P2Y<sub>2</sub> receptor | P2Y receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

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P2Y2 receptor

Target not currently curated in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 324

Nomenclature: P2Y2 receptor

Family: P2Y receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 377 11q13.5-q14.1 P2RY2 purinergic receptor P2Y2 60
Mouse 7 373 7 F1 P2ry2 purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled 2 54
Rat 7 374 1q32 P2ry2 purinergic receptor P2Y2 32,72
Previous and Unofficial Names
ATP receptor | P2U purinoceptor 1 | P2Y ATP receptor 2 | P2Y purinoceptor 2 | purinergic receptor P2Y
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB p2ry2_human (Hs), p2ry2_mouse (Mm), p2ry2_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
uridine triphosphate
Potency order of endogenous ligands (Human)
uridine triphosphate > ATP  [49]

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
MRS2698 Hs Full agonist 8.1 pEC50 36
pEC50 8.1 [36]
uridine triphosphate Hs Full agonist 8.1 pEC50 41,49
pEC50 8.1 [41,49]
4-thio-UTP Hs Full agonist 7.5 pEC50 9
pEC50 7.5 [9]
2-thioUTP Hs Agonist 7.3 pEC50 23
pEC50 7.3 (EC50 5x10-8 M) [23]
diquafosol Hs Full agonist 7.0 pEC50 62
pEC50 7.0 [62]
PSB1114 Hs Full agonist 6.9 pEC50 23-24,35
pEC50 6.9 (EC50 1.34x10-7 M) EC50 value determined using an IP3 functional assay [23-24,35]
ATP Hs Full agonist 6.6 – 7.1 pEC50 37,41,49
pEC50 6.6 – 7.1 [37,41,49]
denufosol Hs Full agonist 6.7 pEC50 50,62,81
pEC50 6.7 [50,62,81]
Ap4A Hs Full agonist 6.1 pEC50 12,61
pEC50 6.1 [12,61]
UTPγS Hs Full agonist 5.8 pEC50 49
pEC50 5.8 [49]
5BrUTP Hs Full agonist 5.7 pEC50 49
pEC50 5.7 [49]
MRS2768 Hs Full agonist 5.7 pEC50 43
pEC50 5.7 (EC50 1.89x10-6 M) EC50 value determined using an IP3 functional assay [43]
Agonist Comments
PSB1114 is a potent, selective P2Y2 agonist with >60-fold selectivity for versus P2Y4 and P2Y6 receptors [24].

Reference [49] EC50 values are found using IP3 functional assays.
References [62,81] EC50 values are found using Ca2+ functional assays.

A library of nucleotide triphosphates incorporating a C-linked unnatural base (i.e., benzothiazole, benzoxazole and benzimidazole) was synthesized, a number of which offer potency comparable to that of the N-linked series, and significantly more stability than UTP [18].
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
AR-C126313 Hs Antagonist 6.0 pEC50 36
pEC50 6.0 [36]
reactive blue-2 Hs Antagonist 6.0 pIC50 38
pIC50 6.0 [38]
AR-C118925XX Hs Antagonist ~6.0 pIC50 39
pIC50 ~6.0 (IC50 ~1x10-6 M) [39]
PSB-416 Hs Antagonist 4.7 pIC50 33
pIC50 4.7 (IC50 2.17x10-5 M) [33]
suramin Hs Antagonist 4.3 pIC50 38,69
pIC50 4.3 [38,69]
Antagonist Comments
The rat P2Y2R is virtually insensitive to Reactive Blue 2 (pIC50 > 2) [9].

Although non-selective, suramin can be useful to discriminate between the P2Y2 and the P2Y4 receptor subtypes, the latter being insensitive to its antagonism [9].

A small library of 1-amino-4-phenylamino-2-sulfoanthraquinone derivatives related to Reactive Blue 2 has been synthesized, and some of them proved to be potential P2Y2R antagonists with low micromolar IC50 values [77].
Immuno Process Associations
Immuno Process:  Chemotaxis & migration
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes
GO:0032722 positive regulation of chemokine production IDA
Immuno Process:  Cytokine production & signalling
GO Annotations:  Associated to 2 GO processes
GO:0032722 positive regulation of chemokine production IDA
GO:0071347 cellular response to interleukin-1 IEP
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gq/G11 family Phospholipase C stimulation
Comments:  In bronchial and intestinal epithelia, activation of P2Y2 receptor subtype leads to stimulation of chloride secretion through Gq/G11, and phospholipase C activation followed by inhibition of Na+ transport [21,30,80]
References:  76,80
Secondary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gi/Go family
G12/G13 family
Other - See Comments
Comments:  In hP2Y2R-transfected 1321N1 cells, P2Y2 receptor was found to couple through integrins to Gi/Go, leading to Rac activation, vitronectin up-regulation and increasing cell migration [6], and to G12, leading to Rho activation, cofilin and myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation, stress fiber formation and chemotaxis towards UTP [52]. Coupling of P2Y2 receptor to hematopoietic cell specific Gα16, belonging to the Gq family, was found in human erythroleukemia cells [46]. In the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF), the interaction between the P2Y2 receptor and tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) through Src was detected, followed by activation of ERK1/2 [3-4].
References:  6,52
Tissue Distribution
Middle ear epithelial cells
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  14
Bronchial epithelium
Species:  Human
Technique:  Real-time PCR
References:  79
Brain: putamen, striatum > caudate nucleus, hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, substantia nigra, thalamus, spinal cord, locus coeruleus > amygdala, globus pallidus, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, parahippocampal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus > cerebellum, cingulate gyrus > medial frontal gyrus.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  57
P2Y2 receptor expression is upregulated in the submandibular glands of the NOD.B10 mouse model of Sjogren's Syndrome
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  71
Dorsal root ganglia neurons
Species:  Rat
Technique:  In situ hydridisation
References:  44
Aortic smooth muscle cells.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Northern blotting.
References:  72
P2Y2 receptor upregulation during submandibular gland duct ligation is reversible following duct deligation
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  1
Liver > testis > esophagus > lung, trachea > heart, skeletal muscle > stomach, kidney.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Northern blotting.
References:  32
Endolymphatic sac epithelia
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  58
Mucus-secreting cells of nasal epithelium
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  28
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
The voltage-clamp technique was used to measure the ionic membrane currents in cultured mouse cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEOs) in response to P2Y2 receptor agonists.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Cultured cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEOs).
Response measured:  Opening of Ca2+-dependent Cl- channels and Ca2+-independent Na+ channels. Subsequent depolarisation and opening of voltage-sensitive K+ channels.
References:  2
Assay for the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by P2Y2 receptors transfected into 1321N1 cells.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  1321N1 astrocytoma cells.
Response measured:  Release of sAPPα, dependent on extracellular Ca2+ levels.
References:  11
Following mechanical stimulation of an individual 1321N1 cell, measurement of Ca2+ propagation in 1321N1 cells transfected with the P2Y2R
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  1321N1 cells.
Response measured:  Ca2+ wave only spread to cells expressing the P2Y2 receptor. P2Y2 is not required for the initiation of the wave.
References:  27
Measurement of Ca2+ levels in response to the P2Y2R agonist UTP in mouse peritoneal macrophage cells.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Peritoneal macrophages.
Response measured:  Increase in [Ca2+]i.
References:  16
Measurement of [Ca2+]i in human glioma C6 cells endogenously expressing P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Glioma C6 cells.
Response measured:  Increase in [Ca2+]i.
References:  67
Measurement of IP3 levels in response to selective P2Y2R agonists in HEK 293 cells endogenously expressing the P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells.
Response measured:  IP3 accumulation.
References:  70
Measurement of [Ca2+]i in K-562 cells (human leukemia cell line) transfected with the human P2Y2 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  K-562.
Response measured:  Increase in [Ca2+]i.
References:  26
Modulation of amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport by PIP2 hydrolysis
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Xenopus oocytes
Response measured:  Inhibition of Na+ currents
References:  48
Measurement of Ca2+ levels and spontaneous transient outward current (STOCs) in vascular smooth muscle (A7r5) cells transfected with a chimera of the P2Y2R and green fluorescent protein (P2Y2R-GFP).
Species:  Human
Tissue:  A7r5 cells.
Response measured:  Increase in [Ca2+]i levels and subsequent generation of STOCs.
References:  51
Physiological Functions
Positive inotropism
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Heart
References:  78
The P2Y2 receptor mediates the chloride secretory response in the jejunum along with the P2Y4 receptor.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Jejunum.
References:  30
Increase in coronary blood flow by vasodilation.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Isolated heart.
References:  32
Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Vascular smooth muscle cells
References:  82
Orientation of neutrophil chemotaxis
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Neutrophils
References:  13
Inhibition of apoptosis
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  PC12 cells, dorsal root ganglia
References:  5
Presynaptic inhibition of glutamate release
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Hippocampus
References:  66
Activation of luminal K+ secretion
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Colon
References:  56
Stimulation of ciliary beat and Cl- secretion; modulation of mucin release
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Airway epithelia
References:  19,21
Blockade of bone mineralization
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Primary osteoblasts
References:  59
A study using P2Y2R knockout mice show that P2Y2 receptors are involved in the mediation of ion transport in the trachea and the gallbladder.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Trachea and gallbladder.
References:  17
Control of cellular proliferation, spreading and migration.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Keratinocytes of the epidermis
References:  22,76
Vasopressin-independent control of the osmotic water permeability of the inner medullary collecting duct of the kidney
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Inner madullary cells
References:  42,63,74-75,84
P2Y2 receptor activation induces electrogenic bicarbonate secretion across CFTR knockout epithelium
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Gallbladder epithelium
References:  15
P2Y2 receptor activation stimulates ERK1/2 activation in human monocytic cells
Species:  Human
Tissue:  U937 monocytic cells
References:  68
P2Y2 receptor activation stimulates the activity of Src, Pyk2, and EGFR via Src homology 3 binding sites in the C-terminal tail
Species:  Human
Tissue:  1321N1 astrocytoma cells
References:  53
P2Y2 receptor stimulates the upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 in endothelial cells through interaction with VEGFR-2
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Human coronary artery endothelial cells
References:  73
Enhanced α-secretase-dependent APP processing following interleukin-1β-mediated P2Y2 receptor upregulation
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Primary cortical neurons
References:  45
Increased P2Y2 receptor expression through NF-κB activation stimulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin-E2 release
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Colon adenocarcinoma cell line
References:  20
P2Y2 receptors mediate metalloprotease-dependent phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB3
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Human salivary gland cell line
References:  64
P2Y2 receptor activation increases microglial cell migration and uptake of amyloid β1-42
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Primary microglia
References:  40
P2Y2 receptor activation promotes repair of alveolar epithelial cells following micropunture injury or stress deformation
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Primary type 1 alveolar epithelial cells
References:  7
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
P2Y2 receptor knockout mice exhibit abolished Ca2+ mobilisation in response to UTP.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  34
P2Y2 receptor knockout studies show that the P2Y2 receptor mediates most of the Cl- secretion in the trachea and around half in the gallbladder.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Trachea and gallbladder
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  17
P2Y2R-deficient mice showed salt-resistant arterial hypertension and facillitated Na+ and water renal reabsorption
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Kidney and arteries
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells
References:  65
P2Y2R-deficient mice showed impaired ATP- and adenosine 5'[γ-thio] triphosphate (ATPγS)-evoked relaxation of thoracic aorta segments
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Thoracic aorta
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells
References:  31
P2Y1R/P2Y2R double knock out mice showed an increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection (100% of death within 30 hours vs 15% in wild type mice)
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells
References:  29
Luminal colon UTP-stimulated K+ secretion was found completely absent in P2Y2R/P2Y4R double KO mice
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Colon
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells
References:  56
P2Y2 receptor knockout mice exhibit reduced K+ secretion in the luminal membrane of the distal colonic mucosa when compared to wild-type mice.
P2Y2R/P2Y4R double knockout mice have completely abolished K+ secretion in the distal colonic mucosa.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Distal colonic mucosa
Technique:  Transgenesis.
References:  56
P2Y2 receptor knockout mice show significant resistance to the development of lithium-induced polyuria
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Targeting in embryonic stem cells
References:  83
P2Y2R deficient mice showed profound deficits in UTP-evoked calcium transients in dorsal root ganglia and a potentiation of capsaicin responses. P2Y2R deficient mice were also deficient in the detection of painful heat.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Dorsal root ganglion
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells
References:  55
P2Y2 receptor knockout mice exhibit a decreased chloride secretory response in the jejunum, but not the colon.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Jejunum
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  30
Significantly impaired recruitment of monocytes/macrophages and clearance of apoptotic thymocytes in P2Y2 receptor knockout mice
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Thymus
Technique:  Targeting in embryonic stem cells
References:  25
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
P2ry2tm1Bhk P2ry2tm1Bhk/P2ry2tm1Bhk
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd
MGI:105107  MP:0003651 abnormal axon outgrowth PMID: 16365320 
P2ry2tm1Bhk P2ry2tm1Bhk/P2ry2tm1Bhk
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
MGI:105107  MP:0001765 abnormal ion homeostasis PMID: 10473605  10473606 
P2ry2tm1Bhk P2ry2tm1Bhk/P2ry2tm1Bhk
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd
MGI:105107  MP:0009937 abnormal neuron differentiation PMID: 16365320 
P2ry2tm1Bhk P2ry2tm1Bhk/P2ry2tm1Bhk
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
MGI:105107  MP:0003638 abnormal response/metabolism to endogenous compounds PMID: 10473605  10473606 
P2ry2tm1Bhk P2ry2tm1Bhk/P2ry2tm1Bhk
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd
MGI:105107  MP:0003638 abnormal response/metabolism to endogenous compounds PMID: 16365320 
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Naturally occurring mutations
Species:  Human
Description:  Three frequent nonsynonymous P2Y2 receptor polymorphisms have been identified, one of which was significantly more common in cystic fibrosis patients. This polymorphism is linked to increase in Ca2+ influx in transfected cells, and might therefore play a role in disease development or in P2Y2R agonist therapy to cystic fibrosis.
References:  10
General Comments
The three human transcript variants encode for the same 377 aa protein sequence [60]. P2Y2 receptors have been localized in mitochondria in rat astrocytes, C6 glioma cells and liver, suggesting their role in regulating mitochondrial calcium transport [8,47]. Denufosol tetrasodium is currently under evaluation as an inhaled treatment for cystic fibrosis (phase III clinical study), and diquafosol is in phase III clinical study for dry eye disease (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/home).


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1. Ahn JS, Camden JM, Schrader AM, Redman RS, Turner JT. (2000) Reversible regulation of P2Y(2) nucleotide receptor expression in the duct-ligated rat submandibular gland. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol., 279 (2): C286-94. [PMID:10912994]

2. Arellano RO, Martínez-Torres A, Garay E. (2002) Ionic currents activated via purinergic receptors in the cumulus cell-enclosed mouse oocyte. Biol. Reprod., 67 (3): 837-46. [PMID:12193392]

3. Arthur DB, Akassoglou K, Insel PA. (2005) P2Y2 receptor activates nerve growth factor/TrkA signaling to enhance neuronal differentiation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102 (52): 19138-43. [PMID:16365320]

4. Arthur DB, Akassoglou K, Insel PA. (2006) P2Y2 and TrkA receptors interact with Src family kinase for neuronal differentiation. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 347 (3): 678-82. [PMID:16842754]

5. Arthur DB, Georgi S, Akassoglou K, Insel PA. (2006) Inhibition of apoptosis by P2Y2 receptor activation: novel pathways for neuronal survival. J. Neurosci., 26 (14): 3798-804. [PMID:16597733]

6. Bagchi S, Liao Z, Gonzalez FA, Chorna NE, Seye CI, Weisman GA, Erb L. (2005) The P2Y2 nucleotide receptor interacts with alphav integrins to activate Go and induce cell migration. J. Biol. Chem., 280 (47): 39050-7. [PMID:16186116]

7. Belete HA, Hubmayr RD, Wang S, Singh RD. (2011) The role of purinergic signaling on deformation induced injury and repair responses of alveolar epithelial cells. PLoS ONE, 6 (11): e27469. [PMID:22087324]

8. Belous AE, Jones CM, Wakata A, Knox CD, Nicoud IB, Pierce J, Chari RS. (2006) Mitochondrial calcium transport is regulated by P2Y1- and P2Y2-like mitochondrial receptors. J Cell Biochem, 99: 1165-1174. [PMID:16795051]

9. Brunschweiger A, Müller CE. (2006) P2 receptors activated by uracil nucleotides--an update. Curr. Med. Chem., 13 (3): 289-312. [PMID:16475938]

10. Büscher R, Hoerning A, Patel HH, Zhang S, Arthur DB, Grasemann H, Ratjen F, Insel PA. (2006) P2Y2 receptor polymorphisms and haplotypes in cystic fibrosis and their impact on Ca2+ influx. Pharmacogenet. Genomics, 16 (3): 199-205. [PMID:16495779]

11. Camden JM, Schrader AM, Camden RE, González FA, Erb L, Seye CI, Weisman GA. (2005) P2Y2 nucleotide receptors enhance alpha-secretase-dependent amyloid precursor protein processing. J. Biol. Chem., 280 (19): 18696-702. [PMID:15778502]

12. Castro E, Pintor J, Miras-Portugal MT. (1992) Ca(2+)-stores mobilization by diadenosine tetraphosphate, Ap4A, through a putative P2Y purinoceptor in adrenal chromaffin cells. Br. J. Pharmacol., 106 (4): 833-7. [PMID:1393282]

13. Chen Y, Corriden R, Inoue Y, Yip L, Hashiguchi N, Zinkernagel A, Nizet V, Insel PA, Junger WG. (2006) ATP release guides neutrophil chemotaxis via P2Y2 and A3 receptors. Science, 314 (5806): 1792-5. [PMID:17170310]

14. Choi JY, Shin JH, Kim JL, Jung SH, Son EJ, Song MH, Kim SH, Yoon JH. (2005) P2Y2 agonist induces mucin secretion via Ca2+- and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-dependent pathway in human middle ear epithelial cells. Hear. Res., 209 (1-2): 24-31. [PMID:16139976]

15. Clarke LL, Harline MC, Gawenis LR, Walker NM, Turner JT, Weisman GA. (2000) Extracellular UTP stimulates electrogenic bicarbonate secretion across CFTR knockout gallbladder epithelium. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol., 279 (1): G132-8. [PMID:10898755]

16. Coutinho-Silva R, Ojcius DM, Górecki DC, Persechini PM, Bisaggio RC, Mendes AN, Marks J, Burnstock G, Dunn PM. (2005) Multiple P2X and P2Y receptor subtypes in mouse J774, spleen and peritoneal macrophages. Biochem. Pharmacol., 69 (4): 641-55. [PMID:15670583]

17. Cressman VL, Lazarowski E, Homolya L, Boucher RC, Koller BH, Grubb BR. (1999) Effect of loss of P2Y(2) receptor gene expression on nucleotide regulation of murine epithelial Cl(-) transport. J. Biol. Chem., 274 (37): 26461-8. [PMID:10473606]

18. Davenport RJ, Diaz P, Galvin FC, Lloyd S, Mack SR, Owens R, Sabin V, Wynn J. (2007) Novel nucleotide triphosphates as potent P2Y2 agonists with enhanced stability over UTP. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 17 (2): 558-61. [PMID:17079144]

19. Davis CW, Lazarowski E. (2008) Coupling of airway ciliary activity and mucin secretion to mechanical stresses by purinergic signaling. Respir Physiol Neurobiol, 163 (1-3): 208-13. [PMID:18635403]

20. Degagné E, Grbic DM, Dupuis AA, Lavoie EG, Langlois C, Jain N, Weisman GA, Sévigny J, Gendron FP. (2009) P2Y2 receptor transcription is increased by NF-kappa B and stimulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression and PGE2 released by intestinal epithelial cells. J. Immunol., 183 (7): 4521-9. [PMID:19734210]

21. Deterding R, Retsch-Bogart G, Milgram L, Gibson R, Daines C, Zeitlin PL, Milla C, Marshall B, Lavange L, Engels J et al.. (2005) Safety and tolerability of denufosol tetrasodium inhalation solution, a novel P2Y2 receptor agonist: results of a phase 1/phase 2 multicenter study in mild to moderate cystic fibrosis. Pediatr. Pulmonol., 39 (4): 339-48. [PMID:15704203]

22. Dixon CJ, Bowler WB, Littlewood-Evans A, Dillon JP, Bilbe G, Sharpe GR, Gallagher JA. (1999) Regulation of epidermal homeostasis through P2Y2 receptors. Br. J. Pharmacol., 127 (7): 1680-6. [PMID:10455326]

23. El-Tayeb A, Qi A, Müller CE. (2006) Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of uracil nucleotide derivatives and analogues as agonists at human P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y6 receptors. J. Med. Chem., 49 (24): 7076-87. [PMID:17125260]

24. El-Tayeb A, Qi A, Nicholas RA, Müller CE. (2011) Structural modifications of UMP, UDP, and UTP leading to subtype-selective agonists for P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y6 receptors. J. Med. Chem., 54 (8): 2878-90. [PMID:21417463]

25. Elliott MR, Chekeni FB, Trampont PC, Lazarowski ER, Kadl A, Walk SF, Park D, Woodson RI, Ostankovich M, Sharma P et al.. (2009) Nucleotides released by apoptotic cells act as a find-me signal to promote phagocytic clearance. Nature, 461 (7261): 282-6. [PMID:19741708]

26. Erb L, Lustig KD, Sullivan DM, Turner JT, Weisman GA. (1993) Functional expression and photoaffinity labeling of a cloned P2U purinergic receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 90 (22): 10449-53. [PMID:8248130]

27. Gallagher CJ, Salter MW. (2003) Differential properties of astrocyte calcium waves mediated by P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors. J. Neurosci., 23 (17): 6728-39. [PMID:12890765]

28. Gayle S, Burnstock G. (2005) Immunolocalisation of P2X and P2Y nucleotide receptors in the rat nasal mucosa. Cell Tissue Res., 319 (1): 27-36. [PMID:15558320]

29. Geary C, Akinbi H, Korfhagen T, Fabre JE, Boucher R, Rice W. (2005) Increased susceptibility of purinergic receptor-deficient mice to lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol., 289 (5): L890-5. [PMID:16024720]

30. Ghanem E, Robaye B, Leal T, Leipziger J, Van Driessche W, Beauwens R, Boeynaems JM. (2005) The role of epithelial P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors in the regulation of intestinal chloride secretion. Br. J. Pharmacol., 146 (3): 364-9. [PMID:16056234]

31. Guns PJ, Van Assche T, Fransen P, Robaye B, Boeynaems JM, Bult H. (2006) Endothelium-dependent relaxation evoked by ATP and UTP in the aorta of P2Y2-deficient mice. Br. J. Pharmacol., 147 (5): 569-74. [PMID:16415908]

32. Gödecke S, Decking UK, Gödecke A, Schrader J. (1996) Cloning of the rat P2u receptor and its potential role in coronary vasodilation. Am. J. Physiol., 270 (2 Pt 1): C570-7. [PMID:8779921]

33. Hillmann P, Ko GY, Spinrath A, Raulf A, von Kügelgen I, Wolff SC, Nicholas RA, Kostenis E, Höltje HD, Müller CE. (2009) Key determinants of nucleotide-activated G protein-coupled P2Y(2) receptor function revealed by chemical and pharmacological experiments, mutagenesis and homology modeling. J. Med. Chem., 52 (9): 2762-75. [PMID:19419204]

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