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RXFP3

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Target not currently curated in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 353

Nomenclature: RXFP3

Family: Relaxin family peptide receptors

Gene and Protein Information Click here for help
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 469 5p13.2 RXFP3 relaxin family peptide receptor 3 52
Mouse 7 472 15 A1 Rxfp3 relaxin family peptide receptor 3 69
Rat 7 476 2q16 Rxfp3 relaxin family peptide receptor 3
Previous and Unofficial Names Click here for help
RLN3R1 | RXFPR3 | GPCR135 | relaxin/insulin like family peptide receptor 3
Database Links Click here for help
Specialist databases
GPCRDB rl3r1_human (Hs), rl3r1_mouse (Mm), q5y986_rat (Rn)
Other databases
Alphafold
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
Pharos
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands Click here for help
INSL5 {Sp: Human}
relaxin-3 {Sp: Human}
relaxin {Sp: Human}
relaxin-3 (B chain) {Sp: Human}
Comments: Relaxin-3 is a potent endogenous agonist for RXFP3. Unlike other relaxins, the relaxin-3 (B) chain has some bioactivity. Relaxin is a biased agonist at RXFP3. Neither relaxin-3 (B) chain or relaxin are known to act on RXFP3 in vivo.
Potency order of endogenous ligands (Human)
relaxin-3 (RLN3, Q8WXF3) > relaxin-3 (B chain) (RLN3, Q8WXF3) > relaxin (RLN2, P04090)  [45]

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file go icon to follow link

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
relaxin {Sp: Human} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 10.0 pKd 73
pKd 10.0 [73]
[125I]relaxin-3 (human) Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Hs Full agonist 9.5 pKd 45
pKd 9.5 [45]
[125I]relaxin-3-B/INSL5 A chimera Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Hs Agonist 9.3 pKd 44
pKd 9.3 (Kd 5x10-10 M) [44]
europium-labelled relaxin-3-B/INSL5 A chimera Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Hs Full agonist 9.3 pKd 22,63
pKd 9.3 [22,63]
R3/I5- SmBiT Peptide Ligand is labelled Hs Agonist 9.2 pKd 29
pKd 9.2 [29]
DOTA/Eu relaxin-3 Peptide Ligand is labelled Hs Agonist 8.7 pKd 85
pKd 8.7 [85]
europium-labelled relaxin-3-B/INSL5 A chimera Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Hs Agonist 8.3 pKd 22
pKd 8.3 (Kd 5x10-9 M) [22]
relaxin-3 {Sp: Human} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is endogenous in the given species Hs Full agonist 7.8 – 8.9 pKi 27,63,75
pKi 7.8 – 8.9 [27,63,75]
minimised relaxin-3 analogue 2 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 7.9 pKi 15,63
pKi 7.9 [15,63]
compound 10d [PMID: 34855388] Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 7.2 pKi 19
pKi 7.2 (Ki 6.9x10-8 M) [19]
Description: Receptor binding
relaxin-3 B chain dimer Peptide Hs Full agonist 6.6 pKi 75
pKi 6.6 [75]
B1-27 Peptide Hs Agonist 5.9 pKi 39
pKi 5.9 (Ki 1.23x10-6 M) [39]
minimised relaxin-3 analogue 2 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 8.4 – 10.4 pEC50 63
pEC50 8.4 – 10.4 [63]
relaxin-3 {Sp: Human} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 8.3 – 9.9 pEC50 27,35,63,73,75
pEC50 8.3 – 9.9 [27,35,63,73,75]
compound 10d [PMID: 34855388] Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 8.5 pEC50 19
pEC50 8.5 (EC50 3.1x10-9 M) [19]
Description: Receptor activation via cAMP assay
compound 4 [PMID: 30824200] Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 7.9 pEC50 16
pEC50 7.9 (EC50 1.28x10-8 M) [16]
relaxin {Sp: Human} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 7.1 – 8.4 pEC50 35,73
pEC50 7.1 – 8.4 [35,73]
WNN0109-C011 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 5.6 pEC50 43
pEC50 5.6 (EC50 2.511x10-6 M) [43]
Description: Determined in a cAMP accumulation assay
R3(BΔ23-27)R/I5 chimeric peptide Peptide Rn Partial agonist 10.1 pIC50 36
pIC50 10.1 [36]
[G(B24)S]R3/I5 Peptide Hs Agonist 10.1 pIC50 81
pIC50 10.1 [81]
relaxin-3 {Sp: Human} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is endogenous in the given species Hs Full agonist 9.4 – 9.6 pIC50 13,45
pIC50 9.4 – 9.6 [13,45]
R3(BΔ23-27)R/I5 chimeric peptide Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 9.4 pIC50 36
pIC50 9.4 [36]
R3/I5 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 9.3 pIC50 18,44
pIC50 9.3 [18,44]
H3 Ac-B10-27(13-17 HC) Peptide Hs Full agonist 8.5 pIC50 25
pIC50 8.5 [25]
relaxin-3 {Sp: Rat} Peptide Ligand is endogenous in the given species Rn Full agonist ~8.0 pIC50 28
pIC50 ~8.0 (IC50 ~1x10-8 M) [28]
H3 14s18 stapled B-chain Peptide Hs Full agonist 7.5 pIC50 32,51
pIC50 7.5 [32,51]
relaxin-3 (B chain) {Sp: Human} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is endogenous in the given species Hs Full agonist 6.9 pIC50 45
pIC50 6.9 [45]
NanoLuc R3/I5 chimera Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Hs Agonist - - 78,80
[78,80]
View species-specific agonist tables
Agonist Comments
Relaxin-3 activates RXFP3 but also RXFP4 and RXFP1. Relaxin-3 is highly conserved across species and is believed to be the ancestral relaxin. Affinity and pEC50 values were obtained in COS-7 cells transiently expressing RXFP3 or CHO or HEK293 cells stably expressing RXFP3. Relaxin is a biased agonist at RXFP3, compared to relaxin-3. Europium R3/I5 is used as a labelled ligand as an alternative to 125I labelled ligands in binding studies. The 'HC' in H3 Ac-B10-27(13-17HC)= hydrocarbon staple.
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
europium-labelled R3(B1-22R) Peptide Ligand is labelled Hs Antagonist 7.6 pKd 23
pKd 7.6 [23]
R3(BΔ23-27)R/I5 chimeric peptide Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.5 pKi 22
pKi 8.5 [22]
minimised relaxin-3 analogue 3 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.6 pKi 63
pKi 7.6 [63]
R3 B1-22R Peptide Hs Antagonist 7.4 – 7.7 pKi 22-23
pKi 7.7 (Ki 2.04x10-8 M) [23]
pKi 7.4 (Ki 3.63x10-8 M) [22]
INSL5 {Sp: Human} Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is endogenous in the given species Hs Antagonist 7.0 pKi 88
pKi 7.0 [88]
R3(BΔ23-27)R/I5 chimeric peptide Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.9 – 9.0 pEC50 35
pEC50 8.9 – 9.0 [35]
R3(BΔ23-27)R/I5 chimeric peptide Peptide Rn Antagonist 9.2 pIC50 36
pIC50 9.2 [36]
R3(BΔ23-27)R/I5 chimeric peptide Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.1 – 9.2 pIC50 36-37
pIC50 9.2 (IC50 6.7x10-10 M) [37]
pIC50 8.1 [36]
View species-specific antagonist tables
Antagonist Comments
Affinity values were determined in COS-7 cells transiently expressing or CHO or HEK293 cells stably expressing human RXFP3 labelled using [125I]relaxin-3, [125I]R3/I5 or europium-R3/I5. Antagonists produce rightward shifts of the concentration-response curve to relaxin-3 induced inhibition of forskolin stimulated cAMP accumulation in SK-N-MC cells expressing human RXFP3. R3(BΔ23-27)R/I5 also acts as a partial agonist or biased agonist in some systems [35]. Europium labelled R3(B1-22R) is used as an alternative to radiolabelled ligands.
Allosteric Modulators
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
135PAM1 Small molecule or natural product Hs Positive 6.1 pEC50 3
pEC50 6.1 [3]
Allosteric Modulator Comments
135PAM1 only allosterically modulates responses to the amidated form of relaxin-3 not the native form.
Primary Transduction Mechanisms Click here for help
Transducer Effector/Response
Gi/Go family Other - See Comments
Comments:  In addition to adenylyl cyclase inhibition, activation of RXFP3 also causes GTPγS binding, ERK1/2 and p38MAP kinase phosphorylation. In CHO cells Gi2 is the major G protein involved but in HEK293 cells Gi3 GOB and GOA are all involved suggesting that cellular context is important in determining the response observed.
References:  5,13,44-46
Tissue Distribution Click here for help
Hypothalamus, supraoptic nucleus, periaqueductal gray, nucleus incertus, brainstem, olfactory bulb, sensory cortex, amygdala, thalamus, paraventricular nucleus, inferior and superior colliculus.
Species:  Human
Technique:  in situ hybridisation.
References:  45,70
Brain, testis, thymus, adrenal gland.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  24,45
Brain, testis.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  13
High levels of mRNA and protein in amygdala - amygdalo-hippocampal area, basolateral nucleus and medial nucleus; medial division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; oriens and hilar layers of the hippocampal formation; paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus; dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus: medial inferior olive. High levels of mRNA in peripeduncular nucleus, anterior tegmental nucleus and dorsomedial tegmental area. High levels of protein in anterodorsal thalamic nucleus and superficial gray and zona layers of the superior colliculus
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  In situ hybridisation, [125I] R3/I5 binding, immunohistochemistry
References:  8,20-21,58,68,76
Medial septum and diagonal band neurons
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization.
References:  2
Nucleus incertus, cortex, septum, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus and midbrain. Highest densities in the medial septum, lateral preoptic area, lateral hypothalamus/medial forebrain bundle and ventral hippocampus; additional fibers in olfactory bulb and olfactory and frontal/cingulate cortices, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, dorsal endopiriform, intergeniculate, and supramammillary nuclei, and the periaqueductal gray and dorsal raphe
Species:  Rat
Technique:  [125I] R3/I5 binding
References:  49
Adipocyte
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT/PCR
References:  82
Somatostatin-expressing GABA-ergic interneurons in hippocampus and medial septum
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Multiplex in situ hybridisation
References:  62
Olfactory bulb, sensory cortex, amygdala, thalamus, paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, inferior and superior colliculus.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Autoradiography.
References:  44,61,70
Heart
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT/PCR
References:  87
Brain, testis.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  13
High levels of mRNA and protein in forebrain, olfactory, hippocampus, amygdala, septum, thalamus, hypothalamus, brainstem with particularly high concentrations in the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis, septohypothalamic nuclei, interpedicular nucleus and nucleus incertus
Species:  Rat
Technique:  in situ hybridisation, [125I] R3/I5 binding, RT/PCR, immunohistochemistry
References:  14,33,42,56,62,67
Expression Datasets Click here for help

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays Click here for help
[35S] GTPγS incorporation in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with human RXFP3 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO-K1 cells.
Response measured:  [35S] GTPγS incorporation.
References:  13,45
Reporter gene assay in SK-N-MC/β-gal cells stably transfected with human RXFP3 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  SK-N-MC cells.
Response measured:  Increased β-galactosidase expression.
References:  44,46
Extracellular acidification rate response of CHO-K1 cells stably expressing human RXFP3 receptors in the cytosensor microphysiometer.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO-K1 cells.
Response measured:  Increased extracellular acidification rate.
References:  74
Inhibition of forskolin stimulated cAMP responses in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with human RXFP3 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO-K1 cells.
Response measured:  cAMP accumulation.
References:  13,25,32,44-46
ERK1/2 phosphorylation
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO or HEK293 cells expressing RXFP3
Response measured:  increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation
References:  32,35,63,73,75
Adenylyl cyclase inhibition
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells expressing RXFP3
Response measured:  Inhibition of forskolin stimulated cAMP accumulation
References:  3,27,37,63,73,75
GTPγS binding
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells expressing RXFP3
Response measured:  Increased GTPγS binding
References:  88
p38MAPK phosphorylation
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells expressing RXFP3
Response measured:  Increased p38MAPK phosphorylation
References:  35
Ca2+ mobilisation assay in HEK 293 cells transiently expressing human RXFP3 receptors and G16.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells.
Response measured:  Ca2+ dye Fluo-3 fluorescence.
References:  44,46
Inhibition of CRE-controlled NanoLuc reporter
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK293 cells expressing RXFP3 & CRE controlled NanoLuc reporter
Response measured:  Decreased cAMP signal
References:  30-31,78-79,81,86
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Flp-In CHO cells expressing RXFP3 and reporter genes AP1, CRE, Myc, GRE, HSRE, NFaT, NFκB or SRE
Response measured:  Increased signal
References:  35
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells expressing RXFP3
Response measured:  Increased phosphorylation of p38MAPK, JNK1/2 or ERK1/2 or inhibition of forskolin stimulated cAMP production
References:  35
Real time BRET of RXFP3 interaction with G proteins
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Flp-In CHO cells transiently expressing RXFP3 Rluc8, Gγ2venus Gβ1 and one of Gαi2, Gαi3, GαoA, GαoB, Gαs or Gαq
Response measured:  Increased BRET
References:  35
Real time BRET of RXFP3 interaction with β-arrestins
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK293 cells inducibly co-expressing RXFP3-Luc & RXFP3-EGFP
Response measured:  Removal of RXFP3 from cell surface
References:  47-48
Reporter gene cAMP assay
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cell stably expressing RXFP3 & transfected with pCRE- β-galactosidase reporter gene and stimulated with forskolin
Response measured:  Decreased cAMP signal
References:  64
Real time cAMP activity using BRET biosensor
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO or HEK cells stably expressing RXFP3 & transiently expressing CAMYEL (cAMP sensor using YFP-Epac-Rluc)
Response measured:  Decreased cAMP signal
References:  72
Physiological Functions Click here for help
Social recognition
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Amygdala
References:  1
Sensory processing particularly under stressful conditions.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Brain.
References:  70
Depression in Alzheimer’s disease
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Parietal cortex
References:  40
Behavioural activation and arousal
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Hippocampus
References:  50
Regulation of stress
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Nucleus incertus, relaxin-3 neurones and their target RXFP3 in forebrain connections
References:  4,7,9,41,53,71,83
Influence of oestrus cycle on food intake and RXFP3 system
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Brain
References:  14
Modulation of respiration
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Nucleus incertus
References:  17
Spatial reference and working memory
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Hippocampus
References:  20
Alcohol self administration and stress-induced relapse
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Brain/Bed nucleus stria terminalis/hippocampus
References:  60-62
Regulation of feeding behaviour
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain
References:  12,66
Modulation of feeding
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Paraventricular nucleus/hypothalamus
References:  11,18,28,36-37,54-55,63
Anxiety-and depressive-like behaviours
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Brain
References:  38,59
Anxiety-and depressive-like behaviours
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain
References:  84
Protection from ischaemic stroke
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Brain
References:  6
Stress-induced binge eating
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Brain
References:  9-10,34
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression Click here for help
Mice with RXFP3 knockout display decrease in anxiety like behaviour in elevated plus maze and dark/light box paradigms
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain
Technique:  Gene knockouts
References:  26
Mice with RXFP3 knockout display dark phase hypoactivity on voluntary home-cage running wheels
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain
Technique:  Gene knockouts
References:  26
Mice with RXFP3 knockout lose high alcohol preference associated with stress
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain
Technique:  Gene knockouts
References:  77
Increased anxiety-like behaviour
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Ventral hippocampus
Technique:  Adeno-associated virus secreting R3/I5
References:  62
Injection of lentiviral construct secreting RXFP3 agonist R3/I5 causes behavioural arousal
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain regions proximal to cerebral ventricles
Technique:  Injection of lentiviral construct into cerebral ventricles
References:  65
Rats fed high energy diet show alterations in relaxin-3 and RXFP3 expression in nucleus incertus
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Nucleus incertus
Technique:  High energy diet fed to diet inducible or diet resistant rats
References:  42
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology Click here for help
Disease:  Hypercholesterolemia
Disease Ontology: DOID:2487
Biologically Significant Variants Click here for help
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The SNP rs7702361 is associated with hypercholesterolemia and obesity
SNP accession: 
References:  57
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The SNP rs42868 is associated with hypercholesterolemia and diabetes
SNP accession: 
References:  57

References

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1. Albert-Gasco H, Sanchez-Sarasua S, Ma S, García-Díaz C, Gundlach AL, Sanchez-Perez AM, Olucha-Bordonau FE. (2019) Central relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3) activation impairs social recognition and modulates ERK-phosphorylation in specific GABAergic amygdala neurons. Brain Struct Funct, 224 (1): 453-469. [PMID:30368554]

2. Albert-Gascó H, Ma S, Ros-Bernal F, Sánchez-Pérez AM, Gundlach AL, Olucha-Bordonau FE. (2017) GABAergic Neurons in the Rat Medial Septal Complex Express Relaxin-3 Receptor (RXFP3) mRNA. Front Neuroanat, 11: 133. [PMID:29403361]

3. Alvarez-Jaimes L, Sutton SW, Nepomuceno D, Motley ST, Cik M, Stocking E, Shoblock J, Bonaventure P. (2012) In vitro pharmacological characterization of RXFP3 allosterism: an example of probe dependency. PLoS ONE, 7 (2): e30792. [PMID:22347403]

4. Banerjee A, Shen PJ, Ma S, Bathgate RA, Gundlach AL. (2010) Swim stress excitation of nucleus incertus and rapid induction of relaxin-3 expression via CRF1 activation. Neuropharmacology, 58 (1): 145-55. [PMID:19560474]

5. Bathgate RA, Halls ML, van der Westhuizen ET, Callander GE, Kocan M, Summers RJ. (2013) Relaxin family peptides and their receptors. Physiol Rev, 93 (1): 405-80. [PMID:23303914]

6. Bergeron LH, Willcox JM, Alibhai FJ, Connell BJ, Saleh TM, Wilson BC, Summerlee AJ. (2015) Relaxin peptide hormones are protective during the early stages of ischemic stroke in male rats. Endocrinology, 156 (2): 638-46. [PMID:25456068]

7. Blasiak A, Blasiak T, Lewandowski MH, Hossain MA, Wade JD, Gundlach AL. (2013) Relaxin-3 innervation of the intergeniculate leaflet of the rat thalamus - neuronal tract-tracing and in vitro electrophysiological studies. Eur J Neurosci, 37 (8): 1284-94. [PMID:23432696]

8. Boels K, Hermans-Borgmeyer I, Schaller HC. (2004) Identification of a mouse orthologue of the G-protein-coupled receptor SALPR and its expression in adult mouse brain and during development. Brain Res Dev Brain Res, 152 (2): 265-8. [PMID:15351514]

9. Calvez J, de Ávila C, Matte LO, Guèvremont G, Gundlach AL, Timofeeva E. (2016) Role of relaxin-3/RXFP3 system in stress-induced binge-like eating in female rats. Neuropharmacology, 102: 207-15. [PMID:26607097]

10. Calvez J, de Ávila C, Timofeeva E. (2017) Sex-specific effects of relaxin-3 on food intake and body weight gain. Br J Pharmacol, 174 (10): 1049-1060. [PMID:27245781]

11. Calvez J, Lenglos C, de Ávila C, Guèvremont G, Timofeeva E. (2015) Differential effects of central administration of relaxin-3 on food intake and hypothalamic neuropeptides in male and female rats. Genes Brain Behav, 14 (7): 550-63. [PMID:26234422]

12. Ch'ng SS, Fu J, Brown RM, Smith CM, Hossain MA, McDougall SJ, Lawrence AJ. (2019) Characterization of the relaxin family peptide receptor 3 system in the mouse bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. J Comp Neurol, 527 (16): 2615-2633. [PMID:30947365]

13. Chen J, Kuei C, Sutton SW, Bonaventure P, Nepomuceno D, Eriste E, Sillard R, Lovenberg TW, Liu C. (2005) Pharmacological characterization of relaxin-3/INSL7 receptors GPCR135 and GPCR142 from different mammalian species. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 312 (1): 83-95. [PMID:15367576]

14. de Ávila C, Chometton S, Calvez J, Guèvremont G, Kania A, Torz L, Lenglos C, Blasiak A, Rosenkilde MM, Holst B et al.. (2021) Estrous Cycle Modulation of Feeding and Relaxin-3/Rxfp3 mRNA Expression: Implications for Estradiol Action. Neuroendocrinology, 111 (12): 1201-1218. [PMID:33333517]

15. de Ávila C, Chometton S, Lenglos C, Calvez J, Gundlach AL, Timofeeva E. (2018) Differential effects of relaxin-3 and a selective relaxin-3 receptor agonist on food and water intake and hypothalamic neuronal activity in rats. Behav Brain Res, 336: 135-144. [PMID:28864207]

16. DeChristopher B, Park SH, Vong L, Bamford D, Cho HH, Duvadie R, Fedolak A, Hogan C, Honda T, Pandey P et al.. (2019) Discovery of a small molecule RXFP3/4 agonist that increases food intake in rats upon acute central administration. Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 29 (8): 991-994. [PMID:30824200]

17. Furuya WI, Dhingra RR, Gundlach AL, Hossain MA, Dutschmann M. (2020) Relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3) activation in the nucleus of the solitary tract modulates respiratory rate and the arterial chemoreceptor reflex in rat. Respir Physiol Neurobiol, 271: 103310. [PMID:31568840]

18. Ganella DE, Callander GE, Ma S, Bye CR, Gundlach AL, Bathgate RA. (2013) Modulation of feeding by chronic rAAV expression of a relaxin-3 peptide agonist in rat hypothalamus. Gene Ther, 20 (7): 703-16. [PMID:23135160]

19. Guan D, Rahman MT, Gay EA, Vasukuttan V, Mathews KM, Decker AM, Williams AH, Zhan CG, Jin C. (2021) Indole-Containing Amidinohydrazones as Nonpeptide, Dual RXFP3/4 Agonists: Synthesis, Structure-Activity Relationship, and Molecular Modeling Studies. J Med Chem, 64 (24): 17866-17886. [PMID:34855388]

20. Haidar M, Guèvremont G, Zhang C, Bathgate RAD, Timofeeva E, Smith CM, Gundlach AL. (2017) Relaxin-3 inputs target hippocampal interneurons and deletion of hilar relaxin-3 receptors in "floxed-RXFP3" mice impairs spatial memory. Hippocampus, 27 (5): 529-546. [PMID:28100033]

21. Haidar M, Tin K, Zhang C, Nategh M, Covita J, Wykes AD, Rogers J, Gundlach AL. (2019) Septal GABA and Glutamate Neurons Express RXFP3 mRNA and Depletion of Septal RXFP3 Impaired Spatial Search Strategy and Long-Term Reference Memory in Adult Mice. Front Neuroanat, 13: 30. [PMID:30906254]

22. Haugaard-Kedström LM, Shabanpoor F, Hossain MA, Clark RJ, Ryan PJ, Craik DJ, Gundlach AL, Wade JD, Bathgate RA, Rosengren KJ. (2011) Design, synthesis, and characterization of a single-chain peptide antagonist for the relaxin-3 receptor RXFP3. J Am Chem Soc, 133 (13): 4965-74. [PMID:21384867]

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