > nucleus accumbens.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry.
References:  14
Immature thymocytes.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  38
Median and medial preoptic areas, ventromedian preoptic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, medial reticular formation, subfornical organ > bed nucleus of stria terminalis, nucleus vertical limb of the diagonal band, nucleus horizontal limb of the diagonal gand, lateral hypothalamic area, posterior hypothalamic area, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, premammillary nuclei, central grey, lateral parabraichial nucleus (external part) > medial septum, medial amygdaloid nuclei, lateral preoptic areas, anterior hypothalamic area, arcuate nucleus, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, periventricular hypothalamic nuclei, dorsal tegmentum, locus coeruleus, spinal cord (laminae I&II, II- VII,X).
Species:  Rat
Technique:  In situ hybridisation.
References:  26
Ventral mesencephalon of embryo.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  13
PC12 cell line (derived from phaeochromocytoma of rat adrenal medulla) and B104 cell line (derived from rat neuroblastoma).
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  11
Hypothalamus, pituitary > olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata, caudate putamen, cerebellum, spinal cord; liver, kidney, stomach, testicle, adrenal cortex. None detected in hippocampus, substantia nigra; heart, uterus, vas deferens, choroid plexus, dorsal root ganglion.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Solution hybridisation/RNase protection analysis.
References:  35
Minimal in jejunum.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Northern blot.
References:  39
Moderate expression in many cortical regions, including anterior cingulate, frontoparietal, retrosplenial areas; dense expression in olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, islands of Calleja; some expression in taenia tecta, lateral septal nuclei, choroid plexus. Further dense expression in hippocampal CA regions and dentate gyrus; some expression in medial habenula, zona incerta; small amounts in some thalamic nuclei. Several hypothalamic nuclei display some expression - ventromedial, arcuate, paraventricular, supraoptic. Some expression in mammillary nuclei, amygdaloid nuclei, substantia nigra pars compacta, nucleus of Darkschewitsch, central grey. Minimal expression in caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens
Species:  Rat
Technique:  In situ hybridisation.
References:  16
Dorsal root ganglia, lung, kidney, liver > hippocampus, hypothalamus cortex, amygdala, spinal cord, anterior pituitary, spleen. Not detected in heart or large intestine.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Solution hybridisation/RNase protection analysis.
References:  41
Hippocampus, hypothalamus, lung, kidney, liver > cortex, amygdala, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, anterior pituitary, large intestine, spleen.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  41
Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) – low levels of GAL3 receptor mRNA throughout GIT (mostly confined to colon).
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  2-3
Heart, testis and spleen with no significant expression in kidney, skeletal muscle, liver, lung or brain.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Northern blot.
References:  40
Tissue Distribution Comments
GAL3 receptor appears to be the most important galanin receptor in the human locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe nucleus, versus GAL1 and GAL2 receptors in the rodent brain.
Expression Datasets Click here for help

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays Click here for help
Measurement of functional activity of Xenopus oocyte cells tranfected with GAL3 receptor, GIRK1 (G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel 1) and GIRK3. Galanin activated GIRK1 and GIRK4 in GAL3 receptor-cotransfected Xenopus oocyte cells, suggesting involvement of the Gi/Go proteins. Injection of pertussis toxin caused a 98% reduction of galanin currents in GAL3 receptor-expressing oocytes.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Xenopus oocytes.
Response measured:  Activation of GIRK1 and GIRK4 in Xenopus oocytes.
References:  35
Galanin demonstrates a dose-dependent increase in aggregation of pigment in GAL3 receptor-transfected Xenopus melanophores, suggesting Gi coupling and signalling through inhibition of adenylate cyclase.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Xenopus melanophores.
Response measured:  Measurement of aggregation of pigment in Xenopus melanophores.
References:  16
Physiological Functions Click here for help
Galanin appears to mediate the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on immature rat thymocytes via GAL3 receptor (and GAL1 receptor).
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Thymocytes.
References:  38
GAL3 receptor antagonist, SNAP 37889 reduces stress induced hyperthermia in mice.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  37
GAL3 receptor antagonists SNAP 37889 and SNAP 398299 enhance rat social interaction.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  37
GAL3 receptor mediates inflammatory oedema formation in the skin. SNAP 37889, a GAL3 receptor antagonist, abolishes the anti-oedema effect of galanin.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Skin.
References:  33
GAL3 receptor antagonist SNAP 37889 reduces severity of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Pancreas.
References:  6
GAL3 receptor antagonist SNAP 37889 greatly reduces the early GABAergic IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential) increase often seen in response to galanin in the central amygdala (CeA), suggesting galanin via GAL3 receptor may augment GABAergic transmission in CeA neurons.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Central amygdala.
References:  5
Galanin via GAL3 receptor regulates transepithelial chloride ion transport and fluid secretion in human eccrine sweat gland cells.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Human NCL-SG3 cells (human eccrine sweat gland cell line).
References:  10
In rats, the GAL3 receptor antagonist SNAP 37889 demonstrates anxiolytic activity, with increased punished drinking the the Vogel conflict test, antidepressant-like effects, with a decrease in immobility in the forced swim test. SNAP 37889 significantly reverses galanin-induced inhibition of dorsal raphe neuronal firing, inhibits galanin-evoked hyperpolarising currents and partially antagonises galanin-evoked reduction in hippocampal serotonin (completely antagonised when administered in combination with 5HT1A antagonist WAY100635).
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo/ventral hippocampus/dorsal raphe nucleus and dorsal raphe neurons.
References:  37
GAL3 receptor antagonist SNAP 37889 reduces operant responding for ethanol in alcohol preferring rats, as well as for sucrose and saccharin.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  4
Gene Expression and Pathophysiology Comments
GAL3 receptor is highly expressed in neuroblastoma [27].
Biologically Significant Variants Click here for help
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The combination of the GAL3 receptor rs3091367 risk allele and GAL (galanin) risk diplotype led to an increased odds ratio for alcoholism (compared to either GAL or GAL3 receptor alone).
Global MAF (%):  22
SNP accession: 
Validation:  1000 Genomes
References:  7

References

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1. Anisimov SV, Tarasov KV, Tweedie D, Stern MD, Wobus AM, Boheler KR. (2002) SAGE identification of gene transcripts with profiles unique to pluripotent mouse R1 embryonic stem cells. Genomics, 79 (2): 169-76. [PMID:11829487]

2. Anselmi L, Lakhter A, Hirano AA, Tonini M, Sternini C. (2005) Expression of galanin receptor messenger RNAs in different regions of the rat gastrointestinal tract. Peptides, 26 (5): 815-9. [PMID:15808911]

3. Anselmi L, Stella Jr SL, Lakhter A, Hirano A, Tonini M, Sternini C. (2005) Galanin receptors in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Neuropeptides, 39 (3): 349-52. [PMID:16044511]

4. Ash BL, Zanatta SD, Williams SJ, Lawrence AJ, Djouma E. (2011) The galanin-3 receptor antagonist, SNAP 37889, reduces operant responding for ethanol in alcohol-preferring rats. Regul Pept, 166 (1-3): 59-67. [PMID:20736033]

5. Bajo M, Madamba SG, Lu X, Sharkey LM, Bartfai T, Siggins GR. (2012) Receptor subtype-dependent galanin actions on gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission and ethanol responses in the central amygdala. Addict Biol, 17 (4): 694-705. [PMID:21955024]

6. Barreto SG, Bazargan M, Zotti M, Hussey DJ, Sukocheva OA, Peiris H, Leong M, Keating DJ, Schloithe AC, Carati CJ et al.. (2011) Galanin receptor 3--a potential target for acute pancreatitis therapy. Neurogastroenterol Motil, 23 (3): e141-51. [PMID:21303427]

7. Belfer I, Hipp H, Bollettino A, McKnight C, Evans C, Virkkunen M, Albaugh B, Max MB, Goldman D, Enoch MA. (2007) Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. Genes Brain Behav, 6 (5): 473-81. [PMID:17083333]

8. Borowsky B, Walker MW, Huang LY, Jones KA, Smith KE, Bard J, Branchek TA, Gerald C. (1998) Cloning and characterization of the human galanin GALR2 receptor. Peptides, 19 (10): 1771-81. [PMID:9880084]

9. Boughton CK, Patterson M, Bewick GA, Tadross JA, Gardiner JV, Beale KE, Chaudery F, Hunter G, Busbridge M, Leavy EM et al.. (2010) Alarin stimulates food intake and gonadotrophin release in male rats. Br J Pharmacol, 161 (3): 601-13. [PMID:20880399]

10. Bovell DL, Holub BS, Odusanwo O, Brodowicz B, Rauch I, Kofler B, Lang R. (2013) Galanin is a modulator of eccrine sweat gland secretion. Exp Dermatol, 22 (2): 141-3. [PMID:23278944]

11. Cheng S, Yuan CG. (2007) Differential effect of galanin on proliferation of PC12 and B104 cells. Neuroreport, 18 (13): 1379-83. [PMID:17762717]

12. Counts SE, Chen EY, Che S, Ikonomovic MD, Wuu J, Ginsberg SD, Dekosky ST, Mufson EJ. (2006) Galanin fiber hypertrophy within the cholinergic nucleus basalis during the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord, 21 (4): 205-14. [PMID:16410678]

13. Counts SE, McGuire SO, Sortwell CE, Crawley JN, Collier TJ, Mufson EJ. (2002) Galanin inhibits tyrosine hydroxylase expression in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. J Neurochem, 83 (2): 442-51. [PMID:12423254]

14. Hawes JJ, Picciotto MR. (2004) Characterization of GalR1, GalR2, and GalR3 immunoreactivity in catecholaminergic nuclei of the mouse brain. J Comp Neurol, 479 (4): 410-23. [PMID:15514977]

15. Kim DK, Yun S, Son GH, Hwang JI, Park CR, Kim JI, Kim K, Vaudry H, Seong JY. (2014) Coevolution of the spexin/galanin/kisspeptin family: Spexin activates galanin receptor type II and III. Endocrinology, 155 (5): 1864-73. [PMID:24517231]

16. Kolakowski Jr LF, O'Neill GP, Howard AD, Broussard SR, Sullivan KA, Feighner SD, Sawzdargo M, Nguyen T, Kargman S, Shiao LL et al.. (1998) Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3. J Neurochem, 71 (6): 2239-51. [PMID:9832121]

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