Top ▲

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).

Overview

« Hide More detailed introduction

Coronaviruses

Coronaviruses are large, often spherical, enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses, ranging in size from 80-220 nm. Of the four structural proteins encoded in the viral genome, the RNA winds around the highly basic nucleocapsid (N) protein. The three other structural proteins, envelope (E), membrane (M) and spike (S), are transmembrane proteins. The E protein is a small (9-12 kDa) single transmembrane domain protein, which enables virus assembly with the M protein, a larger (23-35 kDa) 3TM protein. Coronaviruses are named for the crown-shaped appearance of the virus due to the large (120+ kDa) S spike 1TM glycoprotein, which forms extended homotrimers. The spike protein binds to the animal host cell by interacting with specific anchoring proteins, typically proteinases, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 or aminopeptidase N. This binding facilitates viral entry into the cell and the release of the genome. Aside from the four structural proteins, the remainder of the genome encodes accessory or non-structural proteins and includes proteinases to cleave the two encoded polyproteins. The remainder of the genome encodes elements for viral replication, assembly and release, as well as proteins which manipulate the host's innate immune system.

Targets

SARS-CoV-2 Envelope protein Show summary » More detailed page

SARS-CoV-2 Main protease Show summary » More detailed page

SARS-CoV-2 Membrane glycoprotein Show summary » More detailed page

SARS-CoV-2 Non-structural protein 6 Show summary » More detailed page

SARS-CoV-2 Non-structural protein 8 Show summary » More detailed page

SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein Show summary » More detailed page

SARS-CoV-2 Protein 3a Show summary » More detailed page

SARS-CoV-2 Protein 7a Show summary » More detailed page

SARS-CoV-2 Protein 9b Show summary » More detailed page

SARS-CoV-2 Protein non-structural 7b Show summary » More detailed page

SARS-CoV-2 Replicase polyprotein 1a Show summary » More detailed page

SARS-CoV-2 Replicase polyprotein 1ab Show summary » More detailed page

SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein Show summary » More detailed page

Further reading

Show »

References

Show »

NC-IUPHAR subcommittee and family contributors

Show »

How to cite this family page

Database page citation (select format):

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Kelly E, Mathie A, Peters JA, Veale EL, Armstrong JF, Faccenda E, Harding SD, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Buneman OP, Cidlowski JA, Christopoulos A, Davenport AP, Fabbro D, Spedding M, Striessnig J, Davies JA; CGTP Collaborators. (2019) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2019/20: Introduction and Other Protein Targets. Br J Pharmacol. 176 Issue S1: S1-S20.