SARS-CoV-2 Envelope protein | SARS-CoV-2 proteins | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

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SARS-CoV-2 Envelope protein

Target not currently curated in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 3116

Nomenclature: SARS-CoV-2 Envelope protein

Family: SARS-CoV-2 proteins

Annotation status:  image of a grey circle Awaiting annotation/under development. Please contact us if you can help with annotation.  » Email us

Gene and Protein Information
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
SARS-CoV-2 1 75 E
Previous and Unofficial Names
envelope small membrane protein | orf4
Database Links
Entrez Gene
RefSeq Protein
General Comments
By similarity to other coronavirus E proteins, SARS-CoV-2 E is predicted to constitute a single transmembrane (potentially homopentameric) ion channel with selectivity for monovalent cations over monovalent anions [2-5]. The SARS-CoV E protein's ion channel function has been linked to calcium entry into endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi membrane complexes and the subsequent activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and interleukin-β (IL-1β) production [1].


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1. Nieto-Torres JL, Verdiá-Báguena C, Jimenez-Guardeño JM, Regla-Nava JA, Castaño-Rodriguez C, Fernandez-Delgado R, Torres J, Aguilella VM, Enjuanes L. (2015) Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus E protein transports calcium ions and activates the NLRP3 inflammasome. Virology, 485: 330-9. [PMID:26331680]

2. Pervushin K, Tan E, Parthasarathy K, Lin X, Jiang FL, Yu D, Vararattanavech A, Soong TW, Liu DX, Torres J. (2009) Structure and inhibition of the SARS coronavirus envelope protein ion channel. PLoS Pathog., 5 (7): e1000511. [PMID:19593379]

3. Surya W, Li Y, Verdià-Bàguena C, Aguilella VM, Torres J. (2015) MERS coronavirus envelope protein has a single transmembrane domain that forms pentameric ion channels. Virus Res., 201: 61-6. [PMID:25733052]

4. Wilson L, McKinlay C, Gage P, Ewart G. (2004) SARS coronavirus E protein forms cation-selective ion channels. Virology, 330 (1): 322-31. [PMID:15527857]

5. Zhang R, Wang K, Lv W, Yu W, Xie S, Xu K, Schwarz W, Xiong S, Sun B. (2014) The ORF4a protein of human coronavirus 229E functions as a viroporin that regulates viral production. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1838 (4): 1088-95. [PMID:23906728]

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