tocilizumab   

GtoPdb Ligand ID: 6881

Synonyms: Actemra® | R-1569 | RG-1569 | RHPM-1 | RoActemra®
tocilizumab is an approved drug (FDA (2010), EMA (2009))
Compound class: Antibody
Comment: Tocilizumab is an anti-IL-6 receptor mAb, with immunosuppressive action [6] that is approved for chronic autoimmune indications.
Annotated peptide sequences for this antibody are available from its IMGT/mAb-DB record.
Qyuns Therapeutics have a potential tocilizumab biosimilar (QX003S) in Phase 1 evaluation for rheumatoid arthritis (trial registry number ChiCTR1900021808).

In early March 2020, China's National Health Commission issued guidance that allows use of tocilizumab to treat patients with serious COVID-19-induced lung damage. Tocilizumab is predicted to mitigate against the uncontrolled immune response that is triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection in some patients and which leads to potentially life-threatening lung damage.
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Summary of Clinical Use
Tocilizumab had been approved in Japan in 2005 as a treament for giant lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease) [2], before being granted EMA and FDA approvals for use as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis [1,5] and systemic and polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis [8].
In May 2017 tocilizumab became the first FDA approved drug for the treatment of adults with giant cell arteritis.
Phase 3 clinical trials for immune conditions including ankylosing spondylitis, hand osteoarthritis, systemic sclerosis and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) are ongoing. Tocilizumab was initally used off-label to manage severe or life-threatening cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which is a serious, and potentially life-threatening side effect of CAR T-cell therapy. In September 2017, the FDA extended tocilizumab approval to include treatment of CAR T-cell therapy-induced CRS. It was approved particularly to manage CRS in patients ≥2 years of age receiving tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah®,CTL019), the first CAR T-cell therapy approved for relapsed and refractory B-cell ALL.

COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2
China's National Health Commission authorised tocilizumab as a treatment for serious COVID-19 lung damage. The Chinese Clinical Trial Registry has two studies that are designed to evaluate tocilizumab efficacy in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia (Registration Numbers ChiCTR2000029765 and ChiCTR2000030442). Early results from 20 severe COVID-19 patients treated with tocilizumab have been posted on the preprint server of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (ChinaRix) (url http://www.chinaxiv.org/abs/202003.00026, DOI: 10.12074/202003.00026). Tocilizumab appears to have reduced disease symptoms and aided full recovery in 19/20 patients. In mid-March 2020, the National Cancer Institute in Naples (Italy) began a Phase 2 observational trial of tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia; this study is named TOCIVID-19, and has clinicaltrials.gov registry ID NCT04317092.
Mechanism Of Action and Pharmacodynamic Effects
Binds to soluble and membrane-bound IL-6 receptors to inhibit IL-6 signalling via these receptors [3-4], thereby reducing the effect of the elevated/deregulated circulating IL-6 which is a hallmark of the targeted chronic autoimmume diseases.
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