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eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3

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Target not currently curated in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 2017

Nomenclature: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3

Abbreviated Name: PERK

Family: PEK subfamily

Gene and Protein Information Click here for help
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 1 1116 2p11.2 EIF2AK3 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3
Mouse 1 1114 6 C1 Eif2ak3 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3
Rat 1 1108 4q31 Eif2ak3 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3
Previous and Unofficial Names Click here for help
PERK | pancreatic eIF2-alpha kinase | PEK | PRKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase
Database Links Click here for help
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Enzyme
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
Enzyme Reaction Click here for help
EC Number:

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Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
GSK2606414 Small molecule or natural product Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Inhibition 9.4 pIC50 1
pIC50 9.4 (IC50 4x10-10 M) [1]
GSK2656157 Small molecule or natural product Primary target of this compound Hs Inhibition 9.1 pIC50 2
pIC50 9.1 (IC50 8x10-10 M) [2]
Description: Biochemical activity
HC-5404 Small molecule or natural product Hs Inhibition 8.4 pIC50 3
pIC50 8.4 (IC50 4x10-9 M) [3]
Description: Inhibition of human His-tagged PERK by measuring eIF2alpha phosphorylation in a TR-FRET assay
Immuno Process Associations
Immuno Process:  Cytokine production & signalling
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology Click here for help
Disease:  Epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, with early-onset diabetes mellitus
Synonyms: Wolcott-Rallison syndrome [Orphanet: ORPHA1667]
OMIM: 226980
Orphanet: ORPHA1667
General Comments
PERK is one of the three mediators of the unfolded protein response (UPR). PERK drives the arrest of protein production in response to rising levels of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, a response active in and contributing to neurodegeneration in brain diseases characterised by protein-misfolding [6]. Inhibition of the UPR is considered to provide a novel intervention point for diseases including Alzheimer's and other dementias, and Parkinson's disease [5]. GSK2606414 is a PERK inhibitor that has shown promising effects in animal models [5], but has unfavouable toxicology. A screen of bioactive compounds already used clinically as inhibitors of the UPR, has identified the approved antidepressant trazodone which is is expected to be taken forward relatively quickly to clinical trial (as it already has en established safety profile in patients) to evaluate its ability to delay disease progression in selected patient groups [4] (DOI: A second potential lead, dibenzoylmethane was also discovered in this study.


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1. Axten JM, Medina JR, Feng Y, Shu A, Romeril SP, Grant SW, Li WH, Heerding DA, Minthorn E, Mencken T et al.. (2012) Discovery of 7-methyl-5-(1-{[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]acetyl}-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-5-yl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-amine (GSK2606414), a potent and selective first-in-class inhibitor of protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK). J Med Chem, 55 (16): 7193-207. [PMID:22827572]

2. Axten JM, Romeril SP, Shu A, Ralph J, Medina JR, Feng Y, Li WH, Grant SW, Heerding DA, Minthorn E et al.. (2013) Discovery of GSK2656157: An Optimized PERK Inhibitor Selected for Preclinical Development. ACS Med Chem Lett, 4 (10): 964-8. [PMID:24900593]

3. Calvo V, Surguladze D, Li AH, Surman MD, Malibhatla S, Bandaru M, Jonnalagadda SK, Adarasandi R, Velmala M, Singireddi DRP et al.. (2021) Discovery of 2-amino-3-amido-5-aryl-pyridines as highly potent, orally bioavailable, and efficacious PERK kinase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 43: 128058. [PMID:33895276]

4. Halliday M, Radford H, Zents KAM, Molloy C, Moreno JA, Verity NC, Smith E, Ortori CA, Barrett DA, Bushell M et al.. (2017) Repurposed drugs targeting eIF2α-P-mediated translational repression prevent neurodegeneration in mice. Brain, 140 (6): 1768-1783. [PMID:28430857]

5. Radford H, Moreno JA, Verity N, Halliday M, Mallucci GR. (2015) PERK inhibition prevents tau-mediated neurodegeneration in a mouse model of frontotemporal dementia. Acta Neuropathol, 130 (5): 633-42. [PMID:26450683]

6. Smith HL, Mallucci GR. (2016) The unfolded protein response: mechanisms and therapy of neurodegeneration. Brain, 139 (Pt 8): 2113-21. [PMID:27190028]

How to cite this page

PEK subfamily: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3. Last modified on 21/03/2024. Accessed on 27/05/2024. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,