galectin 9   

GtoPdb Ligand ID: 9594

Synonyms: Ecalectin | Gal-9 | Tumor antigen HOM-HD-21
Comment: Galectin 9 is a secreted lectin that is an endogenous ligand of the immune co-inhibitory receptor, TIM3. Galectins bind β-galactoside sugar modifications on proteins, and have been associated with metastasis and immunosuppression. Galectin 9 contains two tandem carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) within its peptide structure. The CRDs are homologous but distinct in their primary sequence. The whole peptide sequence provided here is for the longest isoform reported to date. Uniprot records 6 human protein isoforms [2-3]. Isoform 2 is known as ecalectin, and is reported to be a novel eosinophil chemoattractant produced by T lymphocytes [1,4-5,7]. The regulation and function of galectin 9 in physiological and pathological conditions was reviewed by Hirashima et al. (2004) [6].
Species: Human
References
1. Dunphy JL, Barcham GJ, Bischof RJ, Young AR, Nash A, Meeusen EN. (2002)
Isolation and characterization of a novel eosinophil-specific galectin released into the lungs in response to allergen challenge.
J. Biol. Chem., 277 (17): 14916-24. [PMID:11839756]
2. Heusschen R, Freitag N, Tirado-González I, Barrientos G, Moschansky P, Muñoz-Fernández R, Leno-Durán E, Klapp BF, Thijssen VL, Blois SM. (2013)
Profiling Lgals9 splice variant expression at the fetal-maternal interface: implications in normal and pathological human pregnancy.
Biol. Reprod., 88 (1): 22. [PMID:23242525]
3. Heusschen R, Schulkens IA, van Beijnum J, Griffioen AW, Thijssen VL. (2014)
Endothelial LGALS9 splice variant expression in endothelial cell biology and angiogenesis.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1842 (2): 284-92. [PMID:24333696]
4. Hirashima M. (1999)
Ecalectin as a T cell-derived eosinophil chemoattractant.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 120 Suppl 1: 7-10. [PMID:10529594]
5. Hirashima M. (2000)
Ecalectin/galectin-9, a novel eosinophil chemoattractant: its function and production.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 122 Suppl 1: 6-9. [PMID:10867499]
6. Hirashima M, Kashio Y, Nishi N, Yamauchi A, Imaizumi TA, Kageshita T, Saita N, Nakamura T. (2004)
Galectin-9 in physiological and pathological conditions.
Glycoconj. J., 19 (7-9): 593-600. [PMID:14758084]
7. Matsumoto R, Matsumoto H, Seki M, Hata M, Asano Y, Kanegasaki S, Stevens RL, Hirashima M. (1998)
Human ecalectin, a variant of human galectin-9, is a novel eosinophil chemoattractant produced by T lymphocytes.
J. Biol. Chem., 273 (27): 16976-84. [PMID:9642261]
8. Monney L, Sabatos CA, Gaglia JL, Ryu A, Waldner H, Chernova T, Manning S, Greenfield EA, Coyle AJ, Sobel RA et al.. (2002)
Th1-specific cell surface protein Tim-3 regulates macrophage activation and severity of an autoimmune disease.
Nature, 415 (6871): 536-41. [PMID:11823861]
9. Zhu C, Anderson AC, Schubart A, Xiong H, Imitola J, Khoury SJ, Zheng XX, Strom TB, Kuchroo VK. (2005)
The Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 negatively regulates T helper type 1 immunity.
Nat. Immunol., 6 (12): 1245-52. [PMID:16286920]