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Catecholamine turnover C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).


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Catecholamines are defined by the presence of two adjacent hydroxyls on a benzene ring with a sidechain containing an amine. The predominant catacholamines in mammalian biology are the neurotransmitter/hormones dopamine, (-)-noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and (-)-adrenaline (epinephrine). These hormone/transmitters are synthesized by sequential metabolism from L-phenylalanine via L-tyrosine. Hydroxylation of L-tyrosine generates levodopa, which is decarboxylated to form dopamine. Hydroxylation of the ethylamine sidechain generates (-)-noradrenaline (norepinephrine), which can be methylated to form (-)-adrenaline (epinephrine). In particular neuronal and adrenal chromaffin cells, the catecholamines dopamine, (-)-noradrenaline and (-)-adrenaline are accumulated into vesicles under the influence of the vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT1/SLC18A1 and VMAT2/SLC18A2). After release into the synapse or the bloodstream, catecholamines are accumulated through the action cell-surface transporters, primarily the dopamine (DAT/SLC6A3) and norepinephrine transporter (NET/SLC6A2). The primary routes of metabolism of these catecholamines are oxidation via monoamine oxidase activities of methylation via catechol O-methyltransferase.


L-Phenylalanine hydroxylase C Show summary » More detailed page

TAT (Tyrosine aminotransferase) C Show summary »

L-Tyrosine hydroxylase C Show summary » More detailed page

AADC (L-Aromatic amino-acid decarboxylase ) C Show summary » More detailed page

DBH (Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine beta-monooxygenase)) C Show summary »

PNMT (Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase) C Show summary »

MAO-A (Monoamine oxidase A) C Show summary » More detailed page

MAO-B (Monoamine oxidase B) C Show summary » More detailed page

COMT (Catechol-O-methyltransferase) C Show summary » More detailed page

Further reading

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation:

Catecholamine turnover. Accessed on 28/10/2020. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Mathie A, Peters JA, Veale EL, Armstrong JF, Faccenda E, Harding SD, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA; CGTP Collaborators. (2019) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2019/20: Enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 176 Issue S1: S297-S396.